1 #
   2 # DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   3 #
   4 # This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   5 # under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   6 # published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
   7 # particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
   8 # by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
   9 #
  10 # This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  11 # ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  12 # FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  13 # version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  14 # accompanied this code).
  15 #
  16 # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  17 # 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  18 # Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  19 #
  20 # Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  21 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  22 # questions.
  23 #
  24 # tzdb data for Australasia and environs, and for much of the Pacific
  25 
  26 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
  27 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
  28 
  29 # This file also includes Pacific islands.
  30 
  31 # Notes are at the end of this file
  32 
  33 ###############################################################################
  34 
  35 # Australia
  36 
  37 # Please see the notes below for the controversy about "EST" versus "AEST" etc.
  38 
  39 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  40 Rule    Aus     1917    only    -       Jan      1      0:01    1:00    D
  41 Rule    Aus     1917    only    -       Mar     25      2:00    0       S
  42 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Jan      1      2:00    1:00    D
  43 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Mar     29      2:00    0       S
  44 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Sep     27      2:00    1:00    D
  45 Rule    Aus     1943    1944    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       S
  46 Rule    Aus     1943    only    -       Oct      3      2:00    1:00    D
  47 # Go with Whitman and the Australian National Standards Commission, which
  48 # says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944.  Ignore Whitman's claim that
  49 # 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944.
  50 
  51 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
  52 # Northern Territory
  53 Zone Australia/Darwin    8:43:20 -      LMT     1895 Feb
  54                          9:00   -       ACST    1899 May
  55                          9:30   Aus     AC%sT
  56 # Western Australia
  57 #
  58 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  59 Rule    AW      1974    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
  60 Rule    AW      1975    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
  61 Rule    AW      1983    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
  62 Rule    AW      1984    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
  63 Rule    AW      1991    only    -       Nov     17      2:00s   1:00    D
  64 Rule    AW      1992    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
  65 Rule    AW      2006    only    -       Dec      3      2:00s   1:00    D
  66 Rule    AW      2007    2009    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
  67 Rule    AW      2007    2008    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
  68 Zone Australia/Perth     7:43:24 -      LMT     1895 Dec
  69                          8:00   Aus     AW%sT   1943 Jul
  70                          8:00   AW      AW%sT
  71 Zone Australia/Eucla     8:35:28 -      LMT     1895 Dec
  72                          8:45   Aus +0845/+0945 1943 Jul
  73                          8:45   AW  +0845/+0945
  74 
  75 # Queensland
  76 #
  77 # From Alex Livingston (1996-11-01):
  78 # I have heard or read more than once that some resort islands off the coast
  79 # of Queensland chose to keep observing daylight-saving time even after
  80 # Queensland ceased to.
  81 #
  82 # From Paul Eggert (1996-11-22):
  83 # IATA SSIM (1993-02/1994-09) say that the Holiday Islands (Hayman, Lindeman,
  84 # Hamilton) observed DST for two years after the rest of Queensland stopped.
  85 # Hamilton is the largest, but there is also a Hamilton in Victoria,
  86 # so use Lindeman.
  87 #
  88 # From J William Piggott (2016-02-20):
  89 # There is no location named Holiday Islands in Queensland Australia; holiday
  90 # islands is a colloquial term used globally.  Hayman and Lindeman are at the
  91 # north and south extremes of the Whitsunday Islands archipelago, and
  92 # Hamilton is in between; it is reasonable to believe that this time zone
  93 # applies to all of the Whitsundays.
  94 # http://www.australia.gov.au/about-australia/australian-story/austn-islands
  95 #
  96 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  97 Rule    AQ      1971    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
  98 Rule    AQ      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
  99 Rule    AQ      1989    1991    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 100 Rule    AQ      1990    1992    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 101 Rule    Holiday 1992    1993    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 102 Rule    Holiday 1993    1994    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 103 Zone Australia/Brisbane 10:12:08 -      LMT     1895
 104                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971
 105                         10:00   AQ      AE%sT
 106 Zone Australia/Lindeman  9:55:56 -      LMT     1895
 107                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971
 108                         10:00   AQ      AE%sT   1992 Jul
 109                         10:00   Holiday AE%sT
 110 
 111 # South Australia
 112 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 113 Rule    AS      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 114 Rule    AS      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00s   1:00    D
 115 Rule    AS      1987    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 116 Rule    AS      1972    only    -       Feb     27      2:00s   0       S
 117 Rule    AS      1973    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 118 Rule    AS      1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 119 Rule    AS      1991    only    -       Mar     3       2:00s   0       S
 120 Rule    AS      1992    only    -       Mar     22      2:00s   0       S
 121 Rule    AS      1993    only    -       Mar     7       2:00s   0       S
 122 Rule    AS      1994    only    -       Mar     20      2:00s   0       S
 123 Rule    AS      1995    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 124 Rule    AS      2006    only    -       Apr     2       2:00s   0       S
 125 Rule    AS      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 126 Rule    AS      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 127 Rule    AS      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 128 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 129 Zone Australia/Adelaide 9:14:20 -       LMT     1895 Feb
 130                         9:00    -       ACST    1899 May
 131                         9:30    Aus     AC%sT   1971
 132                         9:30    AS      AC%sT
 133 
 134 # Tasmania
 135 #
 136 # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16):
 137 # http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml
 138 # says King Island didn't observe DST from WWII until late 1971.
 139 #
 140 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 141 Rule    AT      1967    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 142 Rule    AT      1968    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 143 Rule    AT      1968    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 144 Rule    AT      1969    1971    -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00s   0       S
 145 Rule    AT      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 146 Rule    AT      1973    1981    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 147 Rule    AT      1982    1983    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 148 Rule    AT      1984    1986    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 149 Rule    AT      1986    only    -       Oct     Sun>=15      2:00s   1:00    D
 150 Rule    AT      1987    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 151 Rule    AT      1987    only    -       Oct     Sun>=22      2:00s   1:00    D
 152 Rule    AT      1988    1990    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 153 Rule    AT      1991    1999    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 154 Rule    AT      1991    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 155 Rule    AT      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 156 Rule    AT      2001    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 157 Rule    AT      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 158 Rule    AT      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 159 Rule    AT      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 160 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 161 Zone Australia/Hobart   9:49:16 -       LMT     1895 Sep
 162                         10:00   -       AEST    1916 Oct  1  2:00
 163                         10:00   1:00    AEDT    1917 Feb
 164                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1967
 165                         10:00   AT      AE%sT
 166 Zone Australia/Currie   9:35:28 -       LMT     1895 Sep
 167                         10:00   -       AEST    1916 Oct  1  2:00
 168                         10:00   1:00    AEDT    1917 Feb
 169                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971 Jul
 170                         10:00   AT      AE%sT
 171 
 172 # Victoria
 173 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 174 Rule    AV      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 175 Rule    AV      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 176 Rule    AV      1973    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 177 Rule    AV      1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 178 Rule    AV      1986    1987    -       Oct     Sun>=15      2:00s   1:00    D
 179 Rule    AV      1988    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 180 Rule    AV      1991    1994    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 181 Rule    AV      1995    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 182 Rule    AV      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 183 Rule    AV      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 184 Rule    AV      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 185 Rule    AV      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 186 Rule    AV      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 187 Rule    AV      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 188 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 189 Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 -      LMT     1895 Feb
 190                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971
 191                         10:00   AV      AE%sT
 192 
 193 # New South Wales
 194 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 195 Rule    AN      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 196 Rule    AN      1972    only    -       Feb     27      2:00s   0       S
 197 Rule    AN      1973    1981    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 198 Rule    AN      1982    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 199 Rule    AN      1983    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 200 Rule    AN      1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 201 Rule    AN      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00s   1:00    D
 202 Rule    AN      1987    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 203 Rule    AN      1990    1995    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 204 Rule    AN      1996    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 205 Rule    AN      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 206 Rule    AN      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 207 Rule    AN      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 208 Rule    AN      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 209 Rule    AN      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 210 Rule    AN      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 211 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 212 Zone Australia/Sydney   10:04:52 -      LMT     1895 Feb
 213                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971
 214                         10:00   AN      AE%sT
 215 Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 -    LMT     1895 Feb
 216                         10:00   -       AEST    1896 Aug 23
 217                         9:00    -       ACST    1899 May
 218                         9:30    Aus     AC%sT   1971
 219                         9:30    AN      AC%sT   2000
 220                         9:30    AS      AC%sT
 221 
 222 # Lord Howe Island
 223 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 224 Rule    LH      1981    1984    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    -
 225 Rule    LH      1982    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00    0       -
 226 Rule    LH      1985    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    -
 227 Rule    LH      1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00    0       -
 228 Rule    LH      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00    0:30    -
 229 Rule    LH      1987    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    -
 230 Rule    LH      1990    1995    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00    0       -
 231 Rule    LH      1996    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       -
 232 Rule    LH      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00    0:30    -
 233 Rule    LH      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    -
 234 Rule    LH      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    0       -
 235 Rule    LH      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       -
 236 Rule    LH      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    0       -
 237 Rule    LH      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00    0:30    -
 238 Zone Australia/Lord_Howe 10:36:20 -     LMT     1895 Feb
 239                         10:00   -       AEST    1981 Mar
 240                         10:30   LH      +1030/+1130 1985 Jul
 241                         10:30   LH      +1030/+11
 242 
 243 # Australian miscellany
 244 #
 245 # Ashmore Is, Cartier
 246 # no indigenous inhabitants; only seasonal caretakers
 247 # no times are set
 248 #
 249 # Coral Sea Is
 250 # no indigenous inhabitants; only meteorologists
 251 # no times are set
 252 #
 253 # Macquarie
 254 # Permanent occupation (scientific station) 1911-1915 and since 25 March 1948;
 255 # sealing and penguin oil station operated Nov 1899 to Apr 1919.  See the
 256 # Tasmania Parks & Wildlife Service history of sealing at Macquarie Island
 257 # http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=1828
 258 # http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=1831
 259 # Guess that it was like Australia/Hobart while inhabited before 2010.
 260 #
 261 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-10):
 262 # We got these changes from the Australian Antarctic Division:
 263 # - Macquarie Island will stay on UTC+11 for winter and therefore not
 264 # switch back from daylight savings time when other parts of Australia do
 265 # on 4 April.
 266 #
 267 # From Arthur David Olson (2013-05-23):
 268 # The 1919 transition is overspecified below so pre-2013 zics
 269 # will produce a binary file with an [A]EST-type as the first 32-bit type;
 270 # this is required for correct handling of times before 1916 by
 271 # pre-2013 versions of localtime.
 272 Zone Antarctica/Macquarie 0     -       -00     1899 Nov
 273                         10:00   -       AEST    1916 Oct  1  2:00
 274                         10:00   1:00    AEDT    1917 Feb
 275                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1919 Apr  1  0:00s
 276                         0       -       -00     1948 Mar 25
 277                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1967
 278                         10:00   AT      AE%sT   2010 Apr  4  3:00
 279                         11:00   -       +11
 280 
 281 # Christmas
 282 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 283 Zone Indian/Christmas   7:02:52 -       LMT     1895 Feb
 284                         7:00    -       +07
 285 
 286 # Cocos (Keeling) Is
 287 # These islands were ruled by the Ross family from about 1830 to 1978.
 288 # We don't know when standard time was introduced; for now, we guess 1900.
 289 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 290 Zone    Indian/Cocos    6:27:40 -       LMT     1900
 291                         6:30    -       +0630
 292 
 293 
 294 # Fiji
 295 
 296 # Milne gives 11:55:44 for Suva.
 297 
 298 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-11-10):
 299 # According to Fiji Broadcasting Corporation,  Fiji plans to re-introduce DST
 300 # from November 29th 2009  to April 25th 2010.
 301 #
 302 # "Daylight savings to commence this month"
 303 # http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719
 304 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html
 305 
 306 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-11-10):
 307 # The Fiji Government has posted some more details about the approved
 308 # amendments:
 309 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml
 310 
 311 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-03):
 312 # The Cabinet in Fiji has decided to end DST about a month early, on
 313 # 2010-03-28 at 03:00.
 314 # The plan is to observe DST again, from 2010-10-24 to sometime in March
 315 # 2011 (last Sunday a good guess?).
 316 #
 317 # Official source:
 318 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1096:3310-cabinet-approves-change-in-daylight-savings-dates&catid=49:cabinet-releases&Itemid=166
 319 #
 320 # A bit more background info here:
 321 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/fiji-dst-ends-march-2010.html
 322 
 323 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-10-24):
 324 # According to Radio Fiji and Fiji Times online, Fiji will end DST 3
 325 # weeks earlier than expected - on March 6, 2011, not March 27, 2011...
