1 #
   2 # DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   3 #
   4 # This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   5 # under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   6 # published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
   7 # particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
   8 # by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
   9 #
  10 # This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  11 # ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  12 # FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  13 # version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  14 # accompanied this code).
  15 #
  16 # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  17 # 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  18 # Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  19 #
  20 # Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  21 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  22 # questions.
  23 #
  24 # tzdb data for South America and environs
  25 
  26 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
  27 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
  28 
  29 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
  30 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
  31 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
  32 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
  33 
  34 # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-05):
  35 #
  36 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
  37 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
  38 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
  39 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
  40 #
  41 # Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source
  42 # for time zone data was the International Air Transport
  43 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
  44 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
  45 # of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
  46 # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
  47 #
  48 # For data circa 1899, a common source is:
  49 # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
  50 # https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
  51 #
  52 # These tables use numeric abbreviations like -03 and -0330 for
  53 # integer hour and minute UT offsets.  Although earlier editions used
  54 # alphabetic time zone abbreviations, these abbreviations were
  55 # invented and did not reflect common practice.
  56 
  57 ###############################################################################
  58 
  59 ###############################################################################
  60 
  61 # Argentina
  62 
  63 # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
  64 # Argentina: first Sunday in October to first Sunday in April since 1976.
  65 # Double Summer time from 1969 to 1974.  Switches at midnight.
  66 
  67 # From U. S. Naval Observatory (1988-01-19):
  68 # ARGENTINA           3 H BEHIND   UTC
  69 
  70 # From Hernan G. Otero (1995-06-26):
  71 # I am sending modifications to the Argentine time zone table...
  72 # AR was chosen because they are the ISO letters that represent Argentina.
  73 
  74 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  75 Rule    Arg     1930    only    -       Dec      1      0:00    1:00    -
  76 Rule    Arg     1931    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
  77 Rule    Arg     1931    only    -       Oct     15      0:00    1:00    -
  78 Rule    Arg     1932    1940    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       -
  79 Rule    Arg     1932    1939    -       Nov      1      0:00    1:00    -
  80 Rule    Arg     1940    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    -
  81 Rule    Arg     1941    only    -       Jun     15      0:00    0       -
  82 Rule    Arg     1941    only    -       Oct     15      0:00    1:00    -
  83 Rule    Arg     1943    only    -       Aug      1      0:00    0       -
  84 Rule    Arg     1943    only    -       Oct     15      0:00    1:00    -
  85 Rule    Arg     1946    only    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       -
  86 Rule    Arg     1946    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    1:00    -
  87 Rule    Arg     1963    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
  88 Rule    Arg     1963    only    -       Dec     15      0:00    1:00    -
  89 Rule    Arg     1964    1966    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       -
  90 Rule    Arg     1964    1966    -       Oct     15      0:00    1:00    -
  91 Rule    Arg     1967    only    -       Apr      2      0:00    0       -
  92 Rule    Arg     1967    1968    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    -
  93 Rule    Arg     1968    1969    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
  94 Rule    Arg     1974    only    -       Jan     23      0:00    1:00    -
  95 Rule    Arg     1974    only    -       May      1      0:00    0       -
  96 Rule    Arg     1988    only    -       Dec      1      0:00    1:00    -
  97 #
  98 # From Hernan G. Otero (1995-06-26):
  99 # These corrections were contributed by InterSoft Argentina S.A.,
 100 # obtaining the data from the:
 101 # Talleres de Hidrografía Naval Argentina
 102 # (Argentine Naval Hydrography Institute)
 103 Rule    Arg     1989    1993    -       Mar     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
 104 Rule    Arg     1989    1992    -       Oct     Sun>=15      0:00    1:00    -
 105 #
 106 # From Hernan G. Otero (1995-06-26):
 107 # From this moment on, the law that mandated the daylight saving
 108 # time corrections was derogated and no more modifications
 109 # to the time zones (for daylight saving) are now made.
 110 #
 111 # From Rives McDow (2000-01-10):
 112 # On October 3, 1999, 0:00 local, Argentina implemented daylight savings time,
 113 # which did not result in the switch of a time zone, as they stayed 9 hours
 114 # from the International Date Line.
 115 Rule    Arg     1999    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    -
 116 # From Paul Eggert (2007-12-28):
 117 # DST was set to expire on March 5, not March 3, but since it was converted
 118 # to standard time on March 3 it's more convenient for us to pretend that
 119 # it ended on March 3.
 120 Rule    Arg     2000    only    -       Mar     3       0:00    0       -
 121 #
 122 # From Peter Gradelski via Steffen Thorsen (2000-03-01):
 123 # We just checked with our São Paulo office and they say the government of
 124 # Argentina decided not to become one of the countries that go on or off DST.
 125 # So Buenos Aires should be -3 hours from GMT at all times.
 126 #
 127 # From Fabián L. Arce Jofré (2000-04-04):
 128 # The law that claimed DST for Argentina was derogated by President Fernando
 129 # de la Rúa on March 2, 2000, because it would make people spend more energy
 130 # in the winter time, rather than less.  The change took effect on March 3.
 131 #
 132 # From Mariano Absatz (2001-06-06):
 133 # one of the major newspapers here in Argentina said that the 1999
 134 # Timezone Law (which never was effectively applied) will (would?) be
 135 # in effect.... The article is at
 136 # http://ar.clarin.com/diario/2001-06-06/e-01701.htm
 137 # ... The Law itself is "Ley No. 25155", sanctioned on 1999-08-25, enacted
 138 # 1999-09-17, and published 1999-09-21.  The official publication is at:
 139 # http://www.boletin.jus.gov.ar/BON/Primera/1999/09-Septiembre/21/PDF/BO21-09-99LEG.PDF
 140 # Regretfully, you have to subscribe (and pay) for the on-line version....
 141 #
 142 # (2001-06-12):
 143 # the timezone for Argentina will not change next Sunday.
 144 # Apparently it will do so on Sunday 24th....
 145 # http://ar.clarin.com/diario/2001-06-12/s-03501.htm
 146 #
 147 # (2001-06-25):
 148 # Last Friday (yes, the last working day before the date of the change), the
 149 # Senate annulled the 1999 law that introduced the changes later postponed.
 150 # http://www.clarin.com.ar/diario/2001-06-22/s-03601.htm
 151 # It remains the vote of the Deputies..., but it will be the same....
 152 # This kind of things had always been done this way in Argentina.
 153 # We are still -03:00 all year round in all of the country.
 154 #
 155 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-12-21):
 156 # A user (Leonardo Chaim) reported that Argentina will adopt DST....
 157 # all of the country (all Zone-entries) are affected.  News reports like
 158 # http://www.lanacion.com.ar/opinion/nota.asp?nota_id=973037 indicate
 159 # that Argentina will use DST next year as well, from October to
 160 # March, although exact rules are not given.
 161 #
 162 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-12-26)
 163 # The last hurdle of Argentina DST is over, the proposal was approved in
 164 # the lower chamber too (Diputados) with a vote 192 for and 2 against.
 165 # By the way thanks to Mariano Absatz and Daniel Mario Vega for the link to
 166 # the original scanned proposal, where the dates and the zero hours are
 167 # clear and unambiguous...This is the article about final approval:
 168 # http://www.lanacion.com.ar/politica/nota.asp?nota_id=973996
 169 #
 170 # From Paul Eggert (2007-12-22):
 171 # For dates after mid-2008, the following rules are my guesses and
 172 # are quite possibly wrong, but are more likely than no DST at all.
 173 
 174 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-09-05):
 175 # As per message from Carlos Alberto Fonseca Arauz (Nicaragua),
 176 # Argentina will start DST on Sunday October 19, 2008.
 177 #
 178 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_argentina03.html
 179 # http://www.impulsobaires.com.ar/nota.php?id=57832 (in spanish)
 180 
 181 # From Juan Manuel Docile in https://bugs.gentoo.org/240339 (2008-10-07)
 182 # via Rodrigo Severo:
 183 # Argentinian law No. 25.155 is no longer valid.
 184 # http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/60000-64999/60036/norma.htm
 185 # The new one is law No. 26.350
 186 # http://www.infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/135000-139999/136191/norma.htm
 187 # So there is no summer time in Argentina for now.
 188 
 189 # From Mariano Absatz (2008-10-20):
 190 # Decree 1693/2008 applies Law 26.350 for the summer 2008/2009 establishing DST
 191 # in Argentina from 2008-10-19 until 2009-03-15.
 192 # http://www.boletinoficial.gov.ar/Bora.Portal/CustomControls/PdfContent.aspx?fp=16102008&pi=3&pf=4&s=0&sec=01
 193 #
 194 
 195 # Decree 1705/2008 excepting 12 Provinces from applying DST in the summer
 196 # 2008/2009: Catamarca, La Rioja, Mendoza, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, La
 197 # Pampa, Neuquén, Rio Negro, Chubut, Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego
 198 # http://www.boletinoficial.gov.ar/Bora.Portal/CustomControls/PdfContent.aspx?fp=17102008&pi=1&pf=1&s=0&sec=01
 199 #
 200 # Press release 235 dated Saturday October 18th, from the Government of the
 201 # Province of Jujuy saying it will not apply DST either (even when it was not
 202 # included in Decree 1705/2008).
 203 # http://www.jujuy.gov.ar/index2/partes_prensa/18_10_08/235-181008.doc
 204 
 205 # From fullinet (2009-10-18):
 206 # As announced in
 207 # http://www.argentina.gob.ar/argentina/portal/paginas.dhtml?pagina=356
 208 # (an official .gob.ar) under title: "Sin Cambio de Hora"
 209 # (English: "No hour change").
 210 #
 211 # "Por el momento, el Gobierno Nacional resolvió no modificar la hora
 212 # oficial, decisión que estaba en estudio para su implementación el
 213 # domingo 18 de octubre. Desde el Ministerio de Planificación se anunció
 214 # que la Argentina hoy, en estas condiciones meteorológicas, no necesita
 215 # la modificación del huso horario, ya que 2009 nos encuentra con
 216 # crecimiento en la producción y distribución energética."
 217 
 218 Rule    Arg     2007    only    -       Dec     30      0:00    1:00    -
 219 Rule    Arg     2008    2009    -       Mar     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 220 Rule    Arg     2008    only    -       Oct     Sun>=15      0:00    1:00    -
 221 
 222 # From Mariano Absatz (2004-05-21):
 223 # Today it was officially published that the Province of Mendoza is changing
 224 # its timezone this winter... starting tomorrow night....
 225 # http://www.gobernac.mendoza.gov.ar/boletin/pdf/20040521-27158-normas.pdf
 226 # From Paul Eggert (2004-05-24):
 227 # It's Law No. 7,210.  This change is due to a public power emergency, so for
 228 # now we'll assume it's for this year only.
 229 #
 230 # From Paul Eggert (2018-01-31):
 231 # Hora de verano para la República Argentina
 232 # http://buenasiembra.com.ar/esoterismo/astrologia/hora-de-verano-de-la-republica-argentina-27.html
 233 # says that standard time in Argentina from 1894-10-31
 234 # to 1920-05-01 was -4:16:48.25.  Go with this more-precise value
 235 # over Shanks & Pottenger.  It is upward compatible with Milne, who
 236 # says Córdoba time was -4:16:48.2.
 237 
 238 #
 239 # From Mariano Absatz (2004-06-05):
 240 # These media articles from a major newspaper mostly cover the current state:
 241 # http://www.lanacion.com.ar/04/05/27/de_604825.asp
 242 # http://www.lanacion.com.ar/04/05/28/de_605203.asp
 243 #
 244 # The following eight (8) provinces pulled clocks back to UTC-04:00 at
 245 # midnight Monday May 31st. (that is, the night between 05/31 and 06/01).
 246 # Apparently, all nine provinces would go back to UTC-03:00 at the same
 247 # time in October 17th.
 248 #
 249 # Catamarca, Chubut, La Rioja, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz,
 250 # Tierra del Fuego, Tucumán.
 251 #
 252 # From Mariano Absatz (2004-06-14):
 253 # ... this weekend, the Province of Tucumán decided it'd go back to UTC-03:00
 254 # yesterday midnight (that is, at 24:00 Saturday 12th), since the people's
 255 # annoyance with the change is much higher than the power savings obtained....
 256 #
 257 # From Gwillim Law (2004-06-14):
 258 # http://www.lanacion.com.ar/04/06/10/de_609078.asp ...
 259 #     "The time change in Tierra del Fuego was a conflicted decision from
 260 #   the start.  The government had decreed that the measure would take
 261 #   effect on June 1, but a normative error forced the new time to begin
 262 #   three days earlier, from a Saturday to a Sunday....
 263 # Our understanding was that the change was originally scheduled to take place
 264 # on June 1 at 00:00 in Chubut, Santa Cruz, Tierra del Fuego (and some other
 265 # provinces).  Sunday was May 30, only two days earlier.  So the article
 266 # contains a contradiction.  I would give more credence to the Saturday/Sunday
 267 # date than the "three days earlier" phrase, and conclude that Tierra del
 268 # Fuego set its clocks back at 2004-05-30 00:00.
 269 #
 270 # From Steffen Thorsen (2004-10-05):
 271 # The previous law 7210 which changed the province of Mendoza's time zone
 272 # back in May have been modified slightly in a new law 7277, which set the
 273 # new end date to 2004-09-26 (original date was 2004-10-17).
