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@@ -46,11 +46,11 @@
 Rule    Aus     1943    only    -       Oct      3      2:00    1:00    D
 # Go with Whitman and the Australian National Standards Commission, which
 # says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944.  Ignore Whitman's claim that
 # 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944.
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 # Northern Territory
 Zone Australia/Darwin    8:43:20 -      LMT     1895 Feb
                          9:00   -       ACST    1899 May
                          9:30   Aus     AC%sT
 # Western Australia

@@ -123,11 +123,11 @@
 Rule    AS      1995    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 Rule    AS      2006    only    -       Apr     2       2:00s   0       S
 Rule    AS      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 Rule    AS      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S
 Rule    AS      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    D
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone Australia/Adelaide 9:14:20 -       LMT     1895 Feb
                         9:00    -       ACST    1899 May
                         9:30    Aus     AC%sT   1971
                         9:30    AS      AC%sT
 

@@ -155,11 +155,11 @@
 Rule    AT      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 Rule    AT      2001    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    D
 Rule    AT      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S
 Rule    AT      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 Rule    AT      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone Australia/Hobart   9:49:16 -       LMT     1895 Sep
                         10:00   -       AEST    1916 Oct  1  2:00
                         10:00   1:00    AEDT    1917 Feb
                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1967
                         10:00   AT      AE%sT

@@ -183,11 +183,11 @@
 Rule    AV      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 Rule    AV      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S
 Rule    AV      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 Rule    AV      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S
 Rule    AV      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    D
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 -      LMT     1895 Feb
                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971
                         10:00   AV      AE%sT
 
 # New South Wales

@@ -206,11 +206,11 @@
 Rule    AN      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 Rule    AN      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S
 Rule    AN      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 Rule    AN      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S
 Rule    AN      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   1:00    D
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone Australia/Sydney   10:04:52 -      LMT     1895 Feb
                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971
                         10:00   AN      AE%sT
 Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 -    LMT     1895 Feb
                         10:00   -       AEST    1896 Aug 23

@@ -277,18 +277,18 @@
                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1967
                         10:00   AT      AE%sT   2010 Apr  4  3:00
                         11:00   -       +11
 
 # Christmas
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone Indian/Christmas   7:02:52 -       LMT     1895 Feb
                         7:00    -       +07
 
 # Cocos (Keeling) Is
 # These islands were ruled by the Ross family from about 1830 to 1978.
 # We don't know when standard time was introduced; for now, we guess 1900.
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Indian/Cocos    6:27:40 -       LMT     1900
                         6:30    -       +0630
 
 
 # Fiji

@@ -407,69 +407,35 @@
 Rule    Fiji    2011    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1  3:00    0       -
 Rule    Fiji    2012    2013    -       Jan     Sun>=18 3:00    0       -
 Rule    Fiji    2014    only    -       Jan     Sun>=18 2:00    0       -
 Rule    Fiji    2014    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    -
 Rule    Fiji    2015    max     -       Jan     Sun>=13 3:00    0       -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Pacific/Fiji    11:55:44 -      LMT     1915 Oct 26 # Suva
                         12:00   Fiji    +12/+13
 
 # French Polynesia
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Pacific/Gambier  -8:59:48 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Rikitea
                          -9:00  -       -09
 Zone    Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 -    LMT     1912 Oct
                          -9:30  -       -0930
 Zone    Pacific/Tahiti   -9:58:16 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Papeete
                         -10:00  -       -10
 # Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia;
 # it is uninhabited.
 