 326 # Here is confirmation from Government of the Republic of the Fiji Islands,
 327 # Ministry of Information (fiji.gov.fj) web site:
 328 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2608:daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
 329 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji04.html
 330 
 331 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-10-03):
 332 # Now the dates have been confirmed, and at least our start date
 333 # assumption was correct (end date was one week wrong).
 334 #
 335 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=4966:daylight-saving-starts-in-fiji&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
 336 # which says
 337 # Members of the public are reminded to change their time to one hour in
 338 # advance at 2am to 3am on October 23, 2011 and one hour back at 3am to
 339 # 2am on February 26 next year.
 340 
 341 # From Ken Rylander (2011-10-24)
 342 # Another change to the Fiji DST end date. In the TZ database the end date for
 343 # Fiji DST 2012, is currently Feb 26. This has been changed to Jan 22.
 344 #
 345 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=5017:amendments-to-daylight-savings&catid=71:press-releases&Itemid=155
 346 # states:
 347 #
 348 # The end of daylight saving scheduled initially for the 26th of February 2012
 349 # has been brought forward to the 22nd of January 2012.
 350 # The commencement of daylight saving will remain unchanged and start
 351 # on the  23rd of October, 2011.
 352 
 353 # From the Fiji Government Online Portal (2012-08-21) via Steffen Thorsen:
 354 # The Minister for Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment Mr Jone Usamate
 355 # today confirmed that Fiji will start daylight savings at 2 am on Sunday 21st
 356 # October 2012 and end at 3 am on Sunday 20th January 2013.
 357 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=6702&catid=71&Itemid=155
 358 
 359 # From the Fijian Government Media Center (2013-08-30) via David Wheeler:
 360 # Fiji will start daylight savings on Sunday 27th October, 2013 ...
 361 # move clocks forward by one hour from 2am
 362 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVING-STARTS-ON-SUNDAY,-27th-OCTOBER-201.aspx
 363 
 364 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-01-10):
 365 # Fiji will end DST on 2014-01-19 02:00:
 366 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVINGS-TO-END-THIS-MONTH-%281%29.aspx
 367 
 368 # From Ken Rylander (2014-10-20):
 369 # DST will start Nov. 2 this year.
 370 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVING-STARTS-ON-SUNDAY,-NOVEMBER-2ND.aspx
 371 
 372 # From a government order dated 2015-08-26 and published as Legal Notice No. 77
 373 # in the Government of Fiji Gazette Supplement No. 24 (2015-08-28),
 374 # via Ken Rylander (2015-09-02):
 375 # the daylight saving period is 1 hour in advance of the standard time
 376 # commencing at 2.00 am on Sunday 1st November, 2015 and ending at
 377 # 3.00 am on Sunday 17th January, 2016.
 378 
 379 # From Raymond Kumar (2016-10-04):
 380 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/Media-Center/Press-Releases/DAYLIGHT-SAVING-STARTS-ON-6th-NOVEMBER,-2016.aspx
 381 # "Fiji's daylight savings will begin on Sunday, 6 November 2016, when
 382 # clocks go forward an hour at 2am to 3am....  Daylight Saving will
 383 # end at 3.00am on Sunday 15th January 2017."
 384 
 385 # From Paul Eggert (2017-08-21):
 386 # Dominic Fok writes (2017-08-20) that DST ends 2018-01-14, citing
 387 # Extraordinary Government of Fiji Gazette Supplement No. 21 (2017-08-27),
 388 # [Legal Notice No. 41] of an order of the previous day by J Usamate.
 389 
 390 # From Raymond Kumar (2018-07-13):
 391 # http://www.fijitimes.com/government-approves-2018-daylight-saving/
 392 # ... The daylight saving period will end at 3am on Sunday January 13, 2019.
 393 #
 394 # From Paul Eggert (2018-07-15):
 395 # For now, guess DST from 02:00 the first Sunday in November to 03:00
 396 # the first Sunday on or after January 13.  January transitions reportedly
 397 # depend on when school terms start.  Although the guess is ad hoc, it matches
 398 # transitions since late 2014 and seems more likely to match future
 399 # practice than guessing no DST.
 400 
 401 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 402 Rule    Fiji    1998    1999    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    -
 403 Rule    Fiji    1999    2000    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       -
 404 Rule    Fiji    2009    only    -       Nov     29      2:00    1:00    -
 405 Rule    Fiji    2010    only    -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    0       -
 406 Rule    Fiji    2010    2013    -       Oct     Sun>=21      2:00    1:00    -
 407 Rule    Fiji    2011    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       -
 408 Rule    Fiji    2012    2013    -       Jan     Sun>=18      3:00    0       -
 409 Rule    Fiji    2014    only    -       Jan     Sun>=18      2:00    0       -
 410 Rule    Fiji    2014    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    -
 411 Rule    Fiji    2015    max     -       Jan     Sun>=13      3:00    0       -
 412 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 413 Zone    Pacific/Fiji    11:55:44 -      LMT     1915 Oct 26 # Suva
 414                         12:00   Fiji    +12/+13
 415 
 416 # French Polynesia
 417 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 418 Zone    Pacific/Gambier  -8:59:48 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Rikitea
 419                          -9:00  -       -09
 420 Zone    Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 -    LMT     1912 Oct
 421                          -9:30  -       -0930
 422 Zone    Pacific/Tahiti   -9:58:16 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Papeete
 423                         -10:00  -       -10
 424 # Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia;
 425 # it is uninhabited.
 426 
 427 # Guam
 428 
 429 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 430 # http://guamlegislature.com/Public_Laws_5th/PL05-025.pdf
 431 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-59-7-Guam-Daylight-Savings-Time-May-6-1959.pdf
 432 Rule    Guam    1959    only    -       Jun     27      2:00    1:00    D
 433 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-61-5-Revocation-of-Daylight-Saving-Time-and-Restoratio.pdf
 434 Rule    Guam    1961    only    -       Jan     29      2:00    0       S
 435 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-67-13-Guam-Daylight-Savings-Time.pdf
 436 Rule    Guam    1967    only    -       Sep      1      2:00    1:00    D
 437 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-69-2-Repeal-of-Guam-Daylight-Saving-Time.pdf
 438 Rule    Guam    1969    only    -       Jan     26      0:01    0       S
 439 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-69-10-Guam-Daylight-Saving-Time.pdf
 440 Rule    Guam    1969    only    -       Jun     22      2:00    1:00    D
 441 Rule    Guam    1969    only    -       Aug     31      2:00    0       S
 442 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-70-10-Guam-Daylight-Saving-Time.pdf
 443 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-70-30-End-of-Guam-Daylight-Saving-Time.pdf
 444 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-71-5-Guam-Daylight-Savings-Time.pdf
 445 Rule    Guam    1970    1971    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 446 Rule    Guam    1970    1971    -       Sep     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
 447 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-73-28.-Guam-Day-light-Saving-Time.pdf
 448 Rule    Guam    1973    only    -       Dec     16      2:00    1:00    D
 449 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-74-7-Guam-Daylight-Savings-Time-Rescinded.pdf
 450 Rule    Guam    1974    only    -       Feb     24      2:00    0       S
 451 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-76-13-Daylight-Savings-Time.pdf
 452 Rule    Guam    1976    only    -       May     26      2:00    1:00    D
 453 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-76-25-Revocation-of-E.O.-76-13.pdf
 454 Rule    Guam    1976    only    -       Aug     22      2:01    0       S
 455 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-77-4-Daylight-Savings-Time.pdf
 456 Rule    Guam    1977    only    -       Apr     24      2:00    1:00    D
 457 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-77-18-Guam-Standard-Time.pdf
 458 Rule    Guam    1977    only    -       Aug     28      2:00    0       S
 459 
 460 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 461 Zone    Pacific/Guam    -14:21:00 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
 462                          9:39:00 -      LMT     1901        # Agana
 463                         10:00   -       GST     1941 Dec 10 # Guam
 464                          9:00   -       +09     1944 Jul 31
 465                         10:00   Guam    G%sT    2000 Dec 23
 466                         10:00   -       ChST    # Chamorro Standard Time
 467 Link Pacific/Guam Pacific/Saipan # N Mariana Is
 468 
 469 # Kiribati
 470 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 471 Zone Pacific/Tarawa      11:32:04 -     LMT     1901 # Bairiki
 472                          12:00  -       +12
 473 Zone Pacific/Enderbury  -11:24:20 -     LMT     1901
 474                         -12:00  -       -12     1979 Oct
 475                         -11:00  -       -11     1994 Dec 31
 476                          13:00  -       +13
 477 Zone Pacific/Kiritimati -10:29:20 -     LMT     1901
 478                         -10:40  -       -1040   1979 Oct
 479                         -10:00  -       -10     1994 Dec 31
 480                          14:00  -       +14
 481 
 482 # N Mariana Is
 483 # See Pacific/Guam.
 484 
 485 # Marshall Is
 486 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 487 Zone Pacific/Majuro      11:24:48 -     LMT     1901
 488                          11:00  -       +11     1914 Oct
 489                           9:00  -       +09     1919 Feb  1
 490                          11:00  -       +11     1937
 491                          10:00  -       +10     1941 Apr  1
 492                           9:00  -       +09     1944 Jan 30
 493                          11:00  -       +11     1969 Oct
 494                          12:00  -       +12
 495 Zone Pacific/Kwajalein   11:09:20 -     LMT     1901
 496                          11:00  -       +11     1937
 497                          10:00  -       +10     1941 Apr  1
 498                           9:00  -       +09     1944 Feb  6
 499                          11:00  -       +11     1969 Oct
 500                         -12:00  -       -12     1993 Aug 20 24:00
 501                          12:00  -       +12
 502 
 503 # Micronesia
 504 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 505 Zone Pacific/Chuuk      -13:52:52 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
 506                          10:07:08 -     LMT     1901
 507                          10:00  -       +10     1914 Oct
 508                           9:00  -       +09     1919 Feb  1
 509                          10:00  -       +10     1941 Apr  1
 510                           9:00  -       +09     1945 Aug
 511                          10:00  -       +10
 512 Zone Pacific/Pohnpei    -13:27:08 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31     # Kolonia
 513                          10:32:52 -     LMT     1901
 514                          11:00  -       +11     1914 Oct
 515                           9:00  -       +09     1919 Feb  1
 516                          11:00  -       +11     1937
 517                          10:00  -       +10     1941 Apr  1
 518                           9:00  -       +09     1945 Aug
 519                          11:00  -       +11
 520 Zone Pacific/Kosrae     -13:08:04 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
 521                          10:51:56 -     LMT     1901
 522                          11:00  -       +11     1914 Oct
 523                           9:00  -       +09     1919 Feb  1
 524                          11:00  -       +11     1937
 525                          10:00  -       +10     1941 Apr  1
 526                           9:00  -       +09     1945 Aug
 527                          11:00  -       +11     1969 Oct
 528                          12:00  -       +12     1999
 529                          11:00  -       +11
 530 
 531 # Nauru
 532 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 533 Zone    Pacific/Nauru   11:07:40 -      LMT     1921 Jan 15 # Uaobe
 534                         11:30   -       +1130   1942 Aug 29
 535                          9:00   -       +09     1945 Sep  8
 536                         11:30   -       +1130   1979 Feb 10  2:00
 537                         12:00   -       +12
 538 
 539 # New Caledonia
 540 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 541 Rule    NC      1977    1978    -       Dec     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    -
 542 Rule    NC      1978    1979    -       Feb     27      0:00    0       -
 543 Rule    NC      1996    only    -       Dec      1      2:00s   1:00    -
 544 # Shanks & Pottenger say the following was at 2:00; go with IATA.
 545 Rule    NC      1997    only    -       Mar      2      2:00s   0       -
 546 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 547 Zone    Pacific/Noumea  11:05:48 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13 # Nouméa
 548                         11:00   NC      +11/+12
 549 
 550 
 551 ###############################################################################
 552 
 553 # New Zealand
 554 
 555 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 556 Rule    NZ      1927    only    -       Nov      6      2:00    1:00    S
 557 Rule    NZ      1928    only    -       Mar      4      2:00    0       M
 558 Rule    NZ      1928    1933    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:00    0:30    S
 559 Rule    NZ      1929    1933    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00    0       M
 560 Rule    NZ      1934    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    0       M
 561 Rule    NZ      1934    1940    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0:30    S
 562 Rule    NZ      1946    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       S
 563 # Since 1957 Chatham has been 45 minutes ahead of NZ, but until 2018a
 564 # there was no documented single notation for the date and time of this
 565 # transition.  Duplicate the Rule lines for now, to give the 2018a change
 566 # time to percolate out.