 274 # http://www.gobernac.mendoza.gov.ar/boletin/pdf/20040924-27244-normas.pdf
 275 #
 276 # From Mariano Absatz (2004-10-05):
 277 # San Juan changed from UTC-03:00 to UTC-04:00 at midnight between
 278 # Sunday, May 30th and Monday, May 31st.  It changed back to UTC-03:00
 279 # at midnight between Saturday, July 24th and Sunday, July 25th....
 280 # http://www.sanjuan.gov.ar/prensa/archivo/000329.html
 281 # http://www.sanjuan.gov.ar/prensa/archivo/000426.html
 282 # http://www.sanjuan.gov.ar/prensa/archivo/000441.html
 283 
 284 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-01-17):
 285 # Here are articles that Argentina Province San Luis is planning to end DST
 286 # as earlier as upcoming Monday January 21, 2008 or February 2008:
 287 #
 288 # Provincia argentina retrasa reloj y marca diferencia con resto del país
 289 # (Argentine Province delayed clock and mark difference with the rest of the
 290 # country)
 291 # http://cl.invertia.com/noticias/noticia.aspx?idNoticia=200801171849_EFE_ET4373&idtel
 292 #
 293 # Es inminente que en San Luis atrasen una hora los relojes
 294 # (It is imminent in San Luis clocks one hour delay)
 295 # https://www.lagaceta.com.ar/nota/253414/Economia/Es-inminente-que-en-San-Luis-atrasen-una-hora-los-relojes.html
 296 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_argentina02.html
 297 
 298 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-01-18):
 299 # The page of the San Luis provincial government
 300 # http://www.sanluis.gov.ar/notas.asp?idCanal=0&id=22812
 301 # confirms what Alex Krivenyshev has earlier sent to the tz
 302 # emailing list about that San Luis plans to return to standard
 303 # time much earlier than the rest of the country. It also
 304 # confirms that upon request the provinces San Juan and Mendoza
 305 # refused to follow San Luis in this change.
 306 #
 307 # The change is supposed to take place Monday the 21st at 0:00
 308 # hours. As far as I understand it if this goes ahead, we need
 309 # a new timezone for San Luis (although there are also documented
 310 # independent changes in the southamerica file of San Luis in
 311 # 1990 and 1991 which has not been confirmed).
 312 
 313 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2008-01-25):
 314 # Unfortunately the below page has become defunct, about the San Luis
 315 # time change. Perhaps because it now is part of a group of pages "Most
 316 # important pages of 2008."
 317 #
 318 # You can use
 319 # http://www.sanluis.gov.ar/notas.asp?idCanal=8141&id=22834
 320 # instead it seems. Or use "Buscador" from the main page of the San Luis
 321 # government, and fill in "huso" and click OK, and you will get 3 pages
 322 # from which the first one is identical to the above.
 323 
 324 # From Mariano Absatz (2008-01-28):
 325 # I can confirm that the Province of San Luis (and so far only that
 326 # province) decided to go back to UTC-3 effective midnight Jan 20th 2008
 327 # (that is, Monday 21st at 0:00 is the time the clocks were delayed back
 328 # 1 hour), and they intend to keep UTC-3 as their timezone all year round
 329 # (that is, unless they change their mind any minute now).
 330 #
 331 # So we'll have to add yet another city to 'southamerica' (I think San
 332 # Luis city is the mos populated city in the Province, so it'd be
 333 # America/Argentina/San_Luis... of course I can't remember if San Luis's
 334 # history of particular changes goes along with Mendoza or San Juan :-(
 335 # (I only remember not being able to collect hard facts about San Luis
 336 # back in 2004, when these provinces changed to UTC-4 for a few days, I
 337 # mailed them personally and never got an answer).
 338 
 339 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-12):
 340 # Unless otherwise specified, data entries are from Shanks & Pottenger through
 341 # 1992, from the IATA otherwise.  As noted below, Shanks & Pottenger say that
 342 # America/Cordoba split into 6 subregions during 1991/1992, one of which
 343 # was America/San_Luis, but we haven't verified this yet so for now we'll
 344 # keep America/Cordoba a single region rather than splitting it into the
 345 # other 5 subregions.
 346 
 347 # From Mariano Absatz (2009-03-13):
 348 # Yesterday (with our usual 2-day notice) the Province of San Luis
 349 # decided that next Sunday instead of "staying" @utc-03:00 they will go
 350 # to utc-04:00 until the second Saturday in October...
 351 #
 352 # The press release is at
 353 # http://www.sanluis.gov.ar/SL/Paginas/NoticiaDetalle.asp?TemaId=1&InfoPrensaId=3102
 354 # (I couldn't find the decree, but www.sanluis.gov.ar
 355 # is the official page for the Province Government.)
 356 #
 357 # There's also a note in only one of the major national papers ...
 358 # http://www.lanacion.com.ar/nota.asp?nota_id=1107912
 359 #
 360 # The press release says [quick and dirty translation]:
 361 # ... announced that next Sunday, at 00:00, Puntanos (the San Luis
 362 # inhabitants) will have to turn back one hour their clocks
 363 #
 364 # Since then, San Luis will establish its own Province timezone. Thus,
 365 # during 2009, this timezone change will run from 00:00 the third Sunday
 366 # in March until 24:00 of the second Saturday in October.
 367 
 368 # From Mariano Absatz (2009-10-16):
 369 # ...the Province of San Luis is a case in itself.
 370 #
 371 # The Law at
 372 # http://www.diputadossanluis.gov.ar/diputadosasp/paginas/verNorma.asp?NormaID=276
 373 # is ambiguous because establishes a calendar from the 2nd Sunday in
 374 # October at 0:00 thru the 2nd Saturday in March at 24:00 and the
 375 # complement of that starting on the 2nd Sunday of March at 0:00 and
 376 # ending on the 2nd Saturday of March at 24:00.
 377 #
 378 # This clearly breaks every time the 1st of March or October is a Sunday.
 379 #
 380 # IMHO, the "spirit of the Law" is to make the changes at 0:00 on the 2nd
 381 # Sunday of October and March.
 382 #
 383 # The problem is that the changes in the rest of the Provinces that did
 384 # change in 2007/2008, were made according to the Federal Law and Decrees
 385 # that did so on the 3rd Sunday of October and March.
 386 #
 387 # In fact, San Luis actually switched from UTC-4 to UTC-3 last Sunday
 388 # (October 11th) at 0:00.
 389 #
 390 # So I guess a new set of rules, besides "Arg", must be made and the last
 391 # America/Argentina/San_Luis entries should change to use these...
 392 # ...
 393 
 394 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-04-09):
 395 # According to news reports from El Diario de la República Province San
 396 # Luis, Argentina (standard time UTC-04) will keep Daylight Saving Time
 397 # after April 11, 2010 - will continue to have same time as rest of
 398 # Argentina (UTC-3) (no DST).
 399 #
 400 # Confirmaron la prórroga del huso horario de verano (Spanish)
 401 # http://www.eldiariodelarepublica.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=29383&Itemid=9
 402 # or (some English translation):
 403 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_argentina08.html
 404 
 405 # From Mariano Absatz (2010-04-12):
 406 # yes...I can confirm this...and given that San Luis keeps calling
 407 # UTC-03:00 "summer time", we should't just let San Luis go back to "Arg"
 408 # rules...San Luis is still using "Western ARgentina Time" and it got
 409 # stuck on Summer daylight savings time even though the summer is over.
 410 
 411 # From Paul Eggert (2018-01-23):
 412 # Perhaps San Luis operates on the legal fiction that it is at -04
 413 # with perpetual daylight saving time, but ordinary usage typically seems to
 414 # just say it's at -03; see, for example,
 415 # https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hora_oficial_argentina
 416 # We've documented similar situations as being plain changes to
 417 # standard time, so let's do that here too.  This does not change UTC
 418 # offsets, only tm_isdst and the time zone abbreviations.  One minor
 419 # plus is that this silences a zic complaint that there's no POSIX TZ
 420 # setting for timestamps past 2038.
 421 
 422 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 423 #
 424 # Buenos Aires (BA), Capital Federal (CF),
 425 Zone America/Argentina/Buenos_Aires -3:53:48 - LMT      1894 Oct 31
 426                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May    # Córdoba Mean Time
 427                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 428                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 429                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 430                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 431                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02
 432 #
 433 # Córdoba (CB), Santa Fe (SF), Entre Ríos (ER), Corrientes (CN), Misiones (MN),
 434 # Chaco (CC), Formosa (FM), Santiago del Estero (SE)
 435 #
 436 # Shanks & Pottenger also make the following claims, which we haven't verified:
 437 # - Formosa switched to -3:00 on 1991-01-07.
 438 # - Misiones switched to -3:00 on 1990-12-29.
 439 # - Chaco switched to -3:00 on 1991-01-04.
 440 # - Santiago del Estero switched to -4:00 on 1991-04-01,
 441 #   then to -3:00 on 1991-04-26.
 442 #
 443 Zone America/Argentina/Cordoba -4:16:48 - LMT   1894 Oct 31
 444                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 445                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 446                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 447                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1991 Mar  3
 448                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 Oct 20
 449                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 450                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 451                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02
 452 #
 453 # Salta (SA), La Pampa (LP), Neuquén (NQ), Rio Negro (RN)
 454 Zone America/Argentina/Salta -4:21:40 - LMT     1894 Oct 31
 455                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 456                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 457                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 458                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1991 Mar  3
 459                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 Oct 20
 460                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 461                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 462                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 463                         -3:00   -       -03
 464 #
 465 # Tucumán (TM)
 466 Zone America/Argentina/Tucuman -4:20:52 - LMT   1894 Oct 31
 467                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 468                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 469                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 470                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1991 Mar  3
 471                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 Oct 20
 472                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 473                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 474                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 Jun  1
 475                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jun 13
 476                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02
 477 #
 478 # La Rioja (LR)
 479 Zone America/Argentina/La_Rioja -4:27:24 - LMT  1894 Oct 31
 480                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 481                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 482                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 483                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1991 Mar  1
 484                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 May  7
 485                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 486                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 487                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 Jun  1
 488                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jun 20
 489                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 490                         -3:00   -       -03
 491 #
 492 # San Juan (SJ)
 493 Zone America/Argentina/San_Juan -4:34:04 - LMT  1894 Oct 31
 494                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 495                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 496                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 497                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1991 Mar  1
 498                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 May  7
 499                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 500                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 501                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 May 31
 502                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jul 25
 503                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 504                         -3:00   -       -03
 505 #
 506 # Jujuy (JY)
 507 Zone America/Argentina/Jujuy -4:21:12 - LMT     1894 Oct 31
 508                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 509                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 510                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 511                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1990 Mar  4
 512                         -4:00   -       -04     1990 Oct 28
 513                         -4:00   1:00    -03     1991 Mar 17
 514                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 Oct  6
 515                         -3:00   1:00    -02     1992
 516                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 517                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 518                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 519                         -3:00   -       -03
 520 #
 521 # Catamarca (CT), Chubut (CH)
 522 Zone America/Argentina/Catamarca -4:23:08 - LMT 1894 Oct 31
 523                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 524                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 525                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 526                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1991 Mar  3
 527                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 Oct 20
 528                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 529                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 530                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 Jun  1
 531                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jun 20
 532                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 533                         -3:00   -       -03
 534 #
 535 # Mendoza (MZ)
 536 Zone America/Argentina/Mendoza -4:35:16 - LMT   1894 Oct 31
 537                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 538                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 539                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 540                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1990 Mar  4
 541                         -4:00   -       -04     1990 Oct 15
 542                         -4:00   1:00    -03     1991 Mar  1
 543                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 Oct 15
 544                         -4:00   1:00    -03     1992 Mar  1
 545                         -4:00   -       -04     1992 Oct 18
 546                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 547                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 548                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 May 23
 549                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Sep 26
 550                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 551                         -3:00   -       -03
 552 #
 553 # San Luis (SL)
 554 
 555 Rule    SanLuis 2008    2009    -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:00    0       -
 556 Rule    SanLuis 2007    2008    -       Oct     Sun>=8       0:00    1:00    -
 557 
 558 Zone America/Argentina/San_Luis -4:25:24 - LMT  1894 Oct 31
 559                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 560                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 561                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 562                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1990
 563                         -3:00   1:00    -02     1990 Mar 14
 564                         -4:00   -       -04     1990 Oct 15
 565                         -4:00   1:00    -03     1991 Mar  1
 566                         -4:00   -       -04     1991 Jun  1
 567                         -3:00   -       -03     1999 Oct  3
 568                         -4:00   1:00    -03     2000 Mar  3
 569                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 May 31
 570                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jul 25
 571                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Jan 21
 572                         -4:00   SanLuis -04/-03 2009 Oct 11
 573                         -3:00   -       -03
 574 #
 575 # Santa Cruz (SC)
 576 Zone America/Argentina/Rio_Gallegos -4:36:52 - LMT      1894 Oct 31
 577                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 578                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 579                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 580                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 581                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 582                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 Jun  1
 583                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jun 20
 584                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 585                         -3:00   -       -03
 586 #
 587 # Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur (TF)
 588 Zone America/Argentina/Ushuaia -4:33:12 - LMT   1894 Oct 31
 589                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 590                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 591                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 592                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 593                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 594                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 May 30
 595                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jun 20
 596                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 597                         -3:00   -       -03
 598 
 599 # Aruba
 600 Link America/Curacao America/Aruba
 601 
 602 # Bolivia
 603 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 604 Zone    America/La_Paz  -4:32:36 -      LMT     1890
 605                         -4:32:36 -      CMT     1931 Oct 15 # Calamarca MT
 606                         -4:32:36 1:00   BST     1932 Mar 21 # Bolivia ST
 607                         -4:00   -       -04
 608 
 609 # Brazil
 610 
 611 # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
 612 # The mayor of Rio recently attempted to change the time zone rules
 613 # just in his city, in order to leave more summer time for the tourist trade.
