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 402 # or (some English translation):
 403 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_argentina08.html
 404 
 405 # From Mariano Absatz (2010-04-12):
 406 # yes...I can confirm this...and given that San Luis keeps calling
 407 # UTC-03:00 "summer time", we should't just let San Luis go back to "Arg"
 408 # rules...San Luis is still using "Western ARgentina Time" and it got
 409 # stuck on Summer daylight savings time even though the summer is over.
 410 
 411 # From Paul Eggert (2018-01-23):
 412 # Perhaps San Luis operates on the legal fiction that it is at -04
 413 # with perpetual daylight saving time, but ordinary usage typically seems to
 414 # just say it's at -03; see, for example,
 415 # https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hora_oficial_argentina
 416 # We've documented similar situations as being plain changes to
 417 # standard time, so let's do that here too.  This does not change UTC
 418 # offsets, only tm_isdst and the time zone abbreviations.  One minor
 419 # plus is that this silences a zic complaint that there's no POSIX TZ
 420 # setting for timestamps past 2038.
 421 
 422 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 423 #
 424 # Buenos Aires (BA), Capital Federal (CF),
 425 Zone America/Argentina/Buenos_Aires -3:53:48 - LMT      1894 Oct 31
 426                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May    # Córdoba Mean Time
 427                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 428                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 429                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 430                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 431                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02
 432 #
 433 # Córdoba (CB), Santa Fe (SF), Entre Ríos (ER), Corrientes (CN), Misiones (MN),
 434 # Chaco (CC), Formosa (FM), Santiago del Estero (SE)
 435 #
 436 # Shanks & Pottenger also make the following claims, which we haven't verified:
 437 # - Formosa switched to -3:00 on 1991-01-07.
 438 # - Misiones switched to -3:00 on 1990-12-29.
 439 # - Chaco switched to -3:00 on 1991-01-04.
 440 # - Santiago del Estero switched to -4:00 on 1991-04-01,
 441 #   then to -3:00 on 1991-04-26.
 442 #


 583                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jun 20
 584                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 585                         -3:00   -       -03
 586 #
 587 # Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur (TF)
 588 Zone America/Argentina/Ushuaia -4:33:12 - LMT   1894 Oct 31
 589                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 590                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 591                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 592                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 593                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 594                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 May 30
 595                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jun 20
 596                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 597                         -3:00   -       -03
 598 
 599 # Aruba
 600 Link America/Curacao America/Aruba
 601 
 602 # Bolivia
 603 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 604 Zone    America/La_Paz  -4:32:36 -      LMT     1890
 605                         -4:32:36 -      CMT     1931 Oct 15 # Calamarca MT
 606                         -4:32:36 1:00   BST     1932 Mar 21 # Bolivia ST
 607                         -4:00   -       -04
 608 
 609 # Brazil
 610 
 611 # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
 612 # The mayor of Rio recently attempted to change the time zone rules
 613 # just in his city, in order to leave more summer time for the tourist trade.
 614 # The rule change lasted only part of the day;
 615 # the federal government refused to follow the city's rules, and business
 616 # was in a chaos, so the mayor backed down that afternoon.
 617 
 618 # From IATA SSIM (1996-02):
 619 # _Only_ the following states in BR1 observe DST: Rio Grande do Sul (RS),
 620 # Santa Catarina (SC), Paraná (PR), São Paulo (SP), Rio de Janeiro (RJ),
 621 # Espírito Santo (ES), Minas Gerais (MG), Bahia (BA), Goiás (GO),
 622 # Distrito Federal (DF), Tocantins (TO), Sergipe [SE] and Alagoas [AL].
 623 # [The last three states are new to this issue of the IATA SSIM.]


 926 # Decree 6,212 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV6212.gif> (2007-09-26),
 927 # adopted by the same states as before.
 928 Rule    Brazil  2007    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8        0:00   1:00    -
 929 # From Frederico A. C. Neves (2008-09-10):
 930 # According to this decree
 931 # http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2007-2010/2008/Decreto/D6558.htm
 932 # [t]he DST period in Brazil now on will be from the 3rd Oct Sunday to the
 933 # 3rd Feb Sunday. There is an exception on the return date when this is
 934 # the Carnival Sunday then the return date will be the next Sunday...
 935 Rule    Brazil  2008    2017    -       Oct     Sun>=15      0:00    1:00    -
 936 Rule    Brazil  2008    2011    -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 937 # Decree 7,584 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HVdecreto7584_20111013.jpg> (2011-10-13)
 938 # added Bahia.
 939 Rule    Brazil  2012    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
 940 # Decree 7,826 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HVdecreto7826_20121015.jpg> (2012-10-15)
 941 # removed Bahia and added Tocantins.
 942 # Decree 8,112 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HVdecreto8112_20130930.JPG> (2013-09-30)
 943 # removed Tocantins.
 944 Rule    Brazil  2013    2014    -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 945 Rule    Brazil  2015    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
 946 Rule    Brazil  2016    2019    -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 947 # From Steffen Thorsen (2017-12-18):
 948 # According to many media sources, next year's DST start in Brazil will move to
 949 # the first Sunday of November
 950 # ... https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/brazil-delays-dst-2018.html
 951 # From Steffen Thorsen (2017-12-20):
 952 # http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2015-2018/2017/decreto/D9242.htm