 567 Rule    NZ      1974    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 568 Rule    Chatham 1974    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:45s   1:00    -
 569 Rule    NZ      1975    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 570 Rule    Chatham 1975    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:45s   0       -
 571 Rule    NZ      1975    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 572 Rule    Chatham 1975    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:45s   1:00    -
 573 Rule    NZ      1976    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 574 Rule    Chatham 1976    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:45s   0       -
 575 Rule    NZ      1989    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:00s   1:00    D
 576 Rule    Chatham 1989    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:45s   1:00    -
 577 Rule    NZ      1990    2006    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 578 Rule    Chatham 1990    2006    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:45s   1:00    -
 579 Rule    NZ      1990    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 580 Rule    Chatham 1990    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:45s   0       -
 581 Rule    NZ      2007    max     -       Sep     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 582 Rule    Chatham 2007    max     -       Sep     lastSun 2:45s   1:00    -
 583 Rule    NZ      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 584 Rule    Chatham 2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:45s   0       -
 585 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 586 Zone Pacific/Auckland   11:39:04 -      LMT     1868 Nov  2
 587                         11:30   NZ      NZ%sT   1946 Jan  1
 588                         12:00   NZ      NZ%sT
 589 Zone Pacific/Chatham    12:13:48 -      LMT     1868 Nov  2
 590                         12:15   -       +1215   1946 Jan  1
 591                         12:45   Chatham +1245/+1345
 592 
 593 Link Pacific/Auckland Antarctica/McMurdo
 594 
 595 # Auckland Is
 596 # uninhabited; Māori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers,
 597 # and scientific personnel have wintered
 598 
 599 # Campbell I
 600 # minor whaling stations operated 1909/1914
 601 # scientific station operated 1941/1995;
 602 # previously whalers, sealers, pastoralists, and scientific personnel wintered
 603 # was probably like Pacific/Auckland
 604 
 605 # Cook Is
 606 # From Shanks & Pottenger:
 607 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 608 Rule    Cook    1978    only    -       Nov     12      0:00    0:30    -
 609 Rule    Cook    1979    1991    -       Mar     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
 610 Rule    Cook    1979    1990    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0:30    -
 611 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 612 Zone Pacific/Rarotonga  -10:39:04 -     LMT     1901        # Avarua
 613                         -10:30  -       -1030   1978 Nov 12
 614                         -10:00  Cook    -10/-0930
 615 
 616 ###############################################################################
 617 
 618 
 619 # Niue
 620 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 621 Zone    Pacific/Niue    -11:19:40 -     LMT     1901        # Alofi
 622                         -11:20  -       -1120   1951
 623                         -11:30  -       -1130   1978 Oct  1
 624                         -11:00  -       -11
 625 
 626 # Norfolk
 627 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 628 Zone    Pacific/Norfolk 11:11:52 -      LMT     1901 # Kingston
 629                         11:12   -       +1112   1951
 630                         11:30   -       +1130   1974 Oct 27 02:00
 631                         11:30   1:00    +1230   1975 Mar  2 02:00
 632                         11:30   -       +1130   2015 Oct  4 02:00
 633                         11:00   -       +11
 634 
 635 # Palau (Belau)
 636 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 637 Zone Pacific/Palau      -15:02:04 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31     # Koror
 638                           8:57:56 -     LMT     1901
 639                           9:00  -       +09
 640 
 641 # Papua New Guinea
 642 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 643 Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 -     LMT     1880
 644                         9:48:32 -       PMMT    1895 # Port Moresby Mean Time
 645                         10:00   -       +10
 646 #
 647 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-13):
 648 # Base the Bougainville entry on the Arawa-Kieta region, which appears to have
 649 # the most people even though it was devastated in the Bougainville Civil War.
 650 #
 651 # Although Shanks gives 1942-03-15 / 1943-11-01 for UT +09, these dates
 652 # are apparently rough guesswork from the starts of military campaigns.
 653 # The World War II entries below are instead based on Arawa-Kieta.
 654 # The Japanese occupied Kieta in July 1942,
 655 # according to the Pacific War Online Encyclopedia
 656 # https://pwencycl.kgbudge.com/B/o/Bougainville.htm
 657 # and seem to have controlled it until their 1945-08-21 surrender.
 658 #
 659 # The Autonomous Region of Bougainville switched from UT +10 to +11
 660 # on 2014-12-28 at 02:00.  They call +11 "Bougainville Standard Time".
 661 # See:
 662 # http://www.bougainville24.com/bougainville-issues/bougainville-gets-own-timezone/
 663 #
 664 Zone Pacific/Bougainville 10:22:16 -    LMT     1880
 665                          9:48:32 -      PMMT    1895
 666                         10:00   -       +10     1942 Jul
 667                          9:00   -       +09     1945 Aug 21
 668                         10:00   -       +10     2014 Dec 28  2:00
 669                         11:00   -       +11
 670 
 671 # Pitcairn
 672 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 673 Zone Pacific/Pitcairn   -8:40:20 -      LMT     1901        # Adamstown
 674                         -8:30   -       -0830   1998 Apr 27  0:00
 675                         -8:00   -       -08
 676 
 677 # American Samoa
 678 Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago   12:37:12 -     LMT     1892 Jul  5
 679                         -11:22:48 -     LMT     1911
 680                         -11:00  -       SST                 # S=Samoa
 681 Link Pacific/Pago_Pago Pacific/Midway # in US minor outlying islands
 682 
 683 # Samoa (formerly and also known as Western Samoa)
 684 
 685 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-16):
 686 # We have been in contact with the government of Samoa again, and received
 687 # the following info:
 688 #
 689 # "Cabinet has now approved Daylight Saving to be effected next year
 690 # commencing from the last Sunday of September 2010 and conclude first
 691 # Sunday of April 2011."
 692 #
 693 # Background info:
 694 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/samoa-dst-plan-2009.html
 695 #
 696 # Samoa's Daylight Saving Time Act 2009 is available here, but does not
 697 # contain any dates:
 698 # http://www.parliament.gov.ws/documents/acts/Daylight%20Saving%20Act%20%202009%20%28English%29%20-%20Final%207-7-091.pdf
 699 
 700 # From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2010-10-07):
 701 # Please see
 702 # http://www.mcil.gov.ws
 703 # the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Labour (sideframe) "Last Sunday
 704 # September 2010 (26/09/10) - adjust clocks forward from 12:00 midnight
 705 # to 01:00am and First Sunday April 2011 (03/04/11) - adjust clocks
 706 # backwards from 1:00am to 12:00am"
 707 
 708 # From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-03-07):
 709 # [http://www.mcil.gov.ws/ftcd/daylight_saving_2011.pdf]
 710 #
 711 # ... when the standard time strikes the hour of four o'clock (4.00am
 712 # or 0400 Hours) on the 2nd April 2011, then all instruments used to
 713 # measure standard time are to be adjusted/changed to three o'clock
 714 # (3:00am or 0300Hrs).
 715 
 716 # From David Zülke (2011-05-09):
 717 # Subject: Samoa to move timezone from east to west of international date line
 718 #
 719 # http://www.morningstar.co.uk/uk/markets/newsfeeditem.aspx?id=138501958347963
 720 
 721 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-27):
 722 # The International Date Line Act 2011
 723 # http://www.parliament.gov.ws/images/ACTS/International_Date_Line_Act__2011_-_Eng.pdf
 724 # changed Samoa from UT -11 to +13, effective "12 o'clock midnight, on
 725 # Thursday 29th December 2011".  The International Date Line was adjusted
 726 # accordingly.
 727 
 728 # From Laupue Raymond Hughes (2011-09-02):
 729 # http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html
 730 #
 731 # here is the official website publication for Samoa DST and dateline change
 732 #
 733 # DST
 734 # Year  End      Time              Start        Time
 735 # 2011  - - -    - - -             24 September 3:00am to 4:00am
 736 # 2012  01 April 4:00am to 3:00am  - - -        - - -
 737 #
 738 # Dateline Change skip Friday 30th Dec 2011
 739 # Thursday 29th December 2011   23:59:59 Hours
 740 # Saturday 31st December 2011   00:00:00 Hours
 741 #
 742 # From Nicholas Pereira (2012-09-10):
 743 # Daylight Saving Time commences on Sunday 30th September 2012 and
 744 # ends on Sunday 7th of April 2013....
 745 # http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html
 746 #
 747 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08):
 748 # That web page currently lists transitions for 2012/3 and 2013/4.
 749 # Assume the pattern instituted in 2012 will continue indefinitely.
 750 
 751 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 752 Rule    WS      2010    only    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1       -
 753 Rule    WS      2011    only    -       Apr     Sat>=1       4:00    0       -
 754 Rule    WS      2011    only    -       Sep     lastSat 3:00    1       -
 755 Rule    WS      2012    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       4:00    0       -
 756 Rule    WS      2012    max     -       Sep     lastSun 3:00    1       -
 757 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 758 Zone Pacific/Apia        12:33:04 -     LMT     1892 Jul  5
 759                         -11:26:56 -     LMT     1911
 760                         -11:30  -       -1130   1950
 761                         -11:00  WS      -11/-10 2011 Dec 29 24:00
 762                          13:00  WS      +13/+14
 763 
 764 # Solomon Is
 765 # excludes Bougainville, for which see Papua New Guinea
 766 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 767 Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Honiara
 768                         11:00   -       +11
 769 
 770 # Tokelau
 771 #
 772 # From Gwillim Law (2011-12-29)
 773 # A correspondent informed me that Tokelau, like Samoa, will be skipping
 774 # December 31 this year ...
 775 #
 776 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-07-25)
 777 # ... we double checked by calling hotels and offices based in Tokelau asking
 778 # about the time there, and they all told a time that agrees with UTC+13....
 779 # Shanks says UT-10 from 1901 [but] ... there is a good chance the change
 780 # actually was to UT-11 back then.
 781 #
 782 # From Paul Eggert (2012-07-25)
 783 # A Google Books snippet of Appendix to the Journals of the House of
 784 # Representatives of New Zealand, Session 1948,
 785 # <https://books.google.com/books?id=ZaVCAQAAIAAJ>, page 65, says Tokelau
 786 # was "11 hours slow on G.M.T."  Go with Thorsen and assume Shanks & Pottenger
 787 # are off by an hour starting in 1901.
 788 
 789 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 790 Zone    Pacific/Fakaofo -11:24:56 -     LMT     1901
 791                         -11:00  -       -11     2011 Dec 30
 792                         13:00   -       +13
 793 
 794 # Tonga
 795 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 796 Rule    Tonga   1999    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   1:00    -
 797 Rule    Tonga   2000    only    -       Mar     19      2:00s   0       -
 798 Rule    Tonga   2000    2001    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    -
 799 Rule    Tonga   2001    2002    -       Jan     lastSun 2:00    0       -
 800 Rule    Tonga   2016    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    -
 801 Rule    Tonga   2017    only    -       Jan     Sun>=15      3:00    0       -
 802 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 803 Zone Pacific/Tongatapu  12:19:20 -      LMT     1901
 804                         12:20   -       +1220   1941
 805                         13:00   -       +13     1999
 806                         13:00   Tonga   +13/+14
 807 
 808 # Tuvalu
 809 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 810 Zone Pacific/Funafuti   11:56:52 -      LMT     1901
 811                         12:00   -       +12
 812 
 813 
 814 # US minor outlying islands
 815 
 816 # Howland, Baker
 817 # Howland was mined for guano by American companies 1857-1878 and British
 818 # 1886-1891; Baker was similar but exact dates are not known.
 819 # Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; U.S. military bases 1943-1944;
 820 # uninhabited thereafter.
 821 # Howland observed Hawaii Standard Time (UT -10:30) in 1937;
 822 # see page 206 of Elgen M. Long and Marie K. Long,
 823 # Amelia Earhart: the Mystery Solved, Simon & Schuster (2000).
 824 # So most likely Howland and Baker observed Hawaii Time from 1935
 825 # until they were abandoned after the war.
 826 
 827 # Jarvis
 828 # Mined for guano by American companies 1857-1879 and British 1883?-1891?.
 829 # Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; IGY scientific base 1957-1958;
 830 # uninhabited thereafter.
 831 # no information; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
 832 
 833 # Johnston
 834 #
 835 # From Paul Eggert (2017-02-10):
 836 # Sometimes Johnston kept Hawaii time, and sometimes it was an hour behind.