 # Guam
-
-# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
-# http://guamlegislature.com/Public_Laws_5th/PL05-025.pdf
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-59-7-Guam-Daylight-Savings-Time-May-6-1959.pdf
-Rule    Guam    1959    only    -       Jun     27      2:00    1:00    D
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-61-5-Revocation-of-Daylight-Saving-Time-and-Restoratio.pdf
-Rule    Guam    1961    only    -       Jan     29      2:00    0       S
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-67-13-Guam-Daylight-Savings-Time.pdf
-Rule    Guam    1967    only    -       Sep      1      2:00    1:00    D
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-69-2-Repeal-of-Guam-Daylight-Saving-Time.pdf
-Rule    Guam    1969    only    -       Jan     26      0:01    0       S
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-69-10-Guam-Daylight-Saving-Time.pdf
-Rule    Guam    1969    only    -       Jun     22      2:00    1:00    D
-Rule    Guam    1969    only    -       Aug     31      2:00    0       S
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-70-10-Guam-Daylight-Saving-Time.pdf
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-70-30-End-of-Guam-Daylight-Saving-Time.pdf
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-71-5-Guam-Daylight-Savings-Time.pdf
-Rule    Guam    1970    1971    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
-Rule    Guam    1970    1971    -       Sep     Sun>=1  2:00    0       S
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-73-28.-Guam-Day-light-Saving-Time.pdf
-Rule    Guam    1973    only    -       Dec     16      2:00    1:00    D
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-74-7-Guam-Daylight-Savings-Time-Rescinded.pdf
-Rule    Guam    1974    only    -       Feb     24      2:00    0       S
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-76-13-Daylight-Savings-Time.pdf
-Rule    Guam    1976    only    -       May     26      2:00    1:00    D
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-76-25-Revocation-of-E.O.-76-13.pdf
-Rule    Guam    1976    only    -       Aug     22      2:01    0       S
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-77-4-Daylight-Savings-Time.pdf
-Rule    Guam    1977    only    -       Apr     24      2:00    1:00    D
-# http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-77-18-Guam-Standard-Time.pdf
-Rule    Guam    1977    only    -       Aug     28      2:00    0       S
-
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Pacific/Guam    -14:21:00 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
                          9:39:00 -      LMT     1901        # Agana
-                        10:00   -       GST     1941 Dec 10 # Guam
-                         9:00   -       +09     1944 Jul 31
-                        10:00   Guam    G%sT    2000 Dec 23
+                        10:00   -       GST     2000 Dec 23 # Guam
                         10:00   -       ChST    # Chamorro Standard Time
 Link Pacific/Guam Pacific/Saipan # N Mariana Is
 
 # Kiribati
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone Pacific/Tarawa      11:32:04 -     LMT     1901 # Bairiki
                          12:00  -       +12
 Zone Pacific/Enderbury  -11:24:20 -     LMT     1901
                         -12:00  -       -12     1979 Oct
                         -11:00  -       -11     1994 Dec 31

@@ -481,71 +447,46 @@
 
 # N Mariana Is
 # See Pacific/Guam.
 
 # Marshall Is
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
-Zone Pacific/Majuro      11:24:48 -     LMT     1901
-                         11:00  -       +11     1914 Oct
-                          9:00  -       +09     1919 Feb  1
-                         11:00  -       +11     1937
-                         10:00  -       +10     1941 Apr  1
-                          9:00  -       +09     1944 Jan 30
-                         11:00  -       +11     1969 Oct
-                         12:00  -       +12
-Zone Pacific/Kwajalein   11:09:20 -     LMT     1901
-                         11:00  -       +11     1937
-                         10:00  -       +10     1941 Apr  1
-                          9:00  -       +09     1944 Feb  6
-                         11:00  -       +11     1969 Oct
-                        -12:00  -       -12     1993 Aug 20 24:00
-                         12:00  -       +12
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+Zone Pacific/Majuro     11:24:48 -      LMT     1901
+                        11:00   -       +11     1969 Oct
+                        12:00   -       +12
+Zone Pacific/Kwajalein  11:09:20 -      LMT     1901
+                        11:00   -       +11     1969 Oct
+                        -12:00  -       -12     1993 Aug 20
+                        12:00   -       +12
 