 614 # The rule change lasted only part of the day;
 615 # the federal government refused to follow the city's rules, and business
 616 # was in a chaos, so the mayor backed down that afternoon.
 617 
 618 # From IATA SSIM (1996-02):
 619 # _Only_ the following states in BR1 observe DST: Rio Grande do Sul (RS),
 620 # Santa Catarina (SC), Paraná (PR), São Paulo (SP), Rio de Janeiro (RJ),
 621 # Espírito Santo (ES), Minas Gerais (MG), Bahia (BA), Goiás (GO),
 622 # Distrito Federal (DF), Tocantins (TO), Sergipe [SE] and Alagoas [AL].
 623 # [The last three states are new to this issue of the IATA SSIM.]
 624 
 625 # From Gwillim Law (1996-10-07):
 626 # Geography, history (Tocantins was part of Goiás until 1989), and other
 627 # sources of time zone information lead me to believe that AL, SE, and TO were
 628 # always in BR1, and so the only change was whether or not they observed DST....
 629 # The earliest issue of the SSIM I have is 2/91.  Each issue from then until
 630 # 9/95 says that DST is observed only in the ten states I quoted from 9/95,
 631 # along with Mato Grosso (MT) and Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), which are in BR2
 632 # (UTC-4)....  The other two time zones given for Brazil are BR3, which is
 633 # UTC-5, no DST, and applies only in the state of Acre (AC); and BR4, which is
 634 # UTC-2, and applies to Fernando de Noronha (formerly FN, but I believe it's
 635 # become part of the state of Pernambuco).  The boundary between BR1 and BR2
 636 # has never been clearly stated.  They've simply been called East and West.
 637 # However, some conclusions can be drawn from another IATA manual: the Airline
 638 # Coding Directory, which lists close to 400 airports in Brazil.  For each
 639 # airport it gives a time zone which is coded to the SSIM.  From that
 640 # information, I'm led to conclude that the states of Amapá (AP), Ceará (CE),
 641 # Maranhão (MA), Paraíba (PR), Pernambuco (PE), Piauí (PI), and Rio Grande do
 642 # Norte (RN), and the eastern part of Pará (PA) are all in BR1 without DST.
 643 
 644 # From Marcos Tadeu (1998-09-27):
 645 # Brazilian official page <http://pcdsh01.on.br/verao1.html>
 646 
 647 # From Jesper Nørgaard (2000-11-03):
 648 # [For an official list of which regions in Brazil use which time zones, see:]
 649 # http://pcdsh01.on.br/Fusbr.htm
 650 # http://pcdsh01.on.br/Fusbrhv.htm
 651 
 652 # From Celso Doria via David Madeo (2002-10-09):
 653 # The reason for the delay this year has to do with elections in Brazil.
 654 #
 655 # Unlike in the United States, elections in Brazil are 100% computerized and
 656 # the results are known almost immediately.  Yesterday, it was the first
 657 # round of the elections when 115 million Brazilians voted for President,
 658 # Governor, Senators, Federal Deputies, and State Deputies.  Nobody is
 659 # counting (or re-counting) votes anymore and we know there will be a second
 660 # round for the Presidency and also for some Governors.  The 2nd round will
 661 # take place on October 27th.
 662 #
 663 # The reason why the DST will only begin November 3rd is that the thousands
 664 # of electoral machines used cannot have their time changed, and since the
 665 # Constitution says the elections must begin at 8:00 AM and end at 5:00 PM,
 666 # the Government decided to postpone DST, instead of changing the Constitution
 667 # (maybe, for the next elections, it will be possible to change the clock)...
 668 
 669 # From Rodrigo Severo (2004-10-04):
 670 # It's just the biannual change made necessary by the much hyped, supposedly
 671 # modern Brazilian eletronic voting machines which, apparently, can't deal
 672 # with a time change between the first and the second rounds of the elections.
 673 
 674 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-09-20):
 675 # Brazil will start DST on 2007-10-14 00:00 and end on 2008-02-17 00:00:
 676 # http://www.mme.gov.br/site/news/detail.do;jsessionid=BBA06811AFCAAC28F0285210913513DA?newsId=13975
 677 
 678 # From Paul Schulze (2008-06-24):
 679 # ...by law number 11.662 of April 24, 2008 (published in the "Diario
 680 # Oficial da União"...) in Brazil there are changes in the timezones,
 681 # effective today (00:00am at June 24, 2008) as follows:
 682 #
 683 # a) The timezone UTC+5 is extinguished, with all the Acre state and the
 684 # part of the Amazonas state that had this timezone now being put to the
 685 # timezone UTC+4
 686 # b) The whole Pará state now is put at timezone UTC+3, instead of just
 687 # part of it, as was before.
 688 #
 689 # This change follows a proposal of senator Tiao Viana of Acre state, that
 690 # proposed it due to concerns about open television channels displaying
 691 # programs inappropriate to youths in the states that had the timezone
 692 # UTC+5 too early in the night. In the occasion, some more corrections
 693 # were proposed, trying to unify the timezones of any given state. This
 694 # change modifies timezone rules defined in decree 2.784 of 18 June,
 695 # 1913.
 696 
 697 # From Rodrigo Severo (2008-06-24):
 698 # Just correcting the URL:
 699 # https://www.in.gov.br/imprensa/visualiza/index.jsp?jornal=do&secao=1&pagina=1&data=25/04/2008
 700 #
 701 # As a result of the above Decree I believe the America/Rio_Branco
 702 # timezone shall be modified from UTC-5 to UTC-4 and a new timezone shall
 703 # be created to represent the...west side of the Pará State. I
 704 # suggest this new timezone be called Santarem as the most
 705 # important/populated city in the affected area.
 706 #
 707 # This new timezone would be the same as the Rio_Branco timezone up to
 708 # the 2008/06/24 change which would be to UTC-3 instead of UTC-4.
 709 
 710 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-06-24):
 711 # This is a quick reference page for New and Old Brazil Time Zones map.
 712 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/brazil-time-new-old.php
 713 #
 714 # - 4 time zones replaced by 3 time zones - eliminating time zone UTC-05
 715 # (state Acre and the part of the Amazonas will be UTC/GMT-04) - western
 716 # part of Par state is moving to one timezone UTC-03 (from UTC-04).
 717 
 718 # From Paul Eggert (2002-10-10):
 719 # The official decrees referenced below are mostly taken from
 720 # Decretos sobre o Horário de Verão no Brasil.
 721 # http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV.html
 722 
 723 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-08-29):
 724 # As announced by the government and many newspapers in Brazil late
 725 # yesterday, Brazil will start DST on 2008-10-19 (need to change rule) and
 726 # it will end on 2009-02-15 (current rule for Brazil is fine). Based on
 727 # past years experience with the elections, there was a good chance that
 728 # the start was postponed to November, but it did not happen this year.
 729 #
 730 # It has not yet been posted to http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV.html
 731 #
 732 # An official page about it:
 733 # http://www.mme.gov.br/site/news/detail.do?newsId=16722
 734 # Note that this link does not always work directly, but must be accessed
 735 # by going to
 736 # http://www.mme.gov.br/first
 737 #
 738 # One example link that works directly:
 739 # http://jornale.com.br/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=13530&Itemid=54
 740 # (Portuguese)
 741 #
 742 # We have a written a short article about it as well:
 743 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/brazil-dst-2008-2009.html
 744 #
 745 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-10-04):
 746 # State Bahia will return to Daylight savings time this year after 8 years off.
 747 # The announcement was made by Governor Jaques Wagner in an interview to a
 748 # television station in Salvador.
 749 
 750 # In Portuguese:
 751 # http://g1.globo.com/bahia/noticia/2011/10/governador-jaques-wagner-confirma-horario-de-verao-na-bahia.html
 752 # https://noticias.terra.com.br/brasil/noticias/0,,OI5390887-EI8139,00-Bahia+volta+a+ter+horario+de+verao+apos+oito+anos.html
 753 
 754 # From Guilherme Bernardes Rodrigues (2011-10-07):
 755 # There is news in the media, however there is still no decree about it.
 756 # I just send a e-mail to Zulmira Brandao at http://pcdsh01.on.br/ the
 757 # official agency about time in Brazil, and she confirmed that the old rule is
 758 # still in force.
 759 
 760 # From Guilherme Bernardes Rodrigues (2011-10-14)
 761 # It's official, the President signed a decree that includes Bahia in summer
 762 # time.
 763 #        [ and in a second message (same day): ]
 764 # I found the decree.
 765 #
 766 # DECRETO No. 7.584, DE 13 DE OUTUBRO DE 2011
 767 # Link :
 768 # http://www.in.gov.br/visualiza/index.jsp?data=13/10/2011&jornal=1000&pagina=6&totalArquivos=6
 769 
 770 # From Kelley Cook (2012-10-16):
 771 # The governor of state of Bahia in Brazil announced on Thursday that
 772 # due to public pressure, he is reversing the DST policy they implemented
 773 # last year and will not be going to Summer Time on October 21st....
 774 # http://www.correio24horas.com.br/r/artigo/apos-pressoes-wagner-suspende-horario-de-verao-na-bahia
 775 
 776 # From Rodrigo Severo (2012-10-16):
 777 # Tocantins state will have DST.
 778 # https://noticias.terra.com.br/brasil/noticias/0,,OI6232536-EI306.html
 779 
 780 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-09-20):
 781 # Tocantins in Brazil is very likely not to observe DST from October....
 782 # http://conexaoto.com.br/2013/09/18/ministerio-confirma-que-tocantins-esta-fora-do-horario-de-verao-em-2013-mas-falta-publicacao-de-decreto
 783 # We will keep this article updated when this is confirmed:
 784 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/brazil-starts-dst-2013.html
 785 
 786 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-10-17):
 787 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/acre-amazonas-change-time-zone.html
 788 # Senator Jorge Viana announced that Acre will change time zone on November 10.
 789 # He did not specify the time of the change, nor if western parts of Amazonas
 790 # will change as well.
 791 #
 792 # From Paul Eggert (2013-10-17):
 793 # For now, assume western Amazonas will change as well.
 794 
 795 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 796 # Decree 20,466 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV20466.htm> (1931-10-01)
 797 # Decree 21,896 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV21896.htm> (1932-01-10)
 798 Rule    Brazil  1931    only    -       Oct      3      11:00   1:00    -
 799 Rule    Brazil  1932    1933    -       Apr      1       0:00   0       -
 800 Rule    Brazil  1932    only    -       Oct      3       0:00   1:00    -
 801 # Decree 23,195 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV23195.htm> (1933-10-10)
 802 # revoked DST.
 803 # Decree 27,496 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV27496.htm> (1949-11-24)
 804 # Decree 27,998 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV27998.htm> (1950-04-13)
 805 Rule    Brazil  1949    1952    -       Dec      1       0:00   1:00    -
 806 Rule    Brazil  1950    only    -       Apr     16       1:00   0       -
 807 Rule    Brazil  1951    1952    -       Apr      1       0:00   0       -
 808 # Decree 32,308 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV32308.htm> (1953-02-24)
 809 Rule    Brazil  1953    only    -       Mar      1       0:00   0       -
 810 # Decree 34,724 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV34724.htm> (1953-11-30)
 811 # revoked DST.
 812 # Decree 52,700 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV52700.htm> (1963-10-18)
 813 # established DST from 1963-10-23 00:00 to 1964-02-29 00:00
 814 # in SP, RJ, GB, MG, ES, due to the prolongation of the drought.
 815 # Decree 53,071 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV53071.htm> (1963-12-03)
 816 # extended the above decree to all of the national territory on 12-09.
 817 Rule    Brazil  1963    only    -       Dec      9       0:00   1:00    -
 818 # Decree 53,604 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV53604.htm> (1964-02-25)
 819 # extended summer time by one day to 1964-03-01 00:00 (start of school).
 820 Rule    Brazil  1964    only    -       Mar      1       0:00   0       -
 821 # Decree 55,639 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV55639.htm> (1965-01-27)
 822 Rule    Brazil  1965    only    -       Jan     31       0:00   1:00    -
 823 Rule    Brazil  1965    only    -       Mar     31       0:00   0       -
 824 # Decree 57,303 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV57303.htm> (1965-11-22)
 825 Rule    Brazil  1965    only    -       Dec      1       0:00   1:00    -
 826 # Decree 57,843 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV57843.htm> (1966-02-18)
 827 Rule    Brazil  1966    1968    -       Mar      1       0:00   0       -
 828 Rule    Brazil  1966    1967    -       Nov      1       0:00   1:00    -
 829 # Decree 63,429 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV63429.htm> (1968-10-15)
 830 # revoked DST.