 837 # Details are uncertain.  We have no data for Johnston after 1970, so
 838 # treat it like Hawaii for now.  Since Johnston is now uninhabited,
 839 # its link to Pacific/Honolulu is in the 'backward' file.
 840 #
 841 # In his memoirs of June 6th to October 4, 1945
 842 # <http://www.315bw.org/Herb_Bach.htm> (2005), Herbert C. Bach writes,
 843 # "We started our letdown to Kwajalein Atoll and landed there at 5:00 AM
 844 # Johnston time, 1:30 AM Kwajalein time."  This was in June 1945, and
 845 # confirms that Johnston kept the same time as Honolulu in summer 1945.
 846 #
 847 # From Lyle McElhaney (2014-03-11):
 848 # [W]hen JI was being used for that [atomic bomb] testing, the time being used
 849 # was not Hawaiian time but rather the same time being used on the ships,
 850 # which had a GMT offset of -11 hours.  This apparently applied to at least the
 851 # time from Operation Newsreel (Hardtack I/Teak shot, 1958-08-01) to the last
 852 # Operation Fishbowl shot (Tightrope, 1962-11-04).... [See] Herman Hoerlin,
 853 # "The United States High-Altitude Test Experience: A Review Emphasizing the
 854 # Impact on the Environment", Los Alamos LA-6405, Oct 1976.
 855 # https://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/docs1/00322994.pdf
 856 # See the table on page 4 where he lists GMT and local times for the tests; a
 857 # footnote for the JI tests reads that local time is "JI time = Hawaii Time
 858 # Minus One Hour".
 859 
 860 # Kingman
 861 # uninhabited
 862 
 863 # Midway
 864 # See Pacific/Pago_Pago.
 865 
 866 # Palmyra
 867 # uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
 868 
 869 # Wake
 870 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 871 Zone    Pacific/Wake    11:06:28 -      LMT     1901
 872                         12:00   -       +12
 873 
 874 
 875 # Vanuatu
 876 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 877 Rule    Vanuatu 1983    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    1:00    -
 878 Rule    Vanuatu 1984    1991    -       Mar     Sun>=23      0:00    0       -
 879 Rule    Vanuatu 1984    only    -       Oct     23      0:00    1:00    -
 880 Rule    Vanuatu 1985    1991    -       Sep     Sun>=23      0:00    1:00    -
 881 Rule    Vanuatu 1992    1993    -       Jan     Sun>=23      0:00    0       -
 882 Rule    Vanuatu 1992    only    -       Oct     Sun>=23      0:00    1:00    -
 883 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 884 Zone    Pacific/Efate   11:13:16 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13 # Vila
 885                         11:00   Vanuatu +11/+12
 886 
 887 # Wallis and Futuna
 888 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 889 Zone    Pacific/Wallis  12:15:20 -      LMT     1901
 890                         12:00   -       +12
 891 
 892 ###############################################################################
 893 
 894 # NOTES
 895 
 896 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
 897 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
 898 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
 899 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
 900 
 901 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
 902 #
 903 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
 904 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
 905 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
 906 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
 907 #
 908 # Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source
 909 # for time zone data was the International Air Transport
 910 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
 911 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
 912 # of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
 913 # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
 914 #
 915 # Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
 916 # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
 917 # I found in the UCLA library.
 918 #
 919 # For data circa 1899, a common source is:
 920 # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
 921 # https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
 922 #
 923 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
 924 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
 925 #
 926 # I invented the abbreviation marked "*".
 927 # The following abbreviations are from other sources.
 928 # Corrections are welcome!
 929 #               std     dst
 930 #               LMT             Local Mean Time
 931 #         8:00  AWST    AWDT    Western Australia
 932 #         9:30  ACST    ACDT    Central Australia
 933 #        10:00  AEST    AEDT    Eastern Australia
 934 #        10:00  GST     GDT*    Guam through 2000
 935 #        10:00  ChST            Chamorro
 936 #        11:30  NZMT    NZST    New Zealand through 1945
 937 #        12:00  NZST    NZDT    New Zealand 1946-present
 938 #       -11:00  SST             Samoa
 939 #       -10:00  HST             Hawaii
 940 #
 941 # See the 'northamerica' file for Hawaii.
 942 # See the 'southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galápagos Is.
 943 
 944 ###############################################################################
 945 
 946 # Australia
 947 
 948 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
 949 # Daylight saving time has long been controversial in Australia, pitting
 950 # region against region, rural against urban, and local against global.
 951 # For example, in her review of Graeme Davison's _The Unforgiving
 952 # Minute: how Australians learned to tell the time_ (1993), Perth native
 953 # Phillipa J Martyr wrote, "The section entitled 'Saving Daylight' was
 954 # very informative, but was (as can, sadly, only be expected from a
 955 # Melbourne-based study) replete with the usual chuckleheaded
 956 # Queenslanders and straw-chewing yokels from the West prattling fables
 957 # about fading curtains and crazed farm animals."
 958 # Electronic Journal of Australian and New Zealand History (1997-03-03)
 959 # http://www.jcu.edu.au/aff/history/reviews/davison.htm
 960 
 961 # From Paul Eggert (2005-12-08):
 962 # Implementation Dates of Daylight Saving Time within Australia
 963 # http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml
 964 # summarizes daylight saving issues in Australia.
 965 
 966 # From Arthur David Olson (2005-12-12):
 967 # Lawlink NSW:Daylight Saving in New South Wales
 968 # http://www.lawlink.nsw.gov.au/lawlink/Corporate/ll_agdinfo.nsf/pages/community_relations_daylight_saving
 969 # covers New South Wales in particular.
 970 
 971 # From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
 972 # We in Australia have _never_ referred to DST as 'daylight' time.
 973 # It is called 'summer' time.  Now by a happy coincidence, 'summer'
 974 # and 'standard' happen to start with the same letter; hence, the
 975 # abbreviation does _not_ change...
 976 # The legislation does not actually define abbreviations, at least
 977 # in this State, but the abbreviation is just commonly taken to be the
 978 # initials of the phrase, and the legislation here uniformly uses
 979 # the phrase 'summer time' and does not use the phrase 'daylight
 980 # time'.
 981 # Announcers on the Commonwealth radio network, the ABC (for Australian
 982 # Broadcasting Commission), use the phrases 'Eastern Standard Time'
 983 # or 'Eastern Summer Time'.  (Note, though, that as I say in the
 984 # current australasia file, there is really no such thing.)  Announcers
 985 # on its overseas service, Radio Australia, use the same phrases
 986 # prefixed by the word 'Australian' when referring to local times;
 987 # time announcements on that service, naturally enough, are made in UTC.
 988 
 989 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
 990 #
 991 # Inspired by Mackin's remarks quoted above, earlier versions of this
 992 # file used "EST" for both Eastern Standard Time and Eastern Summer
 993 # Time in Australia, and similarly for "CST", "CWST", and "WST".
 994 # However, these abbreviations were confusing and were not common
 995 # practice among Australians, and there were justifiable complaints
 996 # about them, so I attempted to survey current Australian usage.
 997 # For the tz database, the full English phrase is not that important;
 998 # what matters is the abbreviation.  It's difficult to survey the web
 999 # directly for abbreviation usage, as there are so many false hits for
1000 # strings like "EST" and "EDT", so I looked for pages that defined an
1001 # abbreviation for eastern or central DST in Australia, and got the
1002 # following numbers of unique hits for the listed Google queries:
1003 #
1004 #   10 "Eastern Daylight Time AEST" site:au [some are false hits]
1005 #   10 "Eastern Summer Time AEST" site:au
1006 #   10 "Summer Time AEDT" site:au
1007 #   13 "EDST Eastern Daylight Saving Time" site:au
1008 #   18 "Summer Time ESST" site:au
1009 #   28 "Eastern Daylight Saving Time EDST" site:au
1010 #   39 "EDT Eastern Daylight Time" site:au [some are false hits]
1011 #   53 "Eastern Daylight Time EDT" site:au [some are false hits]
1012 #   54 "AEDT Australian Eastern Daylight Time" site:au
1013 #  182 "Eastern Daylight Time AEDT" site:au
1014 #
1015 #   17 "Central Daylight Time CDT" site:au [some are false hits]
1016 #   46 "Central Daylight Time ACDT" site:au
1017 #
1018 # I tried several other variants (e.g., "Eastern Summer Time EST") but
1019 # they all returned fewer than 10 unique hits.  I also looked for pages
1020 # mentioning both "western standard time" and an abbreviation, since
1021 # there is no WST in the US to generate false hits, and found:
1022 #
1023 #  156 "western standard time" AWST site:au
1024 #  226 "western standard time" WST site:au
1025 #
1026 # I then surveyed the top ten newspapers in Australia by circulation as
1027 # listed in Wikipedia, using Google queries like "AEDT site:heraldsun.com.au"
1028 # and obtaining estimated counts from the initial page of search results.
1029 # All ten papers greatly preferred "AEDT" to "EDT".  The papers
1030 # surveyed were the Herald Sun, The Daily Telegraph, The Courier-Mail,
1031 # The Sydney Morning Herald, The West Australian, The Age, The Advertiser,
1032 # The Australian, The Financial Review, and The Herald (Newcastle).
1033 #
1034 # I also searched for historical usage, to see whether abbreviations
1035 # like "AEDT" are new.  A Trove search <http://trove.nla.gov.au/>
1036 # found only one newspaper (The Canberra Times) with a house style
1037 # dating back to the 1970s, I expect because other newspapers weren't
1038 # fully indexed.  The Canberra Times strongly preferred abbreviations
1039 # like "AEDT".  The first occurrence of "AEDT" was a World Weather
1040 # column (1971-11-17, page 24), and of "ACDT" was a Scoreboard column
1041 # (1993-01-24, p 16).  The style was the typical usage but was not
1042 # strictly enforced; for example, "Welcome to the twilight zones ..."
1043 # (1994-10-29, p 1) uses the abbreviations AEST/AEDT, CST/CDT, and
1044 # WST, and goes on to say, "The confusion and frustration some feel
1045 # about the lack of uniformity among Australia's six states and two
1046 # territories has prompted one group to form its very own political
1047 # party -- the Sydney-based Daylight Saving Extension Party."
1048 #
1049 # I also surveyed federal government sources.  They did not agree:
1050 #
1051 #   The Australian Government (2014-03-26)
1052 #   http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/our-country/time
1053 #   (This document was produced by the Department of Finance.)
1054 #   AEST ACST AWST AEDT ACDT
1055 #
1056 #   Bureau of Meteorology (2012-11-08)
1057 #   http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/daysavtm.shtml
1058 #   EST CST WST EDT CDT
1059 #
1060 #   Civil Aviation Safety Authority (undated)
1061 #   http://services.casa.gov.au/outnback/inc/pages/episode3/episode-3_time_zones.shtml
1062 #   EST CST WST (no abbreviations given for DST)
1063 #
1064 #   Geoscience Australia (2011-11-24)
1065 #   http://www.ga.gov.au/geodesy/astro/sunrise.jsp
1066 #   AEST ACST AWST AEDT ACDT
1067 #
1068 #   Parliamentary Library (2008-11-10)
1069 #   https://www.aph.gov.au/binaries/library/pubs/rp/2008-09/09rp14.pdf
1070 #   EST CST WST preferred for standard time; AEST AEDT ACST ACDT also used
1071 #
1072 #   The Transport Safety Bureau has an extensive series of accident reports,
1073 #   and investigators seem to use whatever abbreviation they like.
1074 #   Googling site:atsb.gov.au found the following number of unique hits:
1075 #   311 "ESuT", 195 "EDT", 26 "AEDT", 83 "CSuT", 46 "CDT".
1076 #   "_SuT" tended to appear in older reports, and "A_DT" tended to
1077 #   appear in reports of events with international implications.
1078 #
1079 # From the above it appears that there is a working consensus in
1080 # Australia to use trailing "DT" for daylight saving time; although
1081 # some sources use trailing "SST" or "ST" or "SuT" they are by far in
1082 # the minority.  The case for leading "A" is weaker, but since it
1083 # seems to be preferred in the overall web and is preferred in all
1084 # the leading newspaper websites and in many government departments,
1085 # it has a stronger case than omitting the leading "A".  The current
1086 # version of the database therefore uses abbreviations like "AEST" and
1087 # "AEDT" for Australian time zones.
1088 
1089 # From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19):
1090 # Shanks & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
1091 # Mark Prior writes that his newspaper
1092 # reports that NSW's fall 1995 change will occur at 2:00,
1093 # but Robert Elz says it's been 3:00 in Victoria since 1970
1094 # and perhaps the newspaper's '2:00' is referring to standard time.