 # Micronesia
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
-Zone Pacific/Chuuk      -13:52:52 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
-                         10:07:08 -     LMT     1901
-                         10:00  -       +10     1914 Oct
-                          9:00  -       +09     1919 Feb  1
-                         10:00  -       +10     1941 Apr  1
-                          9:00  -       +09     1945 Aug
-                         10:00  -       +10
-Zone Pacific/Pohnpei    -13:27:08 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31     # Kolonia
-                         10:32:52 -     LMT     1901
-                         11:00  -       +11     1914 Oct
-                          9:00  -       +09     1919 Feb  1
-                         11:00  -       +11     1937
-                         10:00  -       +10     1941 Apr  1
-                          9:00  -       +09     1945 Aug
-                         11:00  -       +11
-Zone Pacific/Kosrae     -13:08:04 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
-                         10:51:56 -     LMT     1901
-                         11:00  -       +11     1914 Oct
-                          9:00  -       +09     1919 Feb  1
-                         11:00  -       +11     1937
-                         10:00  -       +10     1941 Apr  1
-                          9:00  -       +09     1945 Aug
-                         11:00  -       +11     1969 Oct
-                         12:00  -       +12     1999
-                         11:00  -       +11
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+Zone Pacific/Chuuk      10:07:08 -      LMT     1901
+                        10:00   -       +10
+Zone Pacific/Pohnpei    10:32:52 -      LMT     1901 # Kolonia
+                        11:00   -       +11
+Zone Pacific/Kosrae     10:51:56 -      LMT     1901
+                        11:00   -       +11     1969 Oct
+                        12:00   -       +12     1999
+                        11:00   -       +11
 
 # Nauru
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Pacific/Nauru   11:07:40 -      LMT     1921 Jan 15 # Uaobe
-                        11:30   -       +1130   1942 Aug 29
-                         9:00   -       +09     1945 Sep  8
-                        11:30   -       +1130   1979 Feb 10  2:00
+                        11:30   -       +1130   1942 Mar 15
+                        9:00    -       +09     1944 Aug 15
+                        11:30   -       +1130   1979 May
                         12:00   -       +12
 
 # New Caledonia
 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 Rule    NC      1977    1978    -       Dec     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    -
 Rule    NC      1978    1979    -       Feb     27      0:00    0       -
 Rule    NC      1996    only    -       Dec      1      2:00s   1:00    -
 # Shanks & Pottenger say the following was at 2:00; go with IATA.
 Rule    NC      1997    only    -       Mar      2      2:00s   0       -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Pacific/Noumea  11:05:48 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13 # Nouméa
                         11:00   NC      +11/+12
 
 
 ###############################################################################

@@ -580,11 +521,11 @@
 Rule    Chatham 1990    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:45s   0       -
 Rule    NZ      2007    max     -       Sep     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 Rule    Chatham 2007    max     -       Sep     lastSun 2:45s   1:00    -
 Rule    NZ      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       S
 Rule    Chatham 2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:45s   0       -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone Pacific/Auckland   11:39:04 -      LMT     1868 Nov  2
                         11:30   NZ      NZ%sT   1946 Jan  1
                         12:00   NZ      NZ%sT
 Zone Pacific/Chatham    12:13:48 -      LMT     1868 Nov  2
                         12:15   -       +1215   1946 Jan  1

@@ -606,42 +547,41 @@
 # From Shanks & Pottenger:
 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 Rule    Cook    1978    only    -       Nov     12      0:00    0:30    -
 Rule    Cook    1979    1991    -       Mar     Sun>=1  0:00    0       -
 Rule    Cook    1979    1990    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0:30    -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone Pacific/Rarotonga  -10:39:04 -     LMT     1901        # Avarua
                         -10:30  -       -1030   1978 Nov 12
                         -10:00  Cook    -10/-0930
 
 ###############################################################################
 
 
 # Niue
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Pacific/Niue    -11:19:40 -     LMT     1901        # Alofi
                         -11:20  -       -1120   1951
                         -11:30  -       -1130   1978 Oct  1
                         -11:00  -       -11
 