 831 # Decree 91,698 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV91698.htm> (1985-09-27)
 832 Rule    Brazil  1985    only    -       Nov      2       0:00   1:00    -
 833 # Decree 92,310 (1986-01-21)
 834 # Decree 92,463 (1986-03-13)
 835 Rule    Brazil  1986    only    -       Mar     15       0:00   0       -
 836 # Decree 93,316 (1986-10-01)
 837 Rule    Brazil  1986    only    -       Oct     25       0:00   1:00    -
 838 Rule    Brazil  1987    only    -       Feb     14       0:00   0       -
 839 # Decree 94,922 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV94922.htm> (1987-09-22)
 840 Rule    Brazil  1987    only    -       Oct     25       0:00   1:00    -
 841 Rule    Brazil  1988    only    -       Feb      7       0:00   0       -
 842 # Decree 96,676 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV96676.htm> (1988-09-12)
 843 # except for the states of AC, AM, PA, RR, RO, and AP (then a territory)
 844 Rule    Brazil  1988    only    -       Oct     16       0:00   1:00    -
 845 Rule    Brazil  1989    only    -       Jan     29       0:00   0       -
 846 # Decree 98,077 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV98077.htm> (1989-08-21)
 847 # with the same exceptions
 848 Rule    Brazil  1989    only    -       Oct     15       0:00   1:00    -
 849 Rule    Brazil  1990    only    -       Feb     11       0:00   0       -
 850 # Decree 99,530 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV99530.htm> (1990-09-17)
 851 # adopted by RS, SC, PR, SP, RJ, ES, MG, GO, MS, DF.
 852 # Decree 99,629 (1990-10-19) adds BA, MT.
 853 Rule    Brazil  1990    only    -       Oct     21       0:00   1:00    -
 854 Rule    Brazil  1991    only    -       Feb     17       0:00   0       -
 855 # Unnumbered decree <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1991.htm> (1991-09-25)
 856 # adopted by RS, SC, PR, SP, RJ, ES, MG, BA, GO, MT, MS, DF.
 857 Rule    Brazil  1991    only    -       Oct     20       0:00   1:00    -
 858 Rule    Brazil  1992    only    -       Feb      9       0:00   0       -
 859 # Unnumbered decree <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1992.htm> (1992-10-16)
 860 # adopted by same states.
 861 Rule    Brazil  1992    only    -       Oct     25       0:00   1:00    -
 862 Rule    Brazil  1993    only    -       Jan     31       0:00   0       -
 863 # Decree 942 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV942.htm> (1993-09-28)
 864 # adopted by same states, plus AM.
 865 # Decree 1,252 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1252.htm> (1994-09-22;
 866 # web page corrected 2004-01-07) adopted by same states, minus AM.
 867 # Decree 1,636 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1636.htm> (1995-09-14)
 868 # adopted by same states, plus MT and TO.
 869 # Decree 1,674 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV1674.htm> (1995-10-13)
 870 # adds AL, SE.
 871 Rule    Brazil  1993    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=11       0:00   1:00    -
 872 Rule    Brazil  1994    1995    -       Feb     Sun>=15       0:00   0       -
 873 Rule    Brazil  1996    only    -       Feb     11       0:00   0       -
 874 # Decree 2,000 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HV2000.htm> (1996-09-04)
 875 # adopted by same states, minus AL, SE.
 876 Rule    Brazil  1996    only    -       Oct      6       0:00   1:00    -
 877 Rule    Brazil  1997    only    -       Feb     16       0:00   0       -
 878 # From Daniel C. Sobral (1998-02-12):
 879 # In 1997, the DS began on October 6. The stated reason was that
 880 # because international television networks ignored Brazil's policy on DS,
 881 # they bought the wrong times on satellite for coverage of Pope's visit.
 882 # This year, the ending date of DS was postponed to March 1
 883 # to help dealing with the shortages of electric power.
 884 #
 885 # Decree 2,317 (1997-09-04), adopted by same states.
 886 Rule    Brazil  1997    only    -       Oct      6       0:00   1:00    -
 887 # Decree 2,495 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/HV2495.JPG>
 888 # (1998-02-10)
 889 Rule    Brazil  1998    only    -       Mar      1       0:00   0       -
 890 # Decree 2,780 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/Hv98.jpg> (1998-09-11)
 891 # adopted by the same states as before.
 892 Rule    Brazil  1998    only    -       Oct     11       0:00   1:00    -
 893 Rule    Brazil  1999    only    -       Feb     21       0:00   0       -
 894 # Decree 3,150 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/HV3150.gif>
 895 # (1999-08-23) adopted by same states.
 896 # Decree 3,188 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV99.gif> (1999-09-30)
 897 # adds SE, AL, PB, PE, RN, CE, PI, MA and RR.
 898 Rule    Brazil  1999    only    -       Oct      3       0:00   1:00    -
 899 Rule    Brazil  2000    only    -       Feb     27       0:00   0       -
 900 # Decree 3,592 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DEC3592.htm> (2000-09-06)
 901 # adopted by the same states as before.
 902 # Decree 3,630 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/Dec3630.jpg> (2000-10-13)
 903 # repeals DST in PE and RR, effective 2000-10-15 00:00.
 904 # Decree 3,632 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/Dec3632.jpg> (2000-10-17)
 905 # repeals DST in SE, AL, PB, RN, CE, PI and MA, effective 2000-10-22 00:00.
 906 # Decree 3,916 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/figuras/HV3916.gif>
 907 # (2001-09-13) reestablishes DST in AL, CE, MA, PB, PE, PI, RN, SE.
 908 Rule    Brazil  2000    2001    -       Oct     Sun>=8        0:00   1:00    -
 909 Rule    Brazil  2001    2006    -       Feb     Sun>=15       0:00   0       -
 910 # Decree 4,399 (2002-10-01) repeals DST in AL, CE, MA, PB, PE, PI, RN, SE.
 911 # 4,399 <http://www.presidencia.gov.br/CCIVIL/decreto/2002/D4399.htm>
 912 Rule    Brazil  2002    only    -       Nov      3       0:00   1:00    -
 913 # Decree 4,844 (2003-09-24; corrected 2003-09-26) repeals DST in BA, MT, TO.
 914 # 4,844 <http://www.presidencia.gov.br/CCIVIL/decreto/2003/D4844.htm>
 915 Rule    Brazil  2003    only    -       Oct     19       0:00   1:00    -
 916 # Decree 5,223 (2004-10-01) reestablishes DST in MT.
 917 # 5,223 <http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2004-2006/2004/Decreto/D5223.htm>
 918 Rule    Brazil  2004    only    -       Nov      2       0:00   1:00    -
 919 # Decree 5,539 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV5539.gif> (2005-09-19),
 920 # adopted by the same states as before.
 921 Rule    Brazil  2005    only    -       Oct     16       0:00   1:00    -
 922 # Decree 5,920 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV5920.gif> (2006-10-03),
 923 # adopted by the same states as before.
 924 Rule    Brazil  2006    only    -       Nov      5       0:00   1:00    -
 925 Rule    Brazil  2007    only    -       Feb     25       0:00   0       -
 926 # Decree 6,212 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV6212.gif> (2007-09-26),
 927 # adopted by the same states as before.
 928 Rule    Brazil  2007    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8        0:00   1:00    -
 929 # From Frederico A. C. Neves (2008-09-10):
 930 # According to this decree
 931 # http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2007-2010/2008/Decreto/D6558.htm
 932 # [t]he DST period in Brazil now on will be from the 3rd Oct Sunday to the
 933 # 3rd Feb Sunday. There is an exception on the return date when this is
 934 # the Carnival Sunday then the return date will be the next Sunday...
 935 Rule    Brazil  2008    2017    -       Oct     Sun>=15      0:00    1:00    -
 936 Rule    Brazil  2008    2011    -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 937 # Decree 7,584 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HVdecreto7584_20111013.jpg> (2011-10-13)
 938 # added Bahia.
 939 Rule    Brazil  2012    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
 940 # Decree 7,826 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HVdecreto7826_20121015.jpg> (2012-10-15)
 941 # removed Bahia and added Tocantins.
 942 # Decree 8,112 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HVdecreto8112_20130930.JPG> (2013-09-30)
 943 # removed Tocantins.
 944 Rule    Brazil  2013    2014    -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 945 Rule    Brazil  2015    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
 946 Rule    Brazil  2016    2019    -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 947 # From Steffen Thorsen (2017-12-18):
 948 # According to many media sources, next year's DST start in Brazil will move to
 949 # the first Sunday of November
 950 # ... https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/brazil-delays-dst-2018.html
 951 # From Steffen Thorsen (2017-12-20):
 952 # http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2015-2018/2017/decreto/D9242.htm
 953 # From Fábio Gomes (2018-10-04):
 954 # The Brazilian president just announced a new change on this year DST.
 955 # It was scheduled to start on November 4th and it was changed to November 18th.
 956 # From Rodrigo Brüning Wessler (2018-10-15):
 957 # The Brazilian government just announced that the change in DST was
 958 # canceled....  Maybe the president Michel Temer also woke up one hour
 959 # earlier today. :)
 960 Rule    Brazil  2018    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    -
 961 # The last ruleset listed above says that the following states observed DST:
 962 # DF, ES, GO, MG, MS, MT, PR, RJ, RS, SC, SP.
 963 #
 964 # From Steffen Thorsen (2019-04-05):
 965 # According to multiple sources the Brazilian president wants to get rid of DST.
 966 # https://gmconline.com.br/noticias/politica/bolsonaro-horario-de-verao-deve-acabar-este-ano
 967 # https://g1.globo.com/economia/noticia/2019/04/05/governo-anuncia-fim-do-horario-de-verao.ghtml
 968 # From Marcus Diniz (2019-04-25):
 969 # Brazil no longer has DST changes - decree signed today
 970 # https://g1.globo.com/politica/noticia/2019/04/25/bolsonaro-assina-decreto-que-acaba-com-o-horario-de-verao.ghtml
 971 # From Daniel Soares de Oliveira (2019-04-26):
 972 # http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2019-2022/2019/Decreto/D9772.htm
 973 
 974 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 975 #
 976 # Fernando de Noronha (administratively part of PE)
 977 Zone America/Noronha    -2:09:40 -      LMT     1914
 978                         -2:00   Brazil  -02/-01 1990 Sep 17
 979                         -2:00   -       -02     1999 Sep 30
 980                         -2:00   Brazil  -02/-01 2000 Oct 15
 981                         -2:00   -       -02     2001 Sep 13
 982                         -2:00   Brazil  -02/-01 2002 Oct  1
 983                         -2:00   -       -02
 984 # Other Atlantic islands have no permanent settlement.
 985 # These include Trindade and Martim Vaz (administratively part of ES),
 986 # Rocas Atoll (RN), and the St Peter and St Paul Archipelago (PE).
 987 # Fernando de Noronha was a separate territory from 1942-09-02 to 1989-01-01;
 988 # it also included the Penedos.
 989 #
 990 # Amapá (AP), east Pará (PA)
 991 # East Pará includes Belém, Marabá, Serra Norte, and São Félix do Xingu.
 992 # The division between east and west Pará is the river Xingu.
 993 # In the north a very small part from the river Javary (now Jari I guess,
 994 # the border with Amapá) to the Amazon, then to the Xingu.
 995 Zone America/Belem      -3:13:56 -      LMT     1914
 996                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1988 Sep 12
 997                         -3:00   -       -03
 998 #
 999 # west Pará (PA)
1000 # West Pará includes Altamira, Óbidos, Prainha, Oriximiná, and Santarém.
1001 Zone America/Santarem   -3:38:48 -      LMT     1914
1002                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 1988 Sep 12
1003                         -4:00   -       -04     2008 Jun 24  0:00
1004                         -3:00   -       -03
1005 #
1006 # Maranhão (MA), Piauí (PI), Ceará (CE), Rio Grande do Norte (RN),
1007 # Paraíba (PB)
1008 Zone America/Fortaleza  -2:34:00 -      LMT     1914
1009                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1990 Sep 17
1010                         -3:00   -       -03     1999 Sep 30
1011                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2000 Oct 22
1012                         -3:00   -       -03     2001 Sep 13
1013                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2002 Oct  1
1014                         -3:00   -       -03
1015 #
1016 # Pernambuco (PE) (except Atlantic islands)
1017 Zone America/Recife     -2:19:36 -      LMT     1914
1018                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1990 Sep 17
1019                         -3:00   -       -03     1999 Sep 30
1020                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2000 Oct 15
1021                         -3:00   -       -03     2001 Sep 13
1022                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2002 Oct  1
1023                         -3:00   -       -03
1024 #
1025 # Tocantins (TO)
1026 Zone America/Araguaina  -3:12:48 -      LMT     1914
1027                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1990 Sep 17
1028                         -3:00   -       -03     1995 Sep 14
1029                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2003 Sep 24
1030                         -3:00   -       -03     2012 Oct 21
1031                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2013 Sep
1032                         -3:00   -       -03
1033 #
1034 # Alagoas (AL), Sergipe (SE)
1035 Zone America/Maceio     -2:22:52 -      LMT     1914
1036                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1990 Sep 17
1037                         -3:00   -       -03     1995 Oct 13
1038                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1996 Sep  4
1039                         -3:00   -       -03     1999 Sep 30
1040                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2000 Oct 22
1041                         -3:00   -       -03     2001 Sep 13
1042                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2002 Oct  1
1043                         -3:00   -       -03
1044 #
1045 # Bahia (BA)
1046 # There are too many Salvadors elsewhere, so use America/Bahia instead
1047 # of America/Salvador.