1095 # For now we'll continue to assume 2:00s for changes since 1960.
1096 
1097 # From Eric Ulevik (1998-01-05):
1098 #
1099 # Here are some URLs to Australian time legislation. These URLs are stable,
1100 # and should probably be included in the data file. There are probably more
1101 # relevant entries in this database.
1102 #
1103 # NSW (including LHI and Broken Hill):
1104 # Standard Time Act 1987 (updated 1995-04-04)
1105 # https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/sta1987137/index.html
1106 # ACT
1107 # Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972
1108 # https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/act/consol_act/stasta1972279/index.html
1109 # SA
1110 # Standard Time Act, 1898
1111 # https://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/sa/consol_act/sta1898137/index.html
1112 
1113 # From David Grosz (2005-06-13):
1114 # It was announced last week that Daylight Saving would be extended by
1115 # one week next year to allow for the 2006 Commonwealth Games.
1116 # Daylight Saving is now to end for next year only on the first Sunday
1117 # in April instead of the last Sunday in March.
1118 #
1119 # From Gwillim Law (2005-06-14):
1120 # I did some Googling and found that all of those states (and territory) plan
1121 # to extend DST together in 2006.
1122 # ACT: http://www.cmd.act.gov.au/mediareleases/fileread.cfm?file=86.txt
1123 # New South Wales: http://www.thecouriermail.news.com.au/common/story_page/0,5936,15538869%255E1702,00.html
1124 # South Australia: http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15555031-1246,00.html
1125 # Tasmania: http://www.media.tas.gov.au/release.php?id=14772
1126 # Victoria: I wasn't able to find anything separate, but the other articles
1127 # allude to it.
1128 # But not Queensland
1129 # http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,15564030-1248,00.html
1130 
1131 # Northern Territory
1132 
1133 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1134 # # The NORTHERN TERRITORY..  [ Courtesy N.T. Dept of the Chief Minister ]
1135 # #                                     [ Nov 1990 ]
1136 # #     N.T. have never utilised any DST due to sub-tropical/tropical location.
1137 # ...
1138 # Zone        Australia/North         9:30    -       CST
1139 
1140 # From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1141 # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1142 # the Northern Territory do[es] not have daylight saving.
1143 
1144 # Western Australia
1145 
1146 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1147 # #  The state of WESTERN AUSTRALIA..  [ Courtesy W.A. dept Premier+Cabinet ]
1148 # #                                             [ Nov 1990 ]
1149 # #     W.A. suffers from a great deal of public and political opposition to
1150 # #     DST in principle. A bill is brought before parliament in most years, but
1151 # #     usually defeated either in the upper house, or in party caucus
1152 # #     before reaching parliament.
1153 # ...
1154 # Zone  Australia/West          8:00    AW      %sST
1155 # ...
1156 # Rule  AW      1974    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1157 # Rule  AW      1975    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       W
1158 # Rule  AW      1983    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1159 # Rule  AW      1984    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       W
1160 
1161 # From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1162 # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1163 # Western Australia...do[es] not have daylight saving.
1164 
1165 # From John D. Newman via Bradley White (1991-11-02):
1166 # Western Australia is still on "winter time". Some DH in Sydney
1167 # rang me at home a few days ago at 6.00am. (He had just arrived at
1168 # work at 9.00am.)
1169 # W.A. is switching to Summer Time on Nov 17th just to confuse
1170 # everybody again.
1171 
1172 # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
1173 # The 1992 ending date used in the rules is a best guess;
1174 # it matches what was used in the past.
1175 
1176 # The Australian Bureau of Meteorology FAQ
1177 # http://www.bom.gov.au/faq/faqgen.htm
1178 # (1999-09-27) writes that Giles Meteorological Station uses
1179 # South Australian time even though it's located in Western Australia.
1180 
1181 # From Paul Eggert (2018-04-01):
1182 # The Guardian Express of Perth, Australia reported today that the
1183 # government decided to advance the clocks permanently on January 1,
1184 # 2019, from UT +08 to UT +09.  The article noted that an exemption
1185 # would be made for people aged 61 and over, who "can apply in writing
1186 # to have the extra hour of sunshine removed from their area."  See:
1187 # Daylight saving coming to WA in 2019. Guardian Express. 2018-04-01.
1188 # https://www.communitynews.com.au/guardian-express/news/exclusive-daylight-savings-coming-wa-summer-2018/
1189 
1190 # Queensland
1191 
1192 # From Paul Eggert (2018-02-26):
1193 # I lack access to the following source for Queensland DST:
1194 # Pearce C. History of daylight saving time in Queensland.
1195 # Queensland Hist J. 2017 Aug;23(6):389-403
1196 # https://search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=994682348436426;res=IELHSS
1197 
1198 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1199 # #   The state of QUEENSLAND.. [ Courtesy Qld. Dept Premier Econ&Trade Devel ]
1200 # #                                             [ Dec 1990 ]
1201 # ...
1202 # Zone  Australia/Queensland    10:00   AQ      %sST
1203 # ...
1204 # Rule  AQ      1971    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1205 # Rule  AQ      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       E
1206 # Rule  AQ      1989    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1207 # Rule  AQ      1990    max     -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       E
1208 
1209 # From Bradley White (1989-12-24):
1210 # "Australia/Queensland" now observes daylight time (i.e. from
1211 # October 1989).
1212 
1213 # From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1214 # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1215 # ...Queensland...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
1216 # at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...
1217 
1218 # From John Mackin (1991-03-06):
1219 # I can certainly confirm for my part that Daylight Saving in NSW did in fact
1220 # end on Sunday, 3 March.  I don't know at what hour, though.  (It surprised
1221 # me.)
1222 
1223 # From Bradley White (1992-03-08):
1224 # ...there was recently a referendum in Queensland which resulted
1225 # in the experimental daylight saving system being abandoned. So, ...
1226 # ...
1227 # Rule  QLD     1989    1991    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1228 # Rule  QLD     1990    1992    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       S
1229 # ...
1230 
1231 # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
1232 # The chosen rules the union of the 1971/1972 change and the 1989-1992 changes.
1233 
1234 # From Christopher Hunt (2006-11-21), after an advance warning
1235 # from Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-11-01):
1236 # WA are trialing DST for three years.
1237 # http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/parliament/bills.nsf/9A1B183144403DA54825721200088DF1/$File/Bill175-1B.pdf
1238 
1239 # From Rives McDow (2002-04-09):
1240 # The most interesting region I have found consists of three towns on the
1241 # southern coast....  South Australia observes daylight saving time; Western
1242 # Australia does not.  The two states are one and a half hours apart.  The
1243 # residents decided to forget about this nonsense of changing the clock so
1244 # much and set the local time 20 hours and 45 minutes from the
1245 # international date line, or right in the middle of the time of South
1246 # Australia and Western Australia....
1247 #
1248 # From Paul Eggert (2002-04-09):
1249 # This is confirmed by the section entitled
1250 # "What's the deal with time zones???" in
1251 # http://www.earthsci.unimelb.edu.au/~awatkins/null.html
1252 #
1253 # From Alex Livingston (2006-12-07):
1254 # ... it was just on four years ago that I drove along the Eyre Highway,
1255 # which passes through eastern Western Australia close to the southern
1256 # coast of the continent.
1257 #
1258 # I paid particular attention to the time kept there. There can be no
1259 # dispute that UTC+08:45 was considered "the time" from the border
1260 # village just inside the border with South Australia to as far west
1261 # as just east of Caiguna. There can also be no dispute that Eucla is
1262 # the largest population centre in this zone....
1263 #
1264 # Now that Western Australia is observing daylight saving, the
1265 # question arose whether this part of the state would follow suit. I
1266 # just called the border village and confirmed that indeed they have,
1267 # meaning that they are now observing UTC+09:45.
1268 #
1269 # (2006-12-09):
1270 # I personally doubt that either experimentation with daylight saving
1271 # in WA or its introduction in SA had anything to do with the genesis
1272 # of this time zone.  My hunch is that it's been around since well
1273 # before 1975.  I remember seeing it noted on road maps decades ago.
1274 #
1275 # From Gilmore Davidson (2019-04-08):
1276 # https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-04-08/this-remote-stretch-of-desert-has-its-own-custom-time-zone/10981000
1277 # ... include[s] a rough description of the geographical boundaries...
1278 # "The time zone exists for about 340 kilometres and takes in the tiny
1279 # roadhouse communities of Cocklebiddy, Madura, Eucla and Border Village."
1280 # ... and an indication that the zone has definitely been in existence
1281 # since before the 1970 cut-off of the database ...
1282 # From Paul Eggert (2019-05-17):
1283 # That ABC Esperance story by Christien de Garis also says:
1284 #    Although the Central Western Time Zone is not officially recognised (your
1285 #    phones won't automatically change), there is a sign instructing you which
1286 #    way to wind your clocks 45 minutes and scrawled underneath one of them in
1287 #    Texta is the word: 'Why'?
1288 #    "Good question," Mr Pike said.
1289 #    "I don't even know that, and it's been going for over 50 years."
1290 
1291 # From Paul Eggert (2006-12-15):
1292 # For lack of better info, assume the tradition dates back to the
1293 # introduction of standard time in 1895.
1294 
1295 
1296 # southeast Australia
1297 #
1298 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1299 # Starting autumn 2008 Victoria, NSW, South Australia, Tasmania and the ACT
1300 # end DST the first Sunday in April and start DST the first Sunday in October.
1301 # http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/daylight-savings-to-span-six-months/2007/06/27/1182623966703.html
1302 
1303 
1304 # South Australia
1305 
1306 # From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1307 # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1308 # ...South Australia...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
1309 # at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...
1310 
1311 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1312 # #   The state of SOUTH AUSTRALIA....[ Courtesy of S.A. Dept of Labour ]
1313 # #                                             [ Nov 1990 ]
1314 # ...
1315 # Zone  Australia/South         9:30    AS      %sST
1316 # ...
1317 # Rule   AS     1971    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1318 # Rule   AS     1972    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       C
1319 # Rule   AS     1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      3:00    0       C
1320 # Rule   AS     1991    max     -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       C
1321 
1322 # From Bradley White (1992-03-11):
1323 # Recent correspondence with a friend in Adelaide
1324 # contained the following exchange:  "Due to the Adelaide Festival,
1325 # South Australia delays setting back our clocks for a few weeks."
1326 
1327 # From Robert Elz (1992-03-13):
1328 # I heard that apparently (or at least, it appears that)
1329 # South Aus will have an extra 3 weeks daylight saving every even
1330 # numbered year (from 1990).  That's when the Adelaide Festival
1331 # is on...
1332 
1333 # From Robert Elz (1992-03-16, 00:57:07 +1000):
1334 # DST didn't end in Adelaide today (yesterday)....
1335 # But whether it's "4th Sunday" or "2nd last Sunday" I have no idea whatever...
1336 # (it's just as likely to be "the Sunday we pick for this year"...).
1337 
1338 # From Bradley White (1994-04-11):
1339 # If Sun, 15 March, 1992 was at +1030 as kre asserts, but yet Sun, 20 March,
1340 # 1994 was at +0930 as John Connolly's customer seems to assert, then I can
1341 # only conclude that the actual rule is more complicated....
1342 
1343 # From John Warburton (1994-10-07):
1344 # The new Daylight Savings dates for South Australia ...
1345 # was gazetted in the Government Hansard on Sep 26 1994....
1346 # start on last Sunday in October and end in last sunday in March.
1347 
1348 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1349 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1350 
1351 # Tasmania
1352 
1353 # The rules for 1967 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
1354 # via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1355 # #  The state of TASMANIA.. [Courtesy Tasmanian Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
1356 # #                                     [ Nov 1990 ]
1357 
1358 # From Bill Hart via Guy Harris (1991-10-10):
1359 # Oh yes, the new daylight savings rules are uniquely tasmanian, we have
1360 # 6 weeks a year now when we are out of sync with the rest of Australia
1361 # (but nothing new about that).
1362 
1363 # From Alex Livingston (1999-10-04):
1364 # I heard on the ABC (Australian Broadcasting Corporation) radio news on the
1365 # (long) weekend that Tasmania, which usually goes its own way in this regard,
1366 # has decided to join with most of NSW, the ACT, and most of Victoria
1367 # (Australia) and start daylight saving on the last Sunday in August in 2000
1368 # instead of the first Sunday in October.