 # Norfolk
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Pacific/Norfolk 11:11:52 -      LMT     1901 # Kingston
                         11:12   -       +1112   1951
                         11:30   -       +1130   1974 Oct 27 02:00
                         11:30   1:00    +1230   1975 Mar  2 02:00
                         11:30   -       +1130   2015 Oct  4 02:00
                         11:00   -       +11
 
 # Palau (Belau)
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
-Zone Pacific/Palau      -15:02:04 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31     # Koror
-                          8:57:56 -     LMT     1901
-                          9:00  -       +09
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+Zone Pacific/Palau      8:57:56 -       LMT     1901 # Koror
+                        9:00    -       +09
 
 # Papua New Guinea
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 -     LMT     1880
                         9:48:32 -       PMMT    1895 # Port Moresby Mean Time
                         10:00   -       +10
 #
 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-13):

@@ -667,11 +607,11 @@
                          9:00   -       +09     1945 Aug 21
                         10:00   -       +10     2014 Dec 28  2:00
                         11:00   -       +11
 
 # Pitcairn
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone Pacific/Pitcairn   -8:40:20 -      LMT     1901        # Adamstown
                         -8:30   -       -0830   1998 Apr 27  0:00
                         -8:00   -       -08
 
 # American Samoa

@@ -752,20 +692,20 @@
 Rule    WS      2010    only    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1       -
 Rule    WS      2011    only    -       Apr     Sat>=1  4:00    0       -
 Rule    WS      2011    only    -       Sep     lastSat 3:00    1       -
 Rule    WS      2012    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1  4:00    0       -
 Rule    WS      2012    max     -       Sep     lastSun 3:00    1       -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone Pacific/Apia        12:33:04 -     LMT     1892 Jul  5
                         -11:26:56 -     LMT     1911
                         -11:30  -       -1130   1950
                         -11:00  WS      -11/-10 2011 Dec 29 24:00
                          13:00  WS      +13/+14
 
 # Solomon Is
 # excludes Bougainville, for which see Papua New Guinea
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Honiara
                         11:00   -       +11
 
 # Tokelau
 #

@@ -784,11 +724,11 @@
 # Representatives of New Zealand, Session 1948,
 # <https://books.google.com/books?id=ZaVCAQAAIAAJ>, page 65, says Tokelau
 # was "11 hours slow on G.M.T."  Go with Thorsen and assume Shanks & Pottenger
 # are off by an hour starting in 1901.
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Pacific/Fakaofo -11:24:56 -     LMT     1901
                         -11:00  -       -11     2011 Dec 30
                         13:00   -       +13
 
 # Tonga

@@ -797,18 +737,18 @@
 Rule    Tonga   2000    only    -       Mar     19      2:00s   0       -
 Rule    Tonga   2000    2001    -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    -
 Rule    Tonga   2001    2002    -       Jan     lastSun 2:00    0       -
 Rule    Tonga   2016    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    -
 Rule    Tonga   2017    only    -       Jan     Sun>=15 3:00    0       -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone Pacific/Tongatapu  12:19:20 -      LMT     1901
                         12:20   -       +1220   1941
                         13:00   -       +13     1999
                         13:00   Tonga   +13/+14
 
 # Tuvalu
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone Pacific/Funafuti   11:56:52 -      LMT     1901
                         12:00   -       +12
 
 
 # US minor outlying islands

@@ -865,11 +805,11 @@
 
 # Palmyra
 # uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
 
 # Wake
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Pacific/Wake    11:06:28 -      LMT     1901
                         12:00   -       +12
 
 
 # Vanuatu

@@ -878,16 +818,16 @@
 Rule    Vanuatu 1984    1991    -       Mar     Sun>=23 0:00    0       -
 Rule    Vanuatu 1984    only    -       Oct     23      0:00    1:00    -
 Rule    Vanuatu 1985    1991    -       Sep     Sun>=23 0:00    1:00    -
 Rule    Vanuatu 1992    1993    -       Jan     Sun>=23 0:00    0       -
 Rule    Vanuatu 1992    only    -       Oct     Sun>=23 0:00    1:00    -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Pacific/Efate   11:13:16 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13 # Vila
                         11:00   Vanuatu +11/+12
 
 # Wallis and Futuna
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Pacific/Wallis  12:15:20 -      LMT     1901
                         12:00   -       +12
 
 ###############################################################################
 

@@ -896,11 +836,11 @@
 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
 
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
+# From Paul Eggert (2017-02-10):
 #
 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.