1048 Zone America/Bahia      -2:34:04 -      LMT     1914
1049                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2003 Sep 24
1050                         -3:00   -       -03     2011 Oct 16
1051                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 2012 Oct 21
1052                         -3:00   -       -03
1053 #
1054 # Goiás (GO), Distrito Federal (DF), Minas Gerais (MG),
1055 # Espírito Santo (ES), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), São Paulo (SP), Paraná (PR),
1056 # Santa Catarina (SC), Rio Grande do Sul (RS)
1057 Zone America/Sao_Paulo  -3:06:28 -      LMT     1914
1058                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02 1963 Oct 23  0:00
1059                         -3:00   1:00    -02     1964
1060                         -3:00   Brazil  -03/-02
1061 #
1062 # Mato Grosso do Sul (MS)
1063 Zone America/Campo_Grande -3:38:28 -    LMT     1914
1064                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03
1065 #
1066 # Mato Grosso (MT)
1067 Zone America/Cuiaba     -3:44:20 -      LMT     1914
1068                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 2003 Sep 24
1069                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Oct  1
1070                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03
1071 #
1072 # Rondônia (RO)
1073 Zone America/Porto_Velho -4:15:36 -     LMT     1914
1074                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 1988 Sep 12
1075                         -4:00   -       -04
1076 #
1077 # Roraima (RR)
1078 Zone America/Boa_Vista  -4:02:40 -      LMT     1914
1079                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 1988 Sep 12
1080                         -4:00   -       -04     1999 Sep 30
1081                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 2000 Oct 15
1082                         -4:00   -       -04
1083 #
1084 # east Amazonas (AM): Boca do Acre, Jutaí, Manaus, Floriano Peixoto
1085 # The great circle line from Tabatinga to Porto Acre divides
1086 # east from west Amazonas.
1087 Zone America/Manaus     -4:00:04 -      LMT     1914
1088                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 1988 Sep 12
1089                         -4:00   -       -04     1993 Sep 28
1090                         -4:00   Brazil  -04/-03 1994 Sep 22
1091                         -4:00   -       -04
1092 #
1093 # west Amazonas (AM): Atalaia do Norte, Boca do Maoco, Benjamin Constant,
1094 #       Eirunepé, Envira, Ipixuna
1095 Zone America/Eirunepe   -4:39:28 -      LMT     1914
1096                         -5:00   Brazil  -05/-04 1988 Sep 12
1097                         -5:00   -       -05     1993 Sep 28
1098                         -5:00   Brazil  -05/-04 1994 Sep 22
1099                         -5:00   -       -05     2008 Jun 24  0:00
1100                         -4:00   -       -04     2013 Nov 10
1101                         -5:00   -       -05
1102 #
1103 # Acre (AC)
1104 Zone America/Rio_Branco -4:31:12 -      LMT     1914
1105                         -5:00   Brazil  -05/-04 1988 Sep 12
1106                         -5:00   -       -05     2008 Jun 24  0:00
1107                         -4:00   -       -04     2013 Nov 10
1108                         -5:00   -       -05
1109 
1110 # Chile
1111 
1112 # From Paul Eggert (2015-04-03):
1113 # Shanks & Pottenger says America/Santiago introduced standard time in
1114 # 1890 and rounds its UT offset to 70W40; guess that in practice this
1115 # was the same offset as in 1916-1919.  It also says Pacific/Easter
1116 # standardized on 109W22 in 1890; assume this didn't change the clocks.
1117 #
1118 # Dates for America/Santiago from 1910 to 2004 are primarily from
1119 # the following source, cited by Oscar van Vlijmen (2006-10-08):
1120 # [1] Chile Law
1121 # http://www.webexhibits.org/daylightsaving/chile.html
1122 # This contains a copy of this official table:
1123 # Cambios en la hora oficial de Chile desde 1900 (retrieved 2008-03-30)
1124 # https://web.archive.org/web/20080330200901/http://www.horaoficial.cl/cambio.htm
1125 # [1] needs several corrections, though.
1126 #
1127 # The first set of corrections is from:
1128 # [2] History of the Official Time of Chile
1129 # http://www.horaoficial.cl/ing/horaof_ing.html (retrieved 2012-03-06).  See:
1130 # https://web.archive.org/web/20120306042032/http://www.horaoficial.cl/ing/horaof_ing.html
1131 # This is an English translation of:
1132 # Historia de la hora oficial de Chile (retrieved 2012-10-24).  See:
1133 # https://web.archive.org/web/20121024234627/http://www.horaoficial.cl/horaof.htm
1134 # A fancier Spanish version (requiring mouse-clicking) is at:
1135 # http://www.horaoficial.cl/historia_hora.html
1136 # Conflicts between [1] and [2] were resolved as follows:
1137 #
1138 #  - [1] says the 1910 transition was Jan 1, [2] says Jan 10 and cites
1139 #    Boletín No. 1, Aviso No. 1 (1910).  Go with [2].
1140 #
1141 #  - [1] says SMT was -4:42:45, [2] says Chile's official time from
1142 #    1916 to 1919 was -4:42:46.3, the meridian of Chile's National
1143 #    Astronomical Observatory (OAN), then located in what is now
1144 #    Quinta Normal in Santiago.  Go with [2], rounding it to -4:42:46.
1145 #
1146 #  - [1] says the 1918 transition was Sep 1, [2] says Sep 10 and cites
1147 #    Boletín No. 22, Aviso No. 129/1918 (1918-08-23).  Go with [2].
1148 #
1149 #  - [1] does not give times for transitions; assume they occur
1150 #    at midnight mainland time, the current common practice.  However,
1151 #    go with [2]'s specification of 23:00 for the 1947-05-21 transition.
1152 #
1153 # Another correction to [1] is from Jesper Nørgaard Welen, who
1154 # wrote (2006-10-08), "I think that there are some obvious mistakes in
1155 # the suggested link from Oscar van Vlijmen,... for instance entry 66
1156 # says that GMT-4 ended 1990-09-12 while entry 67 only begins GMT-3 at
1157 # 1990-09-15 (they should have been 1990-09-15 and 1990-09-16
1158 # respectively), but anyhow it clears up some doubts too."
1159 #
1160 # Data for Pacific/Easter from 1910 through 1967 come from Shanks &
1161 # Pottenger.  After that, for lack of better info assume
1162 # Pacific/Easter is always two hours behind America/Santiago;
1163 # this is known to work for DST transitions starting in 2008 and
1164 # may well be true for earlier transitions.
1165 
1166 # From Eduardo Krell (1995-10-19):
1167 # The law says to switch to DST at midnight [24:00] on the second SATURDAY
1168 # of October....  The law is the same for March and October.
1169 # (1998-09-29):
1170 # Because of the drought this year, the government decided to go into
1171 # DST earlier (saturday 9/26 at 24:00). This is a one-time change only ...
1172 # (unless there's another dry season next year, I guess).
1173 
1174 # From Julio I. Pacheco Troncoso (1999-03-18):
1175 # Because of the same drought, the government decided to end DST later,
1176 # on April 3, (one-time change).
1177 
1178 # From Germán Poo-Caamaño (2008-03-03):
1179 # Due to drought, Chile extends Daylight Time in three weeks.  This
1180 # is one-time change (Saturday 3/29 at 24:00 for America/Santiago
1181 # and Saturday 3/29 at 22:00 for Pacific/Easter)
1182 # The Supreme Decree is located at
1183 # http://www.shoa.cl/servicios/supremo316.pdf
1184 #
1185 # From José Miguel Garrido (2008-03-05):
1186 # http://www.shoa.cl/noticias/2008/04hora/hora.htm
1187 
1188 # From Angel Chiang (2010-03-04):
1189 # Subject: DST in Chile exceptionally extended to 3 April due to earthquake
1190 # http://www.gobiernodechile.cl/viewNoticia.aspx?idArticulo=30098
1191 #
1192 # From Arthur David Olson (2010-03-06):
1193 # Angel Chiang's message confirmed by Julio Pacheco; Julio provided a patch.
1194 
1195 # From Glenn Eychaner (2011-03-28):
1196 # http://diario.elmercurio.com/2011/03/28/_portada/_portada/noticias/7565897A-CA86-49E6-9E03-660B21A4883E.htm?id=3D{7565897A-CA86-49E6-9E03-660B21A4883E}
1197 # In English:
1198 # Chile's clocks will go back an hour this year on the 7th of May instead
1199 # of this Saturday. They will go forward again the 3rd Saturday in
1200 # August, not in October as they have since 1968.
1201 
1202 # From Mauricio Parada (2012-02-22), translated by Glenn Eychaner (2012-02-23):
1203 # As stated in the website of the Chilean Energy Ministry
1204 # http://www.minenergia.cl/ministerio/noticias/generales/gobierno-anuncia-fechas-de-cambio-de.html
1205 # The Chilean Government has decided to postpone the entrance into winter time
1206 # (to leave DST) from March 11 2012 to April 28th 2012....
1207 # Quote from the website communication:
1208 #
1209 # 6. For the year 2012, the dates of entry into winter time will be as follows:
1210 # a. Saturday April 28, 2012, clocks should go back 60 minutes; that is, at
1211 # 23:59:59, instead of passing to 0:00, the time should be adjusted to be 23:00
1212 # of the same day.
1213 # b. Saturday, September 1, 2012, clocks should go forward 60 minutes; that is,
1214 # at 23:59:59, instead of passing to 0:00, the time should be adjusted to be
1215 # 01:00 on September 2.
1216 
1217 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-02-15):
1218 # According to several news sources, Chile has extended DST this year,
1219 # they will end DST later and start DST earlier than planned.  They
1220 # hope to save energy.  The new end date is 2013-04-28 00:00 and new
1221 # start date is 2013-09-08 00:00....
1222 # http://www.gob.cl/informa/2013/02/15/gobierno-anuncia-fechas-de-cambio-de-hora-para-el-ano-2013.htm
1223 
1224 # From José Miguel Garrido (2014-02-19):
1225 # Today appeared in the Diario Oficial a decree amending the time change
1226 # dates to 2014.
1227 # DST End: last Saturday of April 2014 (Sun 27 Apr 2014 03:00 UTC)
1228 # DST Start: first Saturday of September 2014 (Sun 07 Sep 2014 04:00 UTC)
1229 # http://www.diariooficial.interior.gob.cl//media/2014/02/19/do-20140219.pdf
1230 
1231 # From Eduardo Romero Urra (2015-03-03):
1232 # Today has been published officially that Chile will use the DST time
1233 # permanently until March 25 of 2017
1234 # http://www.diariooficial.interior.gob.cl/media/2015/03/03/1-large.jpg
1235 #
1236 # From Paul Eggert (2015-03-03):
1237 # For now, assume that the extension will persist indefinitely.
1238 
1239 # From Juan Correa (2016-03-18):
1240 # The decree regarding DST has been published in today's Official Gazette:
1241 # http://www.diariooficial.interior.gob.cl/versiones-anteriores/do/20160318/
1242 # http://www.leychile.cl/Navegar?idNorma=1088502
1243 # It does consider the second Saturday of May and August as the dates
1244 # for the transition; and it lists DST dates until 2019, but I think
1245 # this scheme will stick.
1246 #
1247 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
1248 # For now, assume the pattern holds for the indefinite future.
1249 # The decree says transitions occur at 24:00; in practice this appears
1250 # to mean 24:00 mainland time, not 24:00 local time, so that Easter
1251 # Island is always two hours behind the mainland.
1252 
1253 # From Juan Correa (2016-12-04):
1254 # Magallanes region ... will keep DST (UTC -3) all year round....
1255 # http://www.soychile.cl/Santiago/Sociedad/2016/12/04/433428/Bachelet-firmo-el-decreto-para-establecer-un-horario-unico-para-la-Region-de-Magallanes.aspx
1256 #
1257 # From Deborah Goldsmith (2017-01-19):
1258 # http://www.diariooficial.interior.gob.cl/publicaciones/2017/01/17/41660/01/1169626.pdf
1259 # From Paul Eggert (2017-01-19):
1260 # The above says the Magallanes change expires 2019-05-11 at 24:00,
1261 # so in theory, they will revert to -04/-03 after that, which means
1262 # they will switch from -03 to -04 one hour after Santiago does that day.
1263 # For now, assume that they will not revert.
1264 
1265 # From Juan Correa (2018-08-13):
1266 # As of moments ago, the Ministry of Energy in Chile has announced the new
1267 # schema for DST. ...  Announcement in video (in Spanish):
1268 # https://twitter.com/MinEnergia/status/1029000399129374720
1269 # From Yonathan Dossow (2018-08-13):
1270 # The video says "first Saturday of September", we all know it means Sunday at
1271 # midnight.
1272 # From Tim Parenti (2018-08-13):
1273 # Translating the captions on the video at 0:44-0:55, "We want to announce as
1274 # Government that from 2019, Winter Time will be increased to 5 months, between
1275 # the first Saturday of April and the first Saturday of September."
1276 # At 2:08-2:20, "The Magallanes region will maintain its current time, as
1277 # decided by the citizens during 2017, but our Government will promote a
1278 # regional dialogue table to gather their opinion on this matter."
1279 # https://twitter.com/MinEnergia/status/1029009354001973248
1280 # "We will keep the new time policy unchanged for at least the next 4 years."
1281 # So we extend the new rules on Saturdays at 24:00 mainland time indefinitely.