1369 
1370 # Sim Alam (2000-07-03) reported a legal citation for the 2000/2001 rules:
1371 # http://www.thelaw.tas.gov.au/fragview/42++1968+GS3A@EN+2000070300
1372 
1373 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1374 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1375 
1376 # Victoria
1377 
1378 # The rules for 1971 through 1991 were reported by George Shepherd
1379 # via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1380 # #   The state of VICTORIA.. [ Courtesy of Vic. Dept of Premier + Cabinet ]
1381 # #                                             [ Nov 1990 ]
1382 
1383 # From Scott Harrington (2001-08-29):
1384 # On KQED's "City Arts and Lectures" program last night I heard an
1385 # interesting story about daylight savings time.  Dr. John Heilbron was
1386 # discussing his book "The Sun in the Church: Cathedrals as Solar
1387 # Observatories"[1], and in particular the Shrine of Remembrance[2] located
1388 # in Melbourne, Australia.
1389 #
1390 # Apparently the shrine's main purpose is a beam of sunlight which
1391 # illuminates a special spot on the floor at the 11th hour of the 11th day
1392 # of the 11th month (Remembrance Day) every year in memory of Australia's
1393 # fallen WWI soldiers.  And if you go there on Nov. 11, at 11am local time,
1394 # you will indeed see the sunbeam illuminate the special spot at the
1395 # expected time.
1396 #
1397 # However, that is only because of some special mirror contraption that had
1398 # to be employed, since due to daylight savings time, the true solar time of
1399 # the remembrance moment occurs one hour later (or earlier?).  Perhaps
1400 # someone with more information on this jury-rig can tell us more.
1401 #
1402 # [1] http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog/HEISUN.html
1403 # [2] http://www.shrine.org.au
1404 
1405 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1406 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1407 
1408 # New South Wales
1409 
1410 # From Arthur David Olson:
1411 # New South Wales and subjurisdictions have their own ideas of a fun time.
1412 # Based on law library research by John Mackin,
1413 # who notes:
1414 #       In Australia, time is not legislated federally, but rather by the
1415 #       individual states.  Thus, while such terms as "Eastern Standard Time"
1416 #       [I mean, of course, Australian EST, not any other kind] are in common
1417 #       use, _they have NO REAL MEANING_, as they are not defined in the
1418 #       legislation.  This is very important to understand.
1419 #       I have researched New South Wales time only...
1420 
1421 # From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-26):
1422 # DST will start in NSW on the last Sunday of August, rather than the usual
1423 # October in 2000.  See: Matthew Moore,
1424 # Two months more daylight saving, Sydney Morning Herald (1999-05-26).
1425 # http://www.smh.com.au/news/9905/26/pageone/pageone4.html
1426 
1427 # From Paul Eggert (1999-09-27):
1428 # See the following official NSW source:
1429 # Daylight Saving in New South Wales.
1430 # http://dir.gis.nsw.gov.au/cgi-bin/genobject/document/other/daylightsaving/tigGmZ
1431 #
1432 # Narrabri Shire (NSW) council has announced it will ignore the extension of
1433 # daylight saving next year.  See:
1434 # Narrabri Council to ignore daylight saving
1435 # http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/neweng/monthly/regeng-22jul1999-1.htm
1436 # (1999-07-22).  For now, we'll wait to see if this really happens.
1437 #
1438 # Victoria will follow NSW.  See:
1439 # Vic to extend daylight saving (1999-07-28)
1440 # http://abc.net.au/local/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990728112314_1.htm
1441 #
1442 # However, South Australia rejected the DST request.  See:
1443 # South Australia rejects Olympics daylight savings request (1999-07-19)
1444 # http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/07/item19990719151754_1.htm
1445 #
1446 # Queensland also will not observe DST for the Olympics.  See:
1447 # Qld says no to daylight savings for Olympics
1448 # http://abc.net.au/news/olympics/1999/06/item19990601114608_1.htm
1449 # (1999-06-01), which quotes Queensland Premier Peter Beattie as saying
1450 # "Look you've got to remember in my family when this came up last time
1451 # I voted for it, my wife voted against it and she said to me it's all very
1452 # well for you, you don't have to worry about getting the children out of
1453 # bed, getting them to school, getting them to sleep at night.
1454 # I've been through all this argument domestically...my wife rules."
1455 #
1456 # Broken Hill will stick with South Australian time in 2000.  See:
1457 # Broken Hill to be behind the times (1999-07-21)
1458 # http://abc.net.au/news/regionals/brokenh/monthly/regbrok-21jul1999-6.htm
1459 
1460 # IATA SSIM (1998-09) says that the spring 2000 change for Australian
1461 # Capital Territory, New South Wales except Lord Howe Island and Broken
1462 # Hill, and Victoria will be August 27, presumably due to the Sydney Olympics.
1463 
1464 # From Eric Ulevik, referring to Sydney's Sun Herald (2000-08-13), page 29:
1465 # The Queensland Premier Peter Beattie is encouraging northern NSW
1466 # towns to use Queensland time.
1467 
1468 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1469 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1470 
1471 # Yancowinna
1472 
1473 # From John Mackin (1989-01-04):
1474 # 'Broken Hill' means the County of Yancowinna.
1475 
1476 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1477 # # YANCOWINNA..  [ Confirmation courtesy of Broken Hill Postmaster ]
1478 # #                                     [ Dec 1990 ]
1479 # ...
1480 # # Yancowinna uses Central Standard Time, despite [its] location on the
1481 # # New South Wales side of the S.A. border. Most business and social dealings
1482 # # are with CST zones, therefore CST is legislated by local government
1483 # # although the switch to Summer Time occurs in line with N.S.W. There have
1484 # # been years when this did not apply, but the historical data is not
1485 # # presently available.
1486 # Zone  Australia/Yancowinna    9:30     AY     %sST
1487 # ...
1488 # Rule   AY     1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1489 # Rule   AY     1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       C
1490 # [followed by other Rules]
1491 
1492 # Lord Howe Island
1493 
1494 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1495 # LHI...                [ Courtesy of Pauline Van Winsen ]
1496 #                                       [ Dec 1990 ]
1497 # Lord Howe Island is located off the New South Wales coast, and is half an
1498 # hour ahead of NSW time.
1499 
1500 # From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-01-27):
1501 # Lord Howe Island summer time in 2000/2001 will commence on the same
1502 # date as the rest of NSW (i.e. 2000-08-27).  For your information the
1503 # Lord Howe Island Board (controlling authority for the Island) is
1504 # seeking the community's views on various options for summer time
1505 # arrangements on the Island, e.g. advance clocks by 1 full hour
1506 # instead of only 30 minutes.  [Dependent] on the wishes of residents
1507 # the Board may approach the NSW government to change the existing
1508 # arrangements.  The starting date for summer time on the Island will
1509 # however always coincide with the rest of NSW.
1510 
1511 # From James Lonergan, Secretary, Lord Howe Island Board (2000-10-25):
1512 # Lord Howe Island advances clocks by 30 minutes during DST in NSW and retards
1513 # clocks by 30 minutes when DST finishes. Since DST was most recently
1514 # introduced in NSW, the "changeover" time on the Island has been 02:00 as
1515 # shown on clocks on LHI. I guess this means that for 30 minutes at the start
1516 # of DST, LHI is actually 1 hour ahead of the rest of NSW.
1517 
1518 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1519 # For Lord Howe dates we use Shanks & Pottenger through 1989, and
1520 # Lonergan thereafter.  For times we use Lonergan.
1521 
1522 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1523 # See "southeast Australia" above for 2008 and later.
1524 
1525 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-28):
1526 # According to the official press release, South Australia's extended daylight
1527 # saving period will continue with the same rules as used during the 2008-2009
1528 # summer (southern hemisphere).
1529 #
1530 # From
1531 # http://www.safework.sa.gov.au/uploaded_files/DaylightDatesSet.pdf
1532 # The extended daylight saving period that South Australia has been trialling
1533 # for over the last year is now set to be ongoing.
1534 # Daylight saving will continue to start on the first Sunday in October each
1535 # year and finish on the first Sunday in April the following year.
1536 # Industrial Relations Minister, Paul Caica, says this provides South Australia
1537 # with a consistent half hour time difference with NSW, Victoria, Tasmania and
1538 # the ACT for all 52 weeks of the year...
1539 #
1540 # We have a wrap-up here:
1541 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/south-australia-extends-dst.html
1542 ###############################################################################
1543 
1544 # New Zealand
1545 
1546 # From Mark Davies (1990-10-03):
1547 # the 1989/90 year was a trial of an extended "daylight saving" period.
1548 # This trial was deemed successful and the extended period adopted for
1549 # subsequent years (with the addition of a further week at the start).
1550 # source - phone call to Ministry of Internal Affairs Head Office.
1551 
1552 # From George Shepherd via Simon Woodhead via Robert Elz (1991-03-06):
1553 # # The Country of New Zealand   (Australia's east island -) Gee they hate that!
1554 # #                                or is Australia the west island of N.Z.
1555 # #     [ courtesy of Geoff Tribble.. Auckland N.Z. ]
1556 # #                             [ Nov 1990 ]
1557 # ...
1558 # Rule  NZ      1974    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1559 # Rule  NZ      1989    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1560 # Rule  NZ      1975    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       S
1561 # Rule  NZ      1990    max     -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    0       S
1562 # ...
1563 # Zone  NZ                      12:00   NZ              NZ%sT   # New Zealand
1564 # Zone  NZ-CHAT                 12:45   -               NZ-CHAT # Chatham Island
1565 
1566 # From Arthur David Olson (1992-03-08):
1567 # The chosen rules use the Davies October 8 values for the start of DST in 1989
1568 # rather than the October 1 value.
1569 
1570 # From Paul Eggert (1995-12-19);
1571 # Shank & Pottenger report 2:00 for all autumn changes in Australia and NZ.
1572 # Robert Uzgalis writes that the New Zealand Daylight
1573 # Savings Time Order in Council dated 1990-06-18 specifies 2:00 standard
1574 # time on both the first Sunday in October and the third Sunday in March.
1575 # As with Australia, we'll assume the tradition is 2:00s, not 2:00.
1576 #
1577 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1578 # The Department of Internal Affairs (DIA) maintains a brief history,
1579 # as does Carol Squires; see tz-link.html for the full references.
1580 # Use these sources in preference to Shanks & Pottenger.
1581 #
1582 # For Chatham, IATA SSIM (1991/1999) gives the NZ rules but with
1583 # transitions at 2:45 local standard time; this confirms that Chatham
1584 # is always exactly 45 minutes ahead of Auckland.
1585 
1586 # From Colin Sharples (2007-04-30):
1587 # DST will now start on the last Sunday in September, and end on the
1588 # first Sunday in April.  The changes take effect this year, meaning
1589 # that DST will begin on 2007-09-30 2008-04-06.
1590 # http://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/wpg_URL/Services-Daylight-Saving-Daylight-saving-to-be-extended
1591 
1592 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-14):
1593 # Chatham Island time was formally standardized on 1957-01-01 by
1594 # New Zealand's Standard Time Amendment Act 1956 (1956-10-26).
1595 # https://www.austlii.edu.au/nz/legis/hist_act/staa19561956n100244.pdf
1596 # According to Google Books snippet view, a speaker in the New Zealand
1597 # parliamentary debates in 1956 said "Clause 78 makes provision for standard
1598 # time in the Chatham Islands.  The time there is 45 minutes in advance of New
1599 # Zealand time.  I understand that is the time they keep locally, anyhow."
1600 # For now, assume this practice goes back to the introduction of standard time
1601 # in New Zealand, as this would make Chatham Islands time almost exactly match
1602 # LMT back when New Zealand was at UT +11:30; also, assume Chatham Islands did
1603 # not observe New Zealand's prewar DST.
1604 
1605 ###############################################################################
1606 
1607 
1608 # Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands and Marcus Island (Minami-Tori-shima)
1609 
1610 # From Wakaba (2019-01-28) via Phake Nick:
1611 # National Diet Library of Japan has several reports by Japanese Government
1612 # officers that describe the time used in islands when they visited there.
1613 # According to them (and other sources such as newspapers), standard time UTC
1614 # + 10 (JST + 1) and DST UTC + 11 (JST + 2) was used until its return to Japan
1615 # at 1968-06-26 00:00 JST.  The exact periods of DST are still unknown.
1616 # I guessed Guam, Mariana, and Bonin and Marcus districts might have
1617 # synchronized their DST periods, but reports imply they had their own
1618 # decisions, i.e. there were three or more different time zones....