@@ -921,19 +861,18 @@
 # https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
 #
 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
 #
-# I invented the abbreviation marked "*".
 # The following abbreviations are from other sources.
 # Corrections are welcome!
 #               std     dst
 #               LMT             Local Mean Time
 #         8:00  AWST    AWDT    Western Australia
 #         9:30  ACST    ACDT    Central Australia
 #        10:00  AEST    AEDT    Eastern Australia
-#        10:00  GST     GDT*    Guam through 2000
+#        10:00  GST             Guam through 2000
 #        10:00  ChST            Chamorro
 #        11:30  NZMT    NZST    New Zealand through 1945
 #        12:00  NZST    NZDT    New Zealand 1946-present
 #       -11:00  SST             Samoa
 #       -10:00  HST             Hawaii

@@ -1269,26 +1208,10 @@
 # (2006-12-09):
 # I personally doubt that either experimentation with daylight saving
 # in WA or its introduction in SA had anything to do with the genesis
 # of this time zone.  My hunch is that it's been around since well
 # before 1975.  I remember seeing it noted on road maps decades ago.
-#
-# From Gilmore Davidson (2019-04-08):
-# https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-04-08/this-remote-stretch-of-desert-has-its-own-custom-time-zone/10981000
-# ... include[s] a rough description of the geographical boundaries...
-# "The time zone exists for about 340 kilometres and takes in the tiny
-# roadhouse communities of Cocklebiddy, Madura, Eucla and Border Village."
-# ... and an indication that the zone has definitely been in existence
-# since before the 1970 cut-off of the database ...
-# From Paul Eggert (2019-05-17):
-# That ABC Esperance story by Christien de Garis also says:
-#    Although the Central Western Time Zone is not officially recognised (your
-#    phones won't automatically change), there is a sign instructing you which
-#    way to wind your clocks 45 minutes and scrawled underneath one of them in
-#    Texta is the word: 'Why'?
-#    "Good question," Mr Pike said.
-#    "I don't even know that, and it's been going for over 50 years."
 
 # From Paul Eggert (2006-12-15):
 # For lack of better info, assume the tradition dates back to the
 # introduction of standard time in 1895.
 

@@ -1603,46 +1526,10 @@
 # not observe New Zealand's prewar DST.
 
 ###############################################################################
 
 
-# Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands and Marcus Island (Minami-Tori-shima)
-
-# From Wakaba (2019-01-28) via Phake Nick:
-# National Diet Library of Japan has several reports by Japanese Government
-# officers that describe the time used in islands when they visited there.
-# According to them (and other sources such as newspapers), standard time UTC
-# + 10 (JST + 1) and DST UTC + 11 (JST + 2) was used until its return to Japan
-# at 1968-06-26 00:00 JST.  The exact periods of DST are still unknown.
-# I guessed Guam, Mariana, and Bonin and Marcus districts might have
-# synchronized their DST periods, but reports imply they had their own
-# decisions, i.e. there were three or more different time zones....
-#
-# https://wiki.suikawiki.org/n/小笠原諸島の標準時
-
-# From Phake Nick (2019-02-12):
-# Because their last time change to return to Japanese time when they returned
-# to Japanese rule was right before 1970, ... per the current tz database
-# rule, the information doesn't warrant creation of a new timezone for Bonin
-# Islands itself and is thus as an anecdotal note for interest purpose only.
-# ... [The abovementioned link] described some special timekeeping phenomenon
-# regarding Marcus island, another remote island currently owned by Japanese
-# in the same administrative unit as Bonin Islands.  Many reports claim that
-# the American coastal guard on the American quarter of the island use its own
-# coastal guard time, and most sources describe the time as UTC+11, being two
-# hours faster than JST used by some Japanese personnel on the island.  Some
-# sites describe it as same as Wake Island/Guam time although it would be
-# incorrect to be same as Guam.  And then in a few Japanese governmental
-# report from 1980s (from National Institute of Information and Communications
-# Technology) regarding the construction of VLBI facility on the Marcus
-# Island, it claimed that there are three time standards being used on the
-# island at the time which include not just JST (UTC+9) or [US]CG time
-# (UTC+11) but also a JMSDF time (UTC+10) (Japan Maritime Self-Defense
-# Force).  Unfortunately there are no other sources that mentioned such time
-# and there are also no information on things like how the time was used.
-
-
 # Fiji
 