1282 # From Juan Correa (2019-02-04):
1283 # http://www.diariooficial.interior.gob.cl/publicaciones/2018/11/23/42212/01/1498738.pdf
1284 
1285 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1286 Rule    Chile   1927    1931    -       Sep      1      0:00    1:00    -
1287 Rule    Chile   1928    1932    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1288 Rule    Chile   1968    only    -       Nov      3      4:00u   1:00    -
1289 Rule    Chile   1969    only    -       Mar     30      3:00u   0       -
1290 Rule    Chile   1969    only    -       Nov     23      4:00u   1:00    -
1291 Rule    Chile   1970    only    -       Mar     29      3:00u   0       -
1292 Rule    Chile   1971    only    -       Mar     14      3:00u   0       -
1293 Rule    Chile   1970    1972    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    -
1294 Rule    Chile   1972    1986    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1295 Rule    Chile   1973    only    -       Sep     30      4:00u   1:00    -
1296 Rule    Chile   1974    1987    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    -
1297 Rule    Chile   1987    only    -       Apr     12      3:00u   0       -
1298 Rule    Chile   1988    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1299 Rule    Chile   1988    1989    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    -
1300 Rule    Chile   1990    only    -       Sep     16      4:00u   1:00    -
1301 Rule    Chile   1991    1996    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1302 Rule    Chile   1991    1997    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    -
1303 Rule    Chile   1997    only    -       Mar     30      3:00u   0       -
1304 Rule    Chile   1998    only    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1305 Rule    Chile   1998    only    -       Sep     27      4:00u   1:00    -
1306 Rule    Chile   1999    only    -       Apr      4      3:00u   0       -
1307 Rule    Chile   1999    2010    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    -
1308 Rule    Chile   2000    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1309 # N.B.: the end of March 29 in Chile is March 30 in Universal time,
1310 # which is used below in specifying the transition.
1311 Rule    Chile   2008    only    -       Mar     30      3:00u   0       -
1312 Rule    Chile   2009    only    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1313 Rule    Chile   2010    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       3:00u   0       -
1314 Rule    Chile   2011    only    -       May     Sun>=2       3:00u   0       -
1315 Rule    Chile   2011    only    -       Aug     Sun>=16      4:00u   1:00    -
1316 Rule    Chile   2012    2014    -       Apr     Sun>=23      3:00u   0       -
1317 Rule    Chile   2012    2014    -       Sep     Sun>=2       4:00u   1:00    -
1318 Rule    Chile   2016    2018    -       May     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1319 Rule    Chile   2016    2018    -       Aug     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    -
1320 Rule    Chile   2019    max     -       Apr     Sun>=2       3:00u   0       -
1321 Rule    Chile   2019    max     -       Sep     Sun>=2       4:00u   1:00    -
1322 # IATA SSIM anomalies: (1992-02) says 1992-03-14;
1323 # (1996-09) says 1998-03-08.  Ignore these.
1324 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1325 Zone America/Santiago   -4:42:46 -      LMT     1890
1326                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1910 Jan 10 # Santiago Mean Time
1327                         -5:00   -       -05     1916 Jul  1
1328                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1918 Sep 10
1329                         -4:00   -       -04     1919 Jul  1
1330                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1927 Sep  1
1331                         -5:00   Chile   -05/-04 1932 Sep  1
1332                         -4:00   -       -04     1942 Jun  1
1333                         -5:00   -       -05     1942 Aug  1
1334                         -4:00   -       -04     1946 Jul 15
1335                         -4:00   1:00    -03     1946 Sep  1 # central Chile
1336                         -4:00   -       -04     1947 Apr  1
1337                         -5:00   -       -05     1947 May 21 23:00
1338                         -4:00   Chile   -04/-03
1339 Zone America/Punta_Arenas -4:43:40 -    LMT     1890
1340                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1910 Jan 10
1341                         -5:00   -       -05     1916 Jul  1
1342                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1918 Sep 10
1343                         -4:00   -       -04     1919 Jul  1
1344                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1927 Sep  1
1345                         -5:00   Chile   -05/-04 1932 Sep  1
1346                         -4:00   -       -04     1942 Jun  1
1347                         -5:00   -       -05     1942 Aug  1
1348                         -4:00   -       -04     1947 Apr  1
1349                         -5:00   -       -05     1947 May 21 23:00
1350                         -4:00   Chile   -04/-03 2016 Dec  4
1351                         -3:00   -       -03
1352 Zone Pacific/Easter     -7:17:28 -      LMT     1890
1353                         -7:17:28 -      EMT     1932 Sep    # Easter Mean Time
1354                         -7:00   Chile   -07/-06 1982 Mar 14 3:00u # Easter Time
1355                         -6:00   Chile   -06/-05
1356 #
1357 # Salas y Gómez Island is uninhabited.
1358 # Other Chilean locations, including Juan Fernández Is, Desventuradas Is,
1359 # and Antarctic bases, are like America/Santiago.
1360 
1361 # Antarctic base using South American rules
1362 # (See the file 'antarctica' for more.)
1363 #
1364 # Palmer, Anvers Island, since 1965 (moved 2 miles in 1968)
1365 #
1366 # From Ethan Dicks (1996-10-06):
1367 # It keeps the same time as Punta Arenas, Chile, because, just like us
1368 # and the South Pole, that's the other end of their supply line....
1369 # I verified with someone who was there that since 1980,
1370 # Palmer has followed Chile.  Prior to that, before the Falklands War,
1371 # Palmer used to be supplied from Argentina.
1372 #
1373 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1374 Zone Antarctica/Palmer  0       -       -00     1965
1375                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
1376                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1982 May
1377                         -4:00   Chile   -04/-03 2016 Dec  4
1378                         -3:00   -       -03
1379 
1380 # Colombia
1381 
1382 # Milne gives 4:56:16.4 for Bogotá time in 1899; round to nearest.  He writes,
1383 # "A variation of fifteen minutes in the public clocks of Bogota is not rare."
1384 
1385 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1386 Rule    CO      1992    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    -
1387 Rule    CO      1993    only    -       Apr      4      0:00    0       -
1388 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1389 Zone    America/Bogota  -4:56:16 -      LMT     1884 Mar 13
1390                         -4:56:16 -      BMT     1914 Nov 23 # Bogotá Mean Time
1391                         -5:00   CO      -05/-04
1392 # Malpelo, Providencia, San Andres
1393 # no information; probably like America/Bogota
1394 
1395 # Curaçao
1396 
1397 # Milne gives 4:35:46.9 for Curaçao mean time; round to nearest.
1398 #
1399 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1400 # Shanks & Pottenger say that The Bottom and Philipsburg have been at
1401 # -4:00 since standard time was introduced on 1912-03-02; and that
1402 # Kralendijk and Rincon used Kralendijk Mean Time (-4:33:08) from
1403 # 1912-02-02 to 1965-01-01.  The former is dubious, since S&P also say
1404 # Saba Island has been like Curaçao.
1405 # This all predates our 1970 cutoff, though.
1406 #
1407 # By July 2007 Curaçao and St Maarten are planned to become
1408 # associated states within the Netherlands, much like Aruba;
1409 # Bonaire, Saba and St Eustatius would become directly part of the
1410 # Netherlands as Kingdom Islands.  This won't affect their time zones
1411 # though, as far as we know.
1412 #
1413 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1414 Zone    America/Curacao -4:35:47 -      LMT     1912 Feb 12 # Willemstad
1415                         -4:30   -       -0430   1965
1416                         -4:00   -       AST
1417 
1418 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
1419 # use links for places with new iso3166 codes.
1420 # The name "Lower Prince's Quarter" is both longer than fourteen characters
1421 # and contains an apostrophe; use "Lower_Princes" below.
1422 
1423 Link    America/Curacao America/Lower_Princes   # Sint Maarten
1424 Link    America/Curacao America/Kralendijk      # Caribbean Netherlands
1425 
1426 # Ecuador
1427 #
1428 # Milne says the Central and South American Telegraph Company used -5:24:15.
1429 #
1430 # From Alois Treindl (2016-12-15):
1431 # https://www.elcomercio.com/actualidad/hora-sixto-1993.html
1432 # ... Whether the law applied also to Galápagos, I do not know.
1433 # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-15):
1434 # https://www.elcomercio.com/afull/modificacion-husohorario-ecuador-presidentes-decreto.html
1435 # This says President Sixto Durán Ballén signed decree No. 285, which
1436 # established DST from 1992-11-28 to 1993-02-05; it does not give transition
1437 # times.  The people called it "hora de Sixto" ("Sixto hour").  The change did
1438 # not go over well; a popular song "Qué hora es" by Jaime Guevara had lyrics
1439 # that included "Amanecía en mitad de la noche, los guaguas iban a clase sin
1440 # sol" ("It was dawning in the middle of the night, the buses went to class
1441 # without sun").  Although Ballén's campaign slogan was "Ni un paso atrás"
1442 # (Not one step back), the clocks went back in 1993 and the experiment was not
1443 # repeated.  For now, assume transitions were at 00:00 local time country-wide.
1444 #
1445 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1446 Rule    Ecuador 1992    only    -       Nov     28      0:00    1:00    -
1447 Rule    Ecuador 1993    only    -       Feb      5      0:00    0       -
1448 #
1449 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1450 Zone America/Guayaquil  -5:19:20 -      LMT     1890
1451                         -5:14:00 -      QMT     1931 # Quito Mean Time
1452                         -5:00   Ecuador -05/-04
1453 Zone Pacific/Galapagos  -5:58:24 -      LMT     1931 # Puerto Baquerizo Moreno
1454                         -5:00   -       -05     1986
1455                         -6:00   Ecuador -06/-05
1456 
1457 # Falklands
1458 
1459 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1460 # Between 1990 and 2000 inclusive, Shanks & Pottenger and the IATA agree except
1461 # the IATA gives 1996-09-08.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1462 
1463 # From Falkland Islands Government Office, London (2001-01-22)
1464 # via Jesper Nørgaard:
1465 # ... the clocks revert back to Local Mean Time at 2 am on Sunday 15
1466 # April 2001 and advance one hour to summer time at 2 am on Sunday 2
1467 # September.  It is anticipated that the clocks will revert back at 2
1468 # am on Sunday 21 April 2002 and advance to summer time at 2 am on
1469 # Sunday 1 September.
1470 
1471 # From Rives McDow (2001-02-13):
1472 #
1473 # I have communicated several times with people there, and the last
1474 # time I had communications that was helpful was in 1998.  Here is
1475 # what was said then:
1476 #
1477 # "The general rule was that Stanley used daylight saving and the Camp
1478 # did not. However for various reasons many people in the Camp have
1479 # started to use daylight saving (known locally as 'Stanley Time')
1480 # There is no rule as to who uses daylight saving - it is a matter of
1481 # personal choice and so it is impossible to draw a map showing who
1482 # uses it and who does not. Any list would be out of date as soon as
1483 # it was produced. This year daylight saving ended on April 18/19th
1484 # and started again on September 12/13th.  I do not know what the rule
1485 # is, but can find out if you like.  We do not change at the same time
1486 # as UK or Chile."
1487 #
1488 # I did have in my notes that the rule was "Second Saturday in Sep at
1489 # 0:00 until third Saturday in Apr at 0:00".  I think that this does
1490 # not agree in some cases with Shanks; is this true?
1491 #
1492 # Also, there is no mention in the list that some areas in the
1493 # Falklands do not use DST.  I have found in my communications there
1494 # that these areas are on the western half of East Falkland and all of
1495 # West Falkland.  Stanley is the only place that consistently observes
1496 # DST.  Again, as in other places in the world, the farmers don't like
1497 # it.  West Falkland is almost entirely sheep farmers.
1498 #
1499 # I know one lady there that keeps a list of which farm keeps DST and
1500 # which doesn't each year.  She runs a shop in Stanley, and says that
1501 # the list changes each year.  She uses it to communicate to her
1502 # customers, catching them when they are home for lunch or dinner.
1503 
1504 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-05):
1505 # For now, we'll just record the time in Stanley, since we have no
1506 # better info.
1507 
1508 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-04-01):
1509 # The Falkland Islands will not turn back clocks this winter, but stay on
1510 # daylight saving time.
1511 #
1512 # One source:
1513 # http://www.falklandnews.com/public/story.cfm?get=5914&source=3
1514 #
1515 # We have gotten this confirmed by a clerk of the legislative assembly:
1516 # Normally the clocks revert to Local Mean Time (UTC/GMT -4 hours) on the
1517 # third Sunday of April at 0200hrs and advance to Summer Time (UTC/GMT -3
1518 # hours) on the first Sunday of September at 0200hrs.
1519 #
1520 # IMPORTANT NOTE: During 2011, on a trial basis, the Falkland Islands
1521 # will not revert to local mean time, but clocks will remain on Summer
1522 # time (UTC/GMT - 3 hours) throughout the whole of 2011.  Any long term
1523 # change to local time following the trial period will be notified.
1524 #
1525 # From Andrew Newman (2012-02-24)
1526 # A letter from Justin McPhee, Chief Executive,
1527 # Cable & Wireless Falkland Islands (dated 2012-02-22)
1528 # states...
1529 #   The current Atlantic/Stanley entry under South America expects the
1530 #   clocks to go back to standard Falklands Time (FKT) on the 15th April.
1531 #   The database entry states that in 2011 Stanley was staying on fixed
1532 #   summer time on a trial basis only.  FIG need to contact IANA and/or
1533 #   the maintainers of the database to inform them we're adopting
1534 #   the same policy this year and suggest recommendations for future years.