1619 #
1620 # https://wiki.suikawiki.org/n/小笠原諸島の標準時
1621 
1622 # From Phake Nick (2019-02-12):
1623 # Because their last time change to return to Japanese time when they returned
1624 # to Japanese rule was right before 1970, ... per the current tz database
1625 # rule, the information doesn't warrant creation of a new timezone for Bonin
1626 # Islands itself and is thus as an anecdotal note for interest purpose only.
1627 # ... [The abovementioned link] described some special timekeeping phenomenon
1628 # regarding Marcus island, another remote island currently owned by Japanese
1629 # in the same administrative unit as Bonin Islands.  Many reports claim that
1630 # the American coastal guard on the American quarter of the island use its own
1631 # coastal guard time, and most sources describe the time as UTC+11, being two
1632 # hours faster than JST used by some Japanese personnel on the island.  Some
1633 # sites describe it as same as Wake Island/Guam time although it would be
1634 # incorrect to be same as Guam.  And then in a few Japanese governmental
1635 # report from 1980s (from National Institute of Information and Communications
1636 # Technology) regarding the construction of VLBI facility on the Marcus
1637 # Island, it claimed that there are three time standards being used on the
1638 # island at the time which include not just JST (UTC+9) or [US]CG time
1639 # (UTC+11) but also a JMSDF time (UTC+10) (Japan Maritime Self-Defense
1640 # Force).  Unfortunately there are no other sources that mentioned such time
1641 # and there are also no information on things like how the time was used.
1642 
1643 
1644 # Fiji
1645 
1646 # Howse writes (p 153) that in 1879 the British governor of Fiji
1647 # enacted an ordinance standardizing the islands on Antipodean Time
1648 # instead of the American system (which was one day behind).
1649 
1650 # From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):
1651 # Fiji will introduce DST effective 0200 local time, 1998-11-01
1652 # until 0300 local time 1999-02-28.  Each year the DST period will
1653 # be from the first Sunday in November until the last Sunday in February.
1654 
1655 # From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08):
1656 # IATA SSIM (1999-09) says DST ends 0100 local time.  Go with McDow.
1657 
1658 # From the BBC World Service in
1659 # http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/205226.stm (1998-10-31 16:03 UTC):
1660 # The Fijian government says the main reasons for the time change is to
1661 # improve productivity and reduce road accidents.... [T]he move is also
1662 # intended to boost Fiji's ability to attract tourists to witness the dawning
1663 # of the new millennium.
1664 
1665 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/press/2000_09/2000_09_13-05.shtml (2000-09-13)
1666 # reports that Fiji has discontinued DST.
1667 
1668 
1669 # Kiribati
1670 
1671 # From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
1672 # Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati
1673 # "declared it the same day [throughout] the country as of Jan. 1, 1995"
1674 # as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century.
1675 
1676 # From Kerry Shetline (2018-02-03):
1677 # December 31 was the day that was skipped, so that the transition
1678 # would be from Friday December 30, 1994 to Sunday January 1, 1995.
1679 # From Paul Eggert (2018-02-04):
1680 # One source for this is page 202 of: Bartky IR. One Time Fits All:
1681 # The Campaigns for Global Uniformity (2007).
1682 
1683 # Kwajalein
1684 
1685 # From an AP article (1993-08-22):
1686 # "The nearly 3,000 Americans living on this remote Pacific atoll have a good
1687 # excuse for not remembering Saturday night: there wasn't one.  Residents were
1688 # going to bed Friday night and waking up Sunday morning because at midnight
1689 # -- 8 A.M. Eastern daylight time on Saturday -- Kwajalein was jumping from
1690 # one side of the international date line to the other."
1691 # "In Marshall Islands, Friday is followed by Sunday", NY Times. 1993-08-22.
1692 # https://www.nytimes.com/1993/08/22/world/in-marshall-islands-friday-is-followed-by-sunday.html
1693 
1694 # From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
1695 # <https://wiki.suikawiki.org/n/南洋群島の標準時> ... pointed out that
1696 # currently tzdata say Pacific/Kwajalein switched from GMT+11 to GMT-12 in
1697 # 1969 October without explanation, however an 1993 article from NYT say it
1698 # synchorized its day with US mainland about 40 years ago and thus the switch
1699 # should occur at around 1950s instead.
1700 #
1701 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
1702 # The NYT (actually, AP) article is vague and possibly wrong about this.
1703 # The article says the earlier switch was "40 years ago when the United States
1704 # Army established a missile test range here".  However, the Kwajalein Test
1705 # Center was established on 1960-10-01 and was run by the US Navy.  It was
1706 # transferred to the US Army on 1964-07-01.  See "Seize the High Ground"
1707 # <https://history.army.mil/html/books/070/70-88-1/cmhPub_70-88-1.pdf>.
1708 # Given that Shanks was right on the money about the 1993 change, I'm inclined
1709 # to take Shanks's word for the 1969 change unless we find better evidence.
1710 
1711 
1712 # N Mariana Is, Guam
1713 
1714 # From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
1715 # Guam Island was briefly annexed by Japan during ... year 1941-1944 ...
1716 # however there are no detailed information about what time it use during that
1717 # period.  It would probably be reasonable to assume Guam use GMT+9 during
1718 # that period of time like the surrounding area.
1719 
1720 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
1721 # Howse writes (p 153) "The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the
1722 # Philippines and the Ladrones from America," and implies that the Ladrones
1723 # (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time.
1724 # For now, we assume the Ladrones switched at the same time as the Philippines;
1725 # see Asia/Manila.
1726 #
1727 # Use 1941-12-10 and 1944-07-31 for Guam WWII transitions, as the rough start
1728 # and end of Japanese control of Agana.  We don't know whether the Northern
1729 # Marianas followed Guam's DST rules from 1959 through 1977; for now, assume
1730 # they did as that avoids the need for a separate zone due to our 1970 cutoff.
1731 #
1732 # US Public Law 106-564 (2000-12-23) made UT +10 the official standard time,
1733 # under the name "Chamorro Standard Time".  There is no official abbreviation,
1734 # but Congressman Robert A. Underwood, author of the bill that became law,
1735 # wrote in a press release (2000-12-27) that he will seek the use of "ChST".
1736 
1737 # See also the commentary for Micronesia.
1738 
1739 
1740 # Marshall Is
1741 # See the commentary for Micronesia.
1742 
1743 
1744 # Micronesia (and nearby)
1745 
1746 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
1747 # Like the Ladrones (see Guam commentary), assume the Spanish East Indies
1748 # kept American time until the Philippines switched at the end of 1844.
1749 
1750 # Alan Eugene Davis writes (1996-03-16),
1751 # "I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that 'Truk'
1752 # (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10."
1753 #
1754 # Shanks & Pottenger write that Truk switched from UT +10 to +11
1755 # on 1978-10-01; ignore this for now.
1756 
1757 # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29):
1758 # The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in
1759 # The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information (1999-01-26)
1760 # http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html
1761 # that Truk and Yap are UT +10, and Ponape and Kosrae are +11.
1762 # We don't know when Kosrae switched from +12; assume January 1 for now.
1763 
1764 # From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
1765 #
1766 # From a Japanese wiki site https://wiki.suikawiki.org/n/南洋群島の標準時
1767 # ...
1768 # For "Southern Islands" (modern region of Mariana + Palau + Federation of
1769 # Micronesia + Marshall Islands):
1770 #
1771 # A 1906 Japanese magazine shown the Caroline Islands and Mariana Islands
1772 # who was occupied by Germany at the time as GMT+10, together with the like
1773 # of German New Guinea.  However there is a marking saying it have not been
1774 # implemented (yet).  No further information after that were found.
1775 #
1776 # Japan invaded those islands in 1914, and records shows that they were
1777 # instructed to use JST at the time.
1778 #
1779 # 1915 January telecommunication record on the Jaluit Atoll shows they use
1780 # the meridian of 170E as standard time (GMT+11:20), which is similar to the
1781 # longitude of the atoll.
1782 # 1915 February record say the 170E standard time is to be used until
1783 # February 9 noon, and after February 9 noon they are to use JST.
1784 # However these are time used within the Japanese Military at the time and
1785 # probably does not reflect the time used by local resident at the time (that
1786 # is if they keep their own time back then)
1787 #
1788 # In January 1919 the occupying force issued a command that split the area
1789 # into three different timezone with meridian of 135E, 150E, 165E (JST+0, +1,
1790 # +2), and the command was to become effective from February 1 of the same
1791 # year.  Despite the target of the command is still only for the occupying
1792 # force itself, further publication have described the time as the standard
1793 # time for the occupied area and thus it can probably be seen as such.
1794 #  * Area that use meridian of 135E: Palau and Yap civil administration area
1795 #    (Southern Islands Western Standard Time)
1796 #  * Area that use meridian of 150E: Truk (Chuuk) and Saipan civil
1797 #    administration area (Southern Islands Central Standard Time)
1798 #  * Area that use meridian of 165E: Ponape (Pohnpei) and Jaluit civil
1799 #    administration area (Southern Islands Eastern Standard Time).
1800 #  * In the next few years Japanese occupation of those islands have been
1801 #    formalized via League of Nation Mandate (South Pacific Mandate) and formal
1802 #    governance structure have been established, these district [become
1803 #    subprefectures] and timezone classification have been inherited as standard
1804 #    time of the area.
1805 #  * Saipan subprefecture include Mariana islands (exclude Guam which was
1806 #    occupied by America at the time), Palau and Yap subprefecture rule the
1807 #    Western Caroline Islands with 137E longitude as border, Truk and Ponape
1808 #    subprefecture rule the Eastern Caroline Islands with 154E as border, Ponape
1809 #    subprefecture also rule part of Marshall Islands to the west of 164E
1810 #    starting from (1918?) and Jaluit subprefecture rule the rest of the
1811 #    Marshall Islands.
1812 #
1813 # And then in year 1937, an announcement was made to change the time in the
1814 # area into 2 timezones:
1815 #  * Area that use meridian of 135E: area administered by Palau, Yap and
1816 #    Saipan subprefecture (Southern Islands Western Standard Time)
1817 #  * Area that use meridian of 150E: area administered by Truk (Chuuk),
1818 #    Ponape (Pohnpei) and Jaluit subprefecture (Southern Islands Eastern
1819 #    Standard Time)
1820 #
1821 # Another announcement issued in 1941 say that on April 1 that year,
1822 # standard time of the Southern Islands would be changed to use the meridian
1823 # of 135E (GMT+9), and thus abolishing timezone different within the area.
1824 #
1825 # Then Pacific theater of WWII started and Japan slowly lose control on the
1826 # island.  The webpage I linked above contain no information during this
1827 # period of time....
1828 #
1829 # After the end of WWII, in 1946 February, a document written by the
1830 # (former?) Japanese military personnel describe there are 3 hours time
1831 # different between Caroline islands time/Wake island time and the Chungking
1832 # time, which would mean the time being used there at the time was GMT+10.
1833 #
1834 # After that, the area become Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands
1835 # under American administration from year 1947.  The site listed some
1836 # American/International books/maps/publications about time used in those
1837 # area during this period of time but they doesn't seems to be reliable
1838 # information so it would be the best if someone know where can more reliable
1839 # information can be found.
1840 #
1841 #
1842 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
1843 #
1844 # For the above, use vague dates like "1914" and "1945" for transitions that
1845 # plausibly exist but for which the details are not known.  The information
1846 # for Wake is too sketchy to act on.
1847 #
1848 # The 1906 GMT+10 info about German-controlled islands might not have been
1849 # done, so omit it from the data for now.
1850 #
1851 # The Jaluit info governs Kwajalein.
1852 
1853 
1854 # Midway
1855 
1856 # From Charles T O'Connor, KMTH DJ (1956),
1857 # quoted in the KTMH section of the Radio Heritage Collection
1858 # <http://radiodx.com/spdxr/KMTH.htm> (2002-12-31):
1859 # For the past two months we've been on what is known as Daylight
1860 # Saving Time.  This time has put us on air at 5am in the morning,
1861 # your time down there in New Zealand.  Starting September 2, 1956
1862 # we'll again go back to Standard Time.  This'll mean that we'll go to
1863 # air at 6am your time.
1864 #
1865 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1866 # We don't know the date of that quote, but we'll guess they
1867 # started DST on June 3.  Possibly DST was observed other years
1868 # in Midway, but we have no record of it.
1869 
1870 # Nauru
1871 
1872 # From Phake Nick (2018-10-31):
1873 # Currently, the tz database say Nauru use LMT until 1921, and then
1874 # switched to GMT+11:30 for the next two decades.