 953 # From Fábio Gomes (2018-10-04):
 954 # The Brazilian president just announced a new change on this year DST.
 955 # It was scheduled to start on November 4th and it was changed to November 18th.
 956 # From Rodrigo Brüning Wessler (2018-10-15):
 957 # The Brazilian government just announced that the change in DST was
 958 # canceled....  Maybe the president Michel Temer also woke up one hour
 959 # earlier today. :)
 960 Rule    Brazil  2018    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    -
 961 # The last ruleset listed above says that the following states observed DST:











 962 # DF, ES, GO, MG, MS, MT, PR, RJ, RS, SC, SP.
 963 #
 964 # From Steffen Thorsen (2019-04-05):
 965 # According to multiple sources the Brazilian president wants to get rid of DST.
 966 # https://gmconline.com.br/noticias/politica/bolsonaro-horario-de-verao-deve-acabar-este-ano
 967 # https://g1.globo.com/economia/noticia/2019/04/05/governo-anuncia-fim-do-horario-de-verao.ghtml
 968 # From Marcus Diniz (2019-04-25):
 969 # Brazil no longer has DST changes - decree signed today
 970 # https://g1.globo.com/politica/noticia/2019/04/25/bolsonaro-assina-decreto-que-acaba-com-o-horario-de-verao.ghtml
 971 # From Daniel Soares de Oliveira (2019-04-26):
 972 # http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2019-2022/2019/Decreto/D9772.htm
 973 
 974 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 975 #
 976 # Fernando de Noronha (administratively part of PE)
 977 Zone America/Noronha    -2:09:40 -      LMT     1914
 978                         -2:00   Brazil  -02/-01 1990 Sep 17
 979                         -2:00   -       -02     1999 Sep 30
 980                         -2:00   Brazil  -02/-01 2000 Oct 15
 981                         -2:00   -       -02     2001 Sep 13
 982                         -2:00   Brazil  -02/-01 2002 Oct  1
 983                         -2:00   -       -02
 984 # Other Atlantic islands have no permanent settlement.
 985 # These include Trindade and Martim Vaz (administratively part of ES),
 986 # Rocas Atoll (RN), and the St Peter and St Paul Archipelago (PE).
 987 # Fernando de Noronha was a separate territory from 1942-09-02 to 1989-01-01;
 988 # it also included the Penedos.
 989 #
 990 # Amapá (AP), east Pará (PA)
 991 # East Pará includes Belém, Marabá, Serra Norte, and São Félix do Xingu.
 992 # The division between east and west Pará is the river Xingu.
 993 # In the north a very small part from the river Javary (now Jari I guess,
 994 # the border with Amapá) to the Amazon, then to the Xingu.


1262 # they will switch from -03 to -04 one hour after Santiago does that day.
1263 # For now, assume that they will not revert.
1264 
1265 # From Juan Correa (2018-08-13):
1266 # As of moments ago, the Ministry of Energy in Chile has announced the new
1267 # schema for DST. ...  Announcement in video (in Spanish):
1268 # https://twitter.com/MinEnergia/status/1029000399129374720
1269 # From Yonathan Dossow (2018-08-13):
1270 # The video says "first Saturday of September", we all know it means Sunday at
1271 # midnight.
1272 # From Tim Parenti (2018-08-13):
1273 # Translating the captions on the video at 0:44-0:55, "We want to announce as
1274 # Government that from 2019, Winter Time will be increased to 5 months, between
1275 # the first Saturday of April and the first Saturday of September."
1276 # At 2:08-2:20, "The Magallanes region will maintain its current time, as
1277 # decided by the citizens during 2017, but our Government will promote a
1278 # regional dialogue table to gather their opinion on this matter."
1279 # https://twitter.com/MinEnergia/status/1029009354001973248
1280 # "We will keep the new time policy unchanged for at least the next 4 years."
1281 # So we extend the new rules on Saturdays at 