 # Howse writes (p 153) that in 1879 the British governor of Fiji
 # enacted an ordinance standardizing the islands on Antipodean Time
 # instead of the American system (which was one day behind).

@@ -1680,74 +1567,32 @@
 # One source for this is page 202 of: Bartky IR. One Time Fits All:
 # The Campaigns for Global Uniformity (2007).
 
 # Kwajalein
 
-# From an AP article (1993-08-22):
-# "The nearly 3,000 Americans living on this remote Pacific atoll have a good
-# excuse for not remembering Saturday night: there wasn't one.  Residents were
-# going to bed Friday night and waking up Sunday morning because at midnight
-# -- 8 A.M. Eastern daylight time on Saturday -- Kwajalein was jumping from
-# one side of the international date line to the other."
-# "In Marshall Islands, Friday is followed by Sunday", NY Times. 1993-08-22.
-# https://www.nytimes.com/1993/08/22/world/in-marshall-islands-friday-is-followed-by-sunday.html
-
-# From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
-# <https://wiki.suikawiki.org/n/南洋群島の標準時> ... pointed out that
-# currently tzdata say Pacific/Kwajalein switched from GMT+11 to GMT-12 in
-# 1969 October without explanation, however an 1993 article from NYT say it
-# synchorized its day with US mainland about 40 years ago and thus the switch
-# should occur at around 1950s instead.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
-# The NYT (actually, AP) article is vague and possibly wrong about this.
-# The article says the earlier switch was "40 years ago when the United States
-# Army established a missile test range here".  However, the Kwajalein Test
-# Center was established on 1960-10-01 and was run by the US Navy.  It was
-# transferred to the US Army on 1964-07-01.  See "Seize the High Ground"
-# <https://history.army.mil/html/books/070/70-88-1/cmhPub_70-88-1.pdf>.
-# Given that Shanks was right on the money about the 1993 change, I'm inclined
-# to take Shanks's word for the 1969 change unless we find better evidence.
+# In comp.risks 14.87 (26 August 1993), Peter Neumann writes:
+# I wonder what happened in Kwajalein, where there was NO Friday,
+# 1993-08-20.  Thursday night at midnight Kwajalein switched sides with
+# respect to the International Date Line, to rejoin its fellow islands,
+# going from 11:59 p.m. Thursday to 12:00 m. Saturday in a blink.
 
 
 # N Mariana Is, Guam
 
-# From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
-# Guam Island was briefly annexed by Japan during ... year 1941-1944 ...
-# however there are no detailed information about what time it use during that
-# period.  It would probably be reasonable to assume Guam use GMT+9 during
-# that period of time like the surrounding area.
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
 # Howse writes (p 153) "The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the
 # Philippines and the Ladrones from America," and implies that the Ladrones
 # (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time.
 # For now, we assume the Ladrones switched at the same time as the Philippines;
 # see Asia/Manila.
-#
-# Use 1941-12-10 and 1944-07-31 for Guam WWII transitions, as the rough start
-# and end of Japanese control of Agana.  We don't know whether the Northern
-# Marianas followed Guam's DST rules from 1959 through 1977; for now, assume
-# they did as that avoids the need for a separate zone due to our 1970 cutoff.
-#
+
 # US Public Law 106-564 (2000-12-23) made UT +10 the official standard time,
 # under the name "Chamorro Standard Time".  There is no official abbreviation,
 # but Congressman Robert A. Underwood, author of the bill that became law,
 # wrote in a press release (2000-12-27) that he will seek the use of "ChST".
 