1875 # However, a number of timezone map published in America/Japan back then
1876 # showed its timezone as GMT+11 per https://wiki.suikawiki.org/n/ナウルの標準時
1877 # And it would also be nice if the 1921 transition date could be sourced.
1878 # ...
1879 # The "Nauru Standard Time Act 1978 Time Change"
1880 # http://ronlaw.gov.nr/nauru_lpms/files/gazettes/4b23a17d2030150404db7a5fa5872f52.pdf#page=3
1881 # based on "Nauru Standard Time Act 1978 Time Change"
1882 # http://www.paclii.org/nr/legis/num_act/nsta1978207/ defined that "Nauru
1883 # Alternative Time" (GMT+12) should be in effect from 1979 Feb.
1884 #
1885 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-19):
1886 # The 1921-01-15 introduction of standard time is in Shanks; it is also in
1887 # "Standard Time Throughout the World", US National Bureau of Standards (1935),
1888 # page 3, which does not give the UT offset.  In response to a comment by
1889 # Phake Nick I set the Nauru time of occupation by Japan to
1890 # 1942-08-29/1945-09-08 by using dates from:
1891 # https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_occupation_of_Nauru
1892 
1893 # Norfolk
1894 
1895 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2015-09-23):
1896 # Norfolk Island will change ... from +1130 to +1100:
1897 # https://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2015L01483/Explanatory%20Statement/Text
1898 # ... at 12.30 am (by legal time in New South Wales) on 4 October 2015.
1899 # http://www.norfolkisland.gov.nf/nia/MediaRelease/Media%20Release%20Norfolk%20Island%20Standard%20Time%20Change.pdf
1900 
1901 # From Paul Eggert (2015-09-23):
1902 # Transitions before 2015 are from timeanddate.com, which consulted
1903 # the Norfolk Island Museum and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's
1904 # Norfolk Island station, and found no record of Norfolk observing DST
1905 # other than in 1974/5.  See:
1906 # https://www.timeanddate.com/time/australia/norfolk-island.html
1907 
1908 # Palau
1909 # See commentary for Micronesia.
1910 
1911 # Pitcairn
1912 
1913 # From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):
1914 # A Proclamation was signed by the Governor of Pitcairn on the 27th March 1998
1915 # with regard to Pitcairn Standard Time.  The Proclamation is as follows.
1916 #
1917 #       The local time for general purposes in the Islands shall be
1918 #       Co-ordinated Universal time minus 8 hours and shall be known
1919 #       as Pitcairn Standard Time.
1920 #
1921 # ... I have also seen Pitcairn listed as UTC minus 9 hours in several
1922 # references, and can only assume that this was an error in interpretation
1923 # somehow in light of this proclamation.
1924 
1925 # From Rives McDow (1999-11-09):
1926 # The Proclamation regarding Pitcairn time came into effect on 27 April 1998
1927 # ... at midnight.
1928 
1929 # From Howie Phelps (1999-11-10), who talked to a Pitcairner via shortwave:
1930 # Betty Christian told me yesterday that their local time is the same as
1931 # Pacific Standard Time. They used to be ½ hour different from us here in
1932 # Sacramento but it was changed a couple of years ago.
1933 
1934 
1935 # (Western) Samoa and American Samoa
1936 
1937 # Howse writes (p 153) that after the 1879 standardization on Antipodean
1938 # time by the British governor of Fiji, the King of Samoa decided to change
1939 # "the date in his kingdom from the Antipodean to the American system,
1940 # ordaining - by a masterpiece of diplomatic flattery - that
1941 # the Fourth of July should be celebrated twice in that year."
1942 # This happened in 1892, according to the Evening News (Sydney) of 1892-07-20.
1943 # https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/idl/idl.htm
1944 
1945 # Although Shanks & Pottenger says they both switched to UT -11:30
1946 # in 1911, and to -11 in 1950. many earlier sources give -11
1947 # for American Samoa, e.g., the US National Bureau of Standards
1948 # circular "Standard Time Throughout the World", 1932.
1949 # Assume American Samoa switched to -11 in 1911, not 1950,
1950 # and that after 1950 they agreed until (western) Samoa skipped a
1951 # day in 2011.  Assume also that the Samoas follow the US and New
1952 # Zealand's "ST"/"DT" style of daylight-saving abbreviations.
1953 
1954 
1955 # Tonga
1956 
1957 # From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
1958 # Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (p 1) reports that "Tonga has been plotting
1959 # to sneak ahead of [New Zealanders] by introducing daylight-saving time."
1960 # Since Kiribati has moved the Date Line it's not clear what Tonga will do.
1961 
1962 # Don Mundell writes in the 1997-02-20 Tonga Chronicle
1963 # How Tonga became 'The Land where Time Begins':
1964 # http://www.tongatapu.net.to/tonga/homeland/timebegins.htm
1965 #
1966 # Until 1941 Tonga maintained a standard time 50 minutes ahead of NZST
1967 # 12 hours and 20 minutes ahead of GMT.  When New Zealand adjusted its
1968 # standard time in 1940s, Tonga had the choice of subtracting from its
1969 # local time to come on the same standard time as New Zealand or of
1970 # advancing its time to maintain the differential of 13°
1971 # (approximately 50 minutes ahead of New Zealand time).
1972 #
1973 # Because His Majesty King Tāufaʻāhau Tupou IV, then Crown Prince
1974 # Tungī, preferred to ensure Tonga's title as the land where time
1975 # begins, the Legislative Assembly approved the latter change.
1976 #
1977 # But some of the older, more conservative members from the outer
1978 # islands objected. "If at midnight on Dec. 31, we move ahead 40
1979 # minutes, as your Royal Highness wishes, what becomes of the 40
1980 # minutes we have lost?"
1981 #
1982 # The Crown Prince, presented an unanswerable argument: "Remember that
1983 # on the World Day of Prayer, you would be the first people on Earth
1984 # to say your prayers in the morning."
1985 
1986 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1987 # Shanks & Pottenger say the transition was on 1968-10-01; go with Mundell.
1988 
1989 # From Eric Ulevik (1999-05-03):
1990 # Tonga's director of tourism, who is also secretary of the National Millennium
1991 # Committee, has a plan to get Tonga back in front.
1992 # He has proposed a one-off move to tropical daylight saving for Tonga from
1993 # October to March, which has won approval in principle from the Tongan
1994 # Government.
1995 
1996 # From Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
1997 # * Tonga will introduce DST in November
1998 #
1999 # I was given this link by John Letts:
2000 # http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/asia-pacific/newsid_424000/424764.stm
2001 #
2002 # I have not been able to find exact dates for the transition in November
2003 # yet. By reading this article it seems like Fiji will be 14 hours ahead
2004 # of UTC as well, but as far as I know Fiji will only be 13 hours ahead
2005 # (12 + 1 hour DST).
2006 
2007 # From Arthur David Olson (1999-09-20):
2008 # According to <http://www.tongaonline.com/news/sept1799.html>:
2009 # "Daylight Savings Time will take effect on Oct. 2 through April 15, 2000
2010 # and annually thereafter from the first Saturday in October through the
2011 # third Saturday of April.  Under the system approved by Privy Council on
2012 # Sept. 10, clocks must be turned ahead one hour on the opening day and
2013 # set back an hour on the closing date."
2014 # Alas, no indication of the time of day.
2015 
2016 # From Rives McDow (1999-10-06):
2017 # Tonga started its Daylight Saving on Saturday morning October 2nd at 0200am.
2018 # Daylight Saving ends on April 16 at 0300am which is Sunday morning.
2019 
2020 # From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-31):
2021 # Back in March I found a notice on the website http://www.tongaonline.com
2022 # that Tonga changed back to standard time one month early, on March 19
2023 # instead of the original reported date April 16. Unfortunately, the article
2024 # is no longer available on the site, and I did not make a copy of the
2025 # text, and I have forgotten to report it here.
2026 # (Original URL was <http://www.tongaonline.com/news/march162000.htm>)
2027 
2028 # From Rives McDow (2000-12-01):
2029 # Tonga is observing DST as of 2000-11-04 and will stop on 2001-01-27.
2030 
2031 # From Sione Moala-Mafi (2001-09-20) via Rives McDow:
2032 # At 2:00am on the first Sunday of November, the standard time in the Kingdom
2033 # shall be moved forward by one hour to 3:00am.  At 2:00am on the last Sunday
2034 # of January the standard time in the Kingdom shall be moved backward by one
2035 # hour to 1:00am.
2036 
2037 # From Pulu ʻAnau (2002-11-05):
2038 # The law was for 3 years, supposedly to get renewed.  It wasn't.
2039 
2040 # From Pulu ʻAnau (2016-10-27):
2041 # http://mic.gov.to/news-today/press-releases/6375-daylight-saving-set-to-run-from-6-november-2016-to-15-january-2017
2042 # Cannot find anyone who knows the rules, has seen the duration or has seen
2043 # the cabinet decision, but it appears we are following Fiji's rule set.
2044 #
2045 # From Tim Parenti (2016-10-26):
2046 # Assume Tonga will observe DST from the first Sunday in November at 02:00
2047 # through the third Sunday in January at 03:00, like Fiji, for now.
2048 
2049 # From David Wade (2017-10-18):
2050 # In August government was disolved by the King.  The current prime minister
2051 # continued in office in care taker mode.  It is easy to see that few
2052 # decisions will be made until elections 16th November.
2053 #
2054 # From Paul Eggert (2017-10-18):
2055 # For now, guess that DST is discontinued.  That's what the IATA is guessing.
2056 
2057 
2058 # Wake
2059 
2060 # From Vernice Anderson, Personal Secretary to Philip Jessup,
2061 # US Ambassador At Large (oral history interview, 1971-02-02):
2062 #
2063 # Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] - ...  The time was all the
2064 # more confusing at that point, because we had crossed the
2065 # International Date Line, thus getting two Sundays.  Furthermore, we
2066 # discovered that Wake Island had two hours of daylight saving time
2067 # making calculation of time in Washington difficult if not almost
2068 # impossible.
2069 #
2070 # https://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/andrsonv.htm
2071 
2072 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
2073 # We have no other report of DST in Wake Island, so omit this info for now.
2074 
2075 # See also the commentary for Micronesia.
2076 
2077 
2078 ###############################################################################
2079 
2080 # The International Date Line
2081 
2082 # From Gwillim Law (2000-01-03):
2083 #
2084 # The International Date Line is not defined by any international standard,
2085 # convention, or treaty.  Mapmakers are free to draw it as they please.
2086 # Reputable mapmakers will simply ensure that every point of land appears on
2087 # the correct side of the IDL, according to the date legally observed there.
2088 #
2089 # When Kiribati adopted a uniform date in 1995, thereby moving the Phoenix and
2090 # Line Islands to the west side of the IDL (or, if you prefer, moving the IDL
2091 # to the east side of the Phoenix and Line Islands), I suppose that most
2092 # mapmakers redrew the IDL following the boundary of Kiribati.  Even that line
2093 # has a rather arbitrary nature.  The straight-line boundaries between Pacific
2094 # island nations that are shown on many maps are based on an international
2095 # convention, but are not legally binding national borders.... The date is
2096 # governed by the IDL; therefore, even on the high seas, there may be some
2097 # places as late as fourteen hours later than UTC.  And, since the IDL is not
2098 # an international standard, there are some places on the high seas where the
2099 # correct date is ambiguous.
2100 
2101 # From Wikipedia <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_zone> (2005-08-31):
2102 # Before 1920, all ships kept local apparent time on the high seas by setting
2103 # their clocks at night or at the morning sight so that, given the ship's
2104 # speed and direction, it would be 12 o'clock when the Sun crossed the ship's
2105 # meridian (12 o'clock = local apparent noon).  During 1917, at the
2106 # Anglo-French Conference on Time-keeping at Sea, it was recommended that all
2107 # ships, both military and civilian, should adopt hourly standard time zones
2108 # on the high seas.  Whenever a ship was within the territorial waters of any
2109 # nation it would use that nation's standard time.  The captain was permitted
2110 # to change his ship's clocks at a time of his choice following his ship's
2111 # entry into another zone time - he often chose midnight.  These zones were
2112 # adopted by all major fleets between 1920 and 1925 but not by many
2113 # independent merchant ships until World War II.
2114 
2115 # From Paul Eggert, using references suggested by Oscar van Vlijmen
2116 # (2005-03-20):
2117 #
2118 # The American Practical Navigator (2002)
2119 # http://pollux.nss.nima.mil/pubs/pubs_j_apn_sections.html?rid=187
2120 # talks only about the 180-degree meridian with respect to ships in
2121 # international waters; it ignores the international date line.