1535 #
1536 # For now we will assume permanent -03 for the Falklands
1537 # until advised differently (to apply for 2012 and beyond, after the 2011
1538 # experiment was apparently successful.)
1539 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1540 Rule    Falk    1937    1938    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    -
1541 Rule    Falk    1938    1942    -       Mar     Sun>=19      0:00    0       -
1542 Rule    Falk    1939    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    1:00    -
1543 Rule    Falk    1940    1942    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    -
1544 Rule    Falk    1943    only    -       Jan     1       0:00    0       -
1545 Rule    Falk    1983    only    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    -
1546 Rule    Falk    1984    1985    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1547 Rule    Falk    1984    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    1:00    -
1548 Rule    Falk    1985    2000    -       Sep     Sun>=9       0:00    1:00    -
1549 Rule    Falk    1986    2000    -       Apr     Sun>=16      0:00    0       -
1550 Rule    Falk    2001    2010    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00    0       -
1551 Rule    Falk    2001    2010    -       Sep     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    -
1552 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1553 Zone Atlantic/Stanley   -3:51:24 -      LMT     1890
1554                         -3:51:24 -      SMT     1912 Mar 12 # Stanley Mean Time
1555                         -4:00   Falk    -04/-03 1983 May
1556                         -3:00   Falk    -03/-02 1985 Sep 15
1557                         -4:00   Falk    -04/-03 2010 Sep  5  2:00
1558                         -3:00   -       -03
1559 
1560 # French Guiana
1561 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1562 Zone America/Cayenne    -3:29:20 -      LMT     1911 Jul
1563                         -4:00   -       -04     1967 Oct
1564                         -3:00   -       -03
1565 
1566 # Guyana
1567 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1568 Zone    America/Guyana  -3:52:40 -      LMT     1915 Mar    # Georgetown
1569                         -3:45   -       -0345   1975 Jul 31
1570                         -3:00   -       -03     1991
1571 # IATA SSIM (1996-06) says -4:00.  Assume a 1991 switch.
1572                         -4:00   -       -04
1573 
1574 # Paraguay
1575 #
1576 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1577 # Shanks & Pottenger say that spring transitions are 01:00 -> 02:00,
1578 # and autumn transitions are 00:00 -> 23:00.  Go with pre-1999
1579 # editions of Shanks, and with the IATA, who say transitions occur at 00:00.
1580 #
1581 # From Waldemar Villamayor-Venialbo (2013-09-20):
1582 # No time of the day is established for the adjustment, so people normally
1583 # adjust their clocks at 0 hour of the given dates.
1584 #
1585 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1586 Rule    Para    1975    1988    -       Oct      1      0:00    1:00    -
1587 Rule    Para    1975    1978    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       -
1588 Rule    Para    1979    1991    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1589 Rule    Para    1989    only    -       Oct     22      0:00    1:00    -
1590 Rule    Para    1990    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    1:00    -
1591 Rule    Para    1991    only    -       Oct      6      0:00    1:00    -
1592 Rule    Para    1992    only    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       -
1593 Rule    Para    1992    only    -       Oct      5      0:00    1:00    -
1594 Rule    Para    1993    only    -       Mar     31      0:00    0       -
1595 Rule    Para    1993    1995    -       Oct      1      0:00    1:00    -
1596 Rule    Para    1994    1995    -       Feb     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1597 Rule    Para    1996    only    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       -
1598 # IATA SSIM (2000-02) says 1999-10-10; ignore this for now.
1599 # From Steffen Thorsen (2000-10-02):
1600 # I have three independent reports that Paraguay changed to DST this Sunday
1601 # (10-01).
1602 #
1603 # Translated by Gwillim Law (2001-02-27) from
1604 # Noticias, a daily paper in Asunción, Paraguay (2000-10-01):
1605 # http://www.diarionoticias.com.py/011000/nacional/naciona1.htm
1606 # Starting at 0:00 today, the clock will be set forward 60 minutes, in
1607 # fulfillment of Decree No. 7,273 of the Executive Power....  The time change
1608 # system has been operating for several years.  Formerly there was a separate
1609 # decree each year; the new law has the same effect, but permanently.  Every
1610 # year, the time will change on the first Sunday of October; likewise, the
1611 # clock will be set back on the first Sunday of March.
1612 #
1613 Rule    Para    1996    2001    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    -
1614 # IATA SSIM (1997-09) says Mar 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1615 Rule    Para    1997    only    -       Feb     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1616 # Shanks & Pottenger say 1999-02-28; IATA SSIM (1999-02) says 1999-02-27, but
1617 # (1999-09) reports no date; go with above sources and Gerd Knops (2001-02-27).
1618 Rule    Para    1998    2001    -       Mar     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
1619 # From Rives McDow (2002-02-28):
1620 # A decree was issued in Paraguay (No. 16350) on 2002-02-26 that changed the
1621 # dst method to be from the first Sunday in September to the first Sunday in
1622 # April.
1623 Rule    Para    2002    2004    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
1624 Rule    Para    2002    2003    -       Sep     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    -
1625 #
1626 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-01-02):
1627 # There are several sources that claim that Paraguay made
1628 # a timezone rule change in autumn 2004.
1629 # From Steffen Thorsen (2005-01-05):
1630 # Decree 1,867 (2004-03-05)
1631 # From Carlos Raúl Perasso via Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-10-13)
1632 # http://www.presidencia.gov.py/decretos/D1867.pdf
1633 Rule    Para    2004    2009    -       Oct     Sun>=15      0:00    1:00    -
1634 Rule    Para    2005    2009    -       Mar     Sun>=8       0:00    0       -
1635 # From Carlos Raúl Perasso (2010-02-18):
1636 # By decree number 3958 issued yesterday
1637 # http://www.presidencia.gov.py/v1/wp-content/uploads/2010/02/decreto3958.pdf
1638 # Paraguay changes its DST schedule, postponing the March rule to April and
1639 # modifying the October date. The decree reads:
1640 # ...
1641 # Art. 1. It is hereby established that from the second Sunday of the month of
1642 # April of this year (2010), the official time is to be set back 60 minutes,
1643 # and that on the first Sunday of the month of October, it is to be set
1644 # forward 60 minutes, in all the territory of the Paraguayan Republic.
1645 # ...
1646 Rule    Para    2010    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    -
1647 Rule    Para    2010    2012    -       Apr     Sun>=8       0:00    0       -
1648 #
1649 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-03-07):
1650 # Paraguay will end DST on 2013-03-24 00:00....
1651 # http://www.ande.gov.py/interna.php?id=1075
1652 #
1653 # From Carlos Raúl Perasso (2013-03-15):
1654 # The change in Paraguay is now final.  Decree number 10780
1655 # http://www.presidencia.gov.py/uploads/pdf/presidencia-3b86ff4b691c79d4f5927ca964922ec74772ce857c02ca054a52a37b49afc7fb.pdf
1656 # From Carlos Raúl Perasso (2014-02-28):
1657 # Decree 1264 can be found at:
1658 # http://www.presidencia.gov.py/archivos/documentos/DECRETO1264_ey9r8zai.pdf
1659 Rule    Para    2013    max     -       Mar     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
1660 
1661 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1662 Zone America/Asuncion   -3:50:40 -      LMT     1890
1663                         -3:50:40 -      AMT     1931 Oct 10 # Asunción Mean Time
1664                         -4:00   -       -04     1972 Oct
1665                         -3:00   -       -03     1974 Apr
1666                         -4:00   Para    -04/-03
1667 
1668 # Peru
1669 #
1670 # From Evelyn C. Leeper via Mark Brader (2003-10-26)
1671 # <news:xrGmb.39935$gA1.13896113@news4.srv.hcvlny.cv.net>:
1672 # When we were in Peru in 1985-1986, they apparently switched over
1673 # sometime between December 29 and January 3 while we were on the Amazon.
1674 #
1675 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1676 # Shanks & Pottenger don't have this transition.  Assume 1986 was like 1987.
1677 
1678 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1679 Rule    Peru    1938    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    -
1680 Rule    Peru    1938    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1681 Rule    Peru    1938    1939    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    -
1682 Rule    Peru    1939    1940    -       Mar     Sun>=24      0:00    0       -
1683 Rule    Peru    1986    1987    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    -
1684 Rule    Peru    1986    1987    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1685 Rule    Peru    1990    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    -
1686 Rule    Peru    1990    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1687 # IATA is ambiguous for 1993/1995; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1688 Rule    Peru    1994    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    -
1689 Rule    Peru    1994    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1690 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1691 Zone    America/Lima    -5:08:12 -      LMT     1890
1692                         -5:08:36 -      LMT     1908 Jul 28 # Lima Mean Time?
1693                         -5:00   Peru    -05/-04
1694 
1695 # South Georgia
1696 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1697 Zone Atlantic/South_Georgia -2:26:08 -  LMT     1890 # Grytviken
1698                         -2:00   -       -02
1699 
1700 # South Sandwich Is
1701 # uninhabited; scientific personnel have wintered
1702 
1703 # Suriname
1704 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1705 Zone America/Paramaribo -3:40:40 -      LMT     1911
1706                         -3:40:52 -      PMT     1935     # Paramaribo Mean Time
1707                         -3:40:36 -      PMT     1945 Oct    # The capital moved?
1708                         -3:30   -       -0330   1984 Oct
1709                         -3:00   -       -03
1710 
1711 # Trinidad and Tobago
1712 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1713 Zone America/Port_of_Spain -4:06:04 -   LMT     1912 Mar 2
1714                         -4:00   -       AST
1715 
1716 # These all agree with Trinidad and Tobago since 1970.
1717 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Anguilla
1718 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Antigua
1719 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Dominica
1720 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Grenada
1721 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Guadeloupe
1722 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Marigot      # St Martin (French part)
1723 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Montserrat
1724 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Barthelemy # St Barthélemy
1725 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Kitts     # St Kitts & Nevis
1726 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Lucia
1727 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Thomas    # Virgin Islands (US)
1728 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Vincent
1729 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Tortola      # Virgin Islands (UK)
1730 
1731 # Uruguay
1732 # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
1733 # Uruguay wins the prize for the strangest peacetime manipulation of the rules.
1734 #
1735 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-20), per Jeremie Bonjour (2018-01-31) and Michael
1736 # Deckers (2018-02-20):
1737 # ... At least they kept good records...
1738 #
1739 # http://www.armada.mil.uy/ContenidosPDFs/sohma/web/almanaque/almanaque_2018.pdf#page=36
1740 # Page 36 of Almanaque 2018, published by the Oceanography, Hydrography, and
1741 # Meteorology Service of the Uruguayan Navy, seems to give many transitions
1742 # with greater clarity than we've had before.  It directly references many laws
1743 # and decrees which are, in turn, referenced below.  They can be viewed in the
1744 # public archives of the Diario Oficial (in Spanish) at
1745 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/
1746 #
1747 # Ley No. 3920 of 1908-06-10 placed the determination of legal time under the
1748 # auspices of the National Institute for the Prediction of Time.  It is unclear
1749 # exactly what offset was used during this period, though Ley No. 7200 of
1750 # 1920-04-23 used the Observatory of the National Meteorological Institute in
1751 # Montevideo (34° 54' 33" S, 56° 12' 45" W) as its reference meridian,
1752 # retarding legal time by 15 minutes 9 seconds from 1920-04-30 24:00,
1753 # resulting in UT-04.  Assume the corresponding LMT of UT-03:44:51 (given on
1754 # page 725 of the Proceedings of the Second Pan-American Scientific Congress,
1755 # 1915-1916) was in use, and merely became official from 1908-06-10.
1756 # https://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1908/06/18/12
1757 # https://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1920/04/27/9
1758 #
1759 # Ley No. 7594 of 1923-06-28 specified legal time as Observatory time advanced
1760 # by 44 minutes 51 seconds (UT-03) "from 30 September to 31 March", and by 14
1761 # minutes 51 seconds (UT-03:30) "the rest of the year"; a message from the
1762 # National Council of Administration the same day, published directly below the
1763 # law in the Diario Oficial, specified the first transition to be 1923-09-30
1764 # 24:00.  This effectively established standard time at UT-03:30 with 30
1765 # minutes DST.  Assume transitions at 24:00 on the specified days until Ley No.
1766 # 7919 of 1926-03-05 ended this arrangement, repealing all "laws and other
1767 # provisions which oppose" it, resulting in year-round UT-03:30; a Resolución
1768 # of 1926-03-11 puts the final transition at 1926-03-31 24:00, the same as it
1769 # would have been under the previous law.
1770 # https://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1923/07/02/2
1771 # https://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1926/03/10/2
1772 # https://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1926/03/18/2
1773 #
1774 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1775 Rule    Uruguay 1923    1925    -       Oct      1       0:00   0:30    -
1776 Rule    Uruguay 1924    1926    -       Apr      1       0:00   0       -
1777 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15):
1778 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1933/10/27/6
1779 #
1780 # It appears Ley No. 9122 of 1933 was never published as such in the Diario
1781 # Oficial, but instead appeared as Document 26 in the Diario on Friday
1782 # 1933-10-27 as a decree made Monday 1933-10-23 and filed under the Ministry of
1783 # National Defense.  It reinstituted a DST of 30 minutes (to UT-03) "from the
1784 # last Sunday of October...until the last Saturday of March."  In accordance
1785 # with this provision, the first transition was explicitly specified in Article
1786 # 2 of the decree as Saturday 1933-10-28 at 24:00; that is, Sunday 1933-10-29
1787 # at 00:00.  Assume transitions at 00:00 Sunday throughout.