-# See also the commentary for Micronesia.
 
-
-# Marshall Is
-# See the commentary for Micronesia.
-
-
-# Micronesia (and nearby)
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
-# Like the Ladrones (see Guam commentary), assume the Spanish East Indies
-# kept American time until the Philippines switched at the end of 1844.
+# Micronesia
 
 # Alan Eugene Davis writes (1996-03-16),
 # "I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that 'Truk'
 # (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10."
 #

@@ -1759,99 +1604,10 @@
 # The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information (1999-01-26)
 # http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html
 # that Truk and Yap are UT +10, and Ponape and Kosrae are +11.
 # We don't know when Kosrae switched from +12; assume January 1 for now.
 
-# From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
-#
-# From a Japanese wiki site https://wiki.suikawiki.org/n/南洋群島の標準時
-# ...
-# For "Southern Islands" (modern region of Mariana + Palau + Federation of
-# Micronesia + Marshall Islands):
-#
-# A 1906 Japanese magazine shown the Caroline Islands and Mariana Islands
-# who was occupied by Germany at the time as GMT+10, together with the like
-# of German New Guinea.  However there is a marking saying it have not been
-# implemented (yet).  No further information after that were found.
-#
-# Japan invaded those islands in 1914, and records shows that they were
-# instructed to use JST at the time.
-#
-# 1915 January telecommunication record on the Jaluit Atoll shows they use
-# the meridian of 170E as standard time (GMT+11:20), which is similar to the
-# longitude of the atoll.
-# 1915 February record say the 170E standard time is to be used until
-# February 9 noon, and after February 9 noon they are to use JST.
-# However these are time used within the Japanese Military at the time and
-# probably does not reflect the time used by local resident at the time (that
-# is if they keep their own time back then)
-#
-# In January 1919 the occupying force issued a command that split the area
-# into three different timezone with meridian of 135E, 150E, 165E (JST+0, +1,
-# +2), and the command was to become effective from February 1 of the same
-# year.  Despite the target of the command is still only for the occupying
-# force itself, further publication have described the time as the standard
-# time for the occupied area and thus it can probably be seen as such.
-#  * Area that use meridian of 135E: Palau and Yap civil administration area
-#    (Southern Islands Western Standard Time)
-#  * Area that use meridian of 150E: Truk (Chuuk) and Saipan civil
-#    administration area (Southern Islands Central Standard Time)
-#  * Area that use meridian of 165E: Ponape (Pohnpei) and Jaluit civil
-#    administration area (Southern Islands Eastern Standard Time).
-#  * In the next few years Japanese occupation of those islands have been
-#    formalized via League of Nation Mandate (South Pacific Mandate) and formal
-#    governance structure have been established, these district [become
-#    subprefectures] and timezone classification have been inherited as standard
-#    time of the area.
-#  * Saipan subprefecture include Mariana islands (exclude Guam which was
-#    occupied by America at the time), Palau and Yap subprefecture rule the
-#    Western Caroline Islands with 137E longitude as border, Truk and Ponape
-#    subprefecture rule the Eastern Caroline Islands with 154E as border, Ponape
-#    subprefecture also rule part of Marshall Islands to the west of 164E
-#    starting from (1918?) and Jaluit subprefecture rule the rest of the
-#    Marshall Islands.
-#
-# And then in year 1937, an announcement was made to change the time in the
-# area into 2 timezones:
-#  * Area that use meridian of 135E: area administered by Palau, Yap and
-#    Saipan subprefecture (Southern Islands Western Standard Time)
-#  * Area that use meridian of 150E: area administered by Truk (Chuuk),
-#    Ponape (Pohnpei) and Jaluit subprefecture (Southern Islands Eastern
-#    Standard Time)
-#
-# Another announcement issued in 1941 say that on April 1 that year,
-# standard time of the Southern Islands would be changed to use the meridian
-# of 135E (GMT+9), and thus abolishing timezone different within the area.
-#
-# Then Pacific theater of WWII started and Japan slowly lose control on the
-# island.  The webpage I linked above contain no information during this
-# period of time....
-#
-# After the end of WWII, in 1946 February, a document written by the
-# (former?) Japanese military personnel describe there are 3 hours time
-# different between Caroline islands time/Wake island time and the Chungking
-# time, which would mean the time being used there at the time was GMT+10.
-#
-# After that, the area become Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands
-# under American administration from year 1947.  The site listed some
-# American/International books/maps/publications about time used in those
-# area during this period of time but they doesn't seems to be reliable
-# information so it would be the best if someone know where can more reliable
-# information can be found.
-#
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
-#
-# For the above, use vague dates like "1914" and "1945" for transitions that
-# plausibly exist but for which the details are not known.  The information
-# for Wake is too sketchy to act on.
-#
-# The 1906 GMT+10 info about German-controlled islands might not have been
-# done, so omit it from the data for now.
-#
-# The Jaluit info governs Kwajalein.
-
 