1788 #
1789 # Departing from the matter-of-fact nature of previous timekeeping laws, the
1790 # 1933 decree "consider[s] the advantages of...the advance of legal time":
1791 #
1792 #   "Whereas: The measure adopted by almost all nations at the time of the last
1793 #    World War still persists in North America and Europe, precisely because of
1794 #    the economic, hygienic, and social advantages derived from such an
1795 #    emergency measure...
1796 #
1797 #    Whereas: The advance of the legal time during the summer seasons, by
1798 #    displacing social activity near sunrise, favors the citizen populations
1799 #    and especially the society that creates and works..."
1800 #
1801 # It further specified that "necessary measures" be taken to ensure that
1802 # "public spectacles finish, in general, before [01:00]."
1803 Rule    Uruguay 1933    1938    -       Oct     lastSun  0:00   0:30    -
1804 Rule    Uruguay 1934    1941    -       Mar     lastSat 24:00   0       -
1805 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15):
1806 # Most of the Rules below, and their contemporaneous Zone lines, have been
1807 # updated simply to match the Almanaque 2018.  Although the document does not
1808 # list exact transition times, midnight transitions were already present in our
1809 # data here for all transitions through 2004-09, and this is both consistent
1810 # with prior transitions and verified in several decrees marked below between
1811 # 1939-09 and 2004-09, wherein the relevant text was typically of the form:
1812 #
1813 #   "From 0 hours on [date], the legal time of the entire Republic will be...
1814 #
1815 #    In accordance with [the preceding], on [previous date] at 24 hours, all
1816 #    clocks throughout the Republic will be [advanced/retarded] by..."
1817 #
1818 # It is possible that there is greater specificity to be found for the Rules
1819 # below, but it is buried in no fewer than 40 different decrees individually
1820 # referenced by the Almanaque for the period from 1939-09 to 2014-09.
1821 # Four-fifths of these were promulgated less than two weeks before taking
1822 # effect; more than half within a week and none more than 5 weeks.  Only the
1823 # handful with comments below have been checked with any thoroughness.
1824 Rule    Uruguay 1939    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0:30    -
1825 Rule    Uruguay 1940    only    -       Oct     27       0:00   0:30    -
1826 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15):
1827 # Decreto 1145 of the Ministry of National Defense, dated 1941-07-26, specified
1828 # UT-03 from Friday 1941-08-01 00:00, citing an "urgent...need to save fuel".
1829 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1941/08/04/1
1830 Rule    Uruguay 1941    only    -       Aug      1       0:00   0:30    -
1831 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15):
1832 # Decreto 1866 of the Ministry of National Defense, dated 1942-12-09, specified
1833 # further advancement (to UT-02:30) from Sunday 1942-12-13 24:00.  Since clocks
1834 # never went back to UT-03:30 thereafter, this is modeled as advancing standard
1835 # time by 30 minutes to UT-03, while retaining 30 minutes of DST.
1836 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1942/12/16/3
1837 Rule    Uruguay 1942    only    -       Dec     14       0:00   0:30    -
1838 Rule    Uruguay 1943    only    -       Mar     14       0:00   0       -
1839 Rule    Uruguay 1959    only    -       May     24       0:00   0:30    -
1840 Rule    Uruguay 1959    only    -       Nov     15       0:00   0       -
1841 Rule    Uruguay 1960    only    -       Jan     17       0:00   1:00    -
1842 Rule    Uruguay 1960    only    -       Mar      6       0:00   0       -
1843 Rule    Uruguay 1965    only    -       Apr      4       0:00   1:00    -
1844 Rule    Uruguay 1965    only    -       Sep     26       0:00   0       -
1845 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15):
1846 # Decreto 321/968 of 1968-05-25, citing emergency drought measures decreed the
1847 # day before, brought clocks forward 30 minutes from Monday 1968-05-27 00:00.
1848 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1968/05/30/5
1849 Rule    Uruguay 1968    only    -       May     27       0:00   0:30    -
1850 Rule    Uruguay 1968    only    -       Dec      1       0:00   0       -
1851 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15):
1852 # Decreto 188/970 of 1970-04-23 instituted restrictions on electricity
1853 # consumption "as a consequence of the current rainfall regime in the country".
1854 # Articles 13 and 14 advanced clocks by an hour from Saturday 1970-04-25 00:00.
1855 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1970/04/29/4
1856 Rule    Uruguay 1970    only    -       Apr     25       0:00   1:00    -
1857 Rule    Uruguay 1970    only    -       Jun     14       0:00   0       -
1858 Rule    Uruguay 1972    only    -       Apr     23       0:00   1:00    -
1859 Rule    Uruguay 1972    only    -       Jul     16       0:00   0       -
1860 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15):
1861 # Decreto 29/974 of 1974-01-11, citing "the international rise in the price of
1862 # oil", advanced clocks by 90 minutes (to UT-01:30).  Decreto 163/974 of
1863 # 1974-03-04 returned 60 of those minutes (to UT-02:30), and the remaining 30
1864 # minutes followed in Decreto 679/974 of 1974-08-29.
1865 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1974/01/22/11
1866 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1974/03/14/3
1867 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1974/09/04/6
1868 Rule    Uruguay 1974    only    -       Jan     13       0:00   1:30    -
1869 Rule    Uruguay 1974    only    -       Mar     10       0:00   0:30    -
1870 Rule    Uruguay 1974    only    -       Sep      1       0:00   0       -
1871 Rule    Uruguay 1974    only    -       Dec     22       0:00   1:00    -
1872 Rule    Uruguay 1975    only    -       Mar     30       0:00   0       -
1873 Rule    Uruguay 1976    only    -       Dec     19       0:00   1:00    -
1874 Rule    Uruguay 1977    only    -       Mar      6       0:00   0       -
1875 Rule    Uruguay 1977    only    -       Dec      4       0:00   1:00    -
1876 Rule    Uruguay 1978    1979    -       Mar     Sun>=1        0:00   0       -
1877 Rule    Uruguay 1978    only    -       Dec     17       0:00   1:00    -
1878 Rule    Uruguay 1979    only    -       Apr     29       0:00   1:00    -
1879 Rule    Uruguay 1980    only    -       Mar     16       0:00   0       -
1880 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15):
1881 # Decreto 725/987 of 1987-12-04 cited "better use of national tourist
1882 # attractions" to advance clocks one hour from Monday 1987-12-14 00:00.
1883 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/1988/01/25/1
1884 Rule    Uruguay 1987    only    -       Dec     14       0:00   1:00    -
1885 Rule    Uruguay 1988    only    -       Feb     28       0:00   0       -
1886 Rule    Uruguay 1988    only    -       Dec     11       0:00   1:00    -
1887 Rule    Uruguay 1989    only    -       Mar      5       0:00   0       -
1888 Rule    Uruguay 1989    only    -       Oct     29       0:00   1:00    -
1889 Rule    Uruguay 1990    only    -       Feb     25       0:00   0       -
1890 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15), per Paul Eggert (1999-11-04):
1891 # IATA agrees as below for 1990-10 through 1993-02.  Per Almanaque 2018, the
1892 # 1992/1993 season appears to be the first in over half a century where DST
1893 # both began and ended pursuant to the same decree.
1894 Rule    Uruguay 1990    1991    -       Oct     Sun>=21       0:00   1:00    -
1895 Rule    Uruguay 1991    1992    -       Mar     Sun>=1        0:00   0       -
1896 Rule    Uruguay 1992    only    -       Oct     18       0:00   1:00    -
1897 Rule    Uruguay 1993    only    -       Feb     28       0:00   0       -
1898 # From Eduardo Cota (2004-09-20):
1899 # The Uruguayan government has decreed a change in the local time....
1900 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15):
1901 # Decreto 328/004 of 2004-09-15.
1902 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/2004/09/23/documentos.pdf#page=1
1903 Rule    Uruguay 2004    only    -       Sep     19       0:00   1:00    -
1904 # From Steffen Thorsen (2005-03-11):
1905 # Uruguay's DST was scheduled to end on Sunday, 2005-03-13, but in order to
1906 # save energy ... it was postponed two weeks....
1907 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15):
1908 # This 2005 postponement is not in Almanaque 2018.  Go with the contemporaneous
1909 # reporting, which is confirmed by Decreto 107/005 of 2005-03-10 amending
1910 # Decreto 328/004:
1911 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/2005/03/15/documentos.pdf#page=1
1912 # The original decree specified a transition of 2005-03-12 24:00, but the new
1913 # one specified 2005-03-27 02:00.
1914 Rule    Uruguay 2005    only    -       Mar     27       2:00   0       -
1915 # From Eduardo Cota (2005-09-27):
1916 # ...from 2005-10-09 at 02:00 local time, until 2006-03-12 at 02:00 local time,
1917 # official time in Uruguay will be at GMT -2.
1918 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15):
1919 # Decreto 318/005 of 2005-09-19.
1920 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/2005/09/23/documentos.pdf#page=1
1921 Rule    Uruguay 2005    only    -       Oct      9       2:00   1:00    -
1922 Rule    Uruguay 2006    2015    -       Mar     Sun>=8        2:00   0       -
1923 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15), per Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-09-06):
1924 # Decreto 311/006 of 2006-09-04 established regular DST from the first Sunday
1925 # of October at 02:00 through the second Sunday of March at 02:00.  Almanaque
1926 # 2018 appears to have a few typoed dates through this period; ignore them.
1927 # http://www.impo.com.uy/diariooficial/2006/09/08/documentos.pdf#page=1
1928 Rule    Uruguay 2006    2014    -       Oct     Sun>=1        2:00   1:00    -
1929 # From Steffen Thorsen (2015-06-30):
1930 # ... it looks like they will not be using DST the coming summer:
1931 # http://www.elobservador.com.uy/gobierno-resolvio-que-no-habra-cambio-horario-verano-n656787
1932 # http://www.republica.com.uy/este-ano-no-se-modificara-el-huso-horario-en-uruguay/523760/
1933 # From Paul Eggert (2015-06-30):
1934 # Apparently restaurateurs complained that DST caused people to go to the beach
1935 # instead of out to dinner.
1936 # From Pablo Camargo (2015-07-13):
1937 # http://archivo.presidencia.gub.uy/sci/decretos/2015/06/cons_min_201.pdf
1938 # From Tim Parenti (2018-02-15):
1939 # Decreto 178/015 of 2015-06-29; repeals Decreto 311/006.
1940 
1941 # This Zone can be simplified once we assume zic %z.
1942 Zone America/Montevideo -3:44:51 -      LMT     1908 Jun 10
1943                         -3:44:51 -      MMT     1920 May  1 # Montevideo MT
1944                         -4:00   -       -04     1923 Oct  1
1945                         -3:30   Uruguay -0330/-03 1942 Dec 14
1946                         -3:00   Uruguay -03/-0230 1960
1947                         -3:00   Uruguay -03/-02 1968
1948                         -3:00   Uruguay -03/-0230 1970
1949                         -3:00   Uruguay -03/-02 1974
1950                         -3:00   Uruguay -03/-0130 1974 Mar 10
1951                         -3:00   Uruguay -03/-0230 1974 Dec 22
1952                         -3:00   Uruguay -03/-02
1953 
1954 # Venezuela
1955 #
1956 # From Paul Eggert (2015-07-28):
1957 # For the 1965 transition see Gaceta Oficial No. 27.619 (1964-12-15), p 205.533
1958 # http://www.pgr.gob.ve/dmdocuments/1964/27619.pdf
1959 #
1960 # From John Stainforth (2007-11-28):
1961 # ... the change for Venezuela originally expected for 2007-12-31 has
1962 # been brought forward to 2007-12-09.  The official announcement was
1963 # published today in the "Gaceta Oficial de la República Bolivariana
1964 # de Venezuela, número 38.819" (official document for all laws or
1965 # resolution publication)
1966 # http://www.globovision.com/news.php?nid=72208
1967 
1968 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-04-15):
1969 # https://actualidad.rt.com/actualidad/204758-venezuela-modificar-huso-horario-sequia-elnino
1970 #
1971 # From Paul Eggert (2016-04-15):
1972 # Clocks advance 30 minutes on 2016-05-01 at 02:30....
1973 # "'Venezuela's new time-zone: hours without light, hours without water,
1974 # hours of presidential broadcasts, hours of lines,' quipped comedian
1975 # Jean Mary Curró ...". See: Cawthorne A, Kai D. Venezuela scraps
1976 # half-hour time difference set by Chavez. Reuters 2016-04-15 14:50 -0400
1977 # https://www.reuters.com/article/us-venezuela-timezone-idUSKCN0XC2BE
1978 #
1979 # From Matt Johnson (2016-04-20):
1980 # ... published in the official Gazette [2016-04-18], here:
1981 # http://historico.tsj.gob.ve/gaceta_ext/abril/1842016/E-1842016-4551.pdf
1982 
1983 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1984 Zone    America/Caracas -4:27:44 -      LMT     1890
1985                         -4:27:40 -      CMT     1912 Feb 12 # Caracas Mean Time?
1986                         -4:30   -       -0430   1965 Jan  1  0:00
1987                         -4:00   -       -04     2007 Dec  9  3:00
1988                         -4:30   -       -0430   2016 May  1  2:30
1989                         -4:00   -       -04