 # Midway
 
 # From Charles T O'Connor, KMTH DJ (1956),
 # quoted in the KTMH section of the Radio Heritage Collection

@@ -1865,33 +1621,10 @@
 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
 # We don't know the date of that quote, but we'll guess they
 # started DST on June 3.  Possibly DST was observed other years
 # in Midway, but we have no record of it.
 
-# Nauru
-
-# From Phake Nick (2018-10-31):
-# Currently, the tz database say Nauru use LMT until 1921, and then
-# switched to GMT+11:30 for the next two decades.
-# However, a number of timezone map published in America/Japan back then
-# showed its timezone as GMT+11 per https://wiki.suikawiki.org/n/ナウルの標準時
-# And it would also be nice if the 1921 transition date could be sourced.
-# ...
-# The "Nauru Standard Time Act 1978 Time Change"
-# http://ronlaw.gov.nr/nauru_lpms/files/gazettes/4b23a17d2030150404db7a5fa5872f52.pdf#page=3
-# based on "Nauru Standard Time Act 1978 Time Change"
-# http://www.paclii.org/nr/legis/num_act/nsta1978207/ defined that "Nauru
-# Alternative Time" (GMT+12) should be in effect from 1979 Feb.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-19):
-# The 1921-01-15 introduction of standard time is in Shanks; it is also in
-# "Standard Time Throughout the World", US National Bureau of Standards (1935),
-# page 3, which does not give the UT offset.  In response to a comment by
-# Phake Nick I set the Nauru time of occupation by Japan to
-# 1942-08-29/1945-09-08 by using dates from:
-# https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_occupation_of_Nauru
-
 # Norfolk
 
 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2015-09-23):
 # Norfolk Island will change ... from +1130 to +1100:
 # https://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2015L01483/Explanatory%20Statement/Text

@@ -1903,13 +1636,10 @@
 # the Norfolk Island Museum and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's
 # Norfolk Island station, and found no record of Norfolk observing DST
 # other than in 1974/5.  See:
 # https://www.timeanddate.com/time/australia/norfolk-island.html
 
-# Palau
-# See commentary for Micronesia.
-
 # Pitcairn
 
 # From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):
 # A Proclamation was signed by the Governor of Pitcairn on the 27th March 1998
 # with regard to Pitcairn Standard Time.  The Proclamation is as follows.

@@ -2070,13 +1800,10 @@
 # https://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/andrsonv.htm
 
 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
 # We have no other report of DST in Wake Island, so omit this info for now.
 
-# See also the commentary for Micronesia.
-
-
 ###############################################################################
 
 # The International Date Line
 
 # From Gwillim Law (2000-01-03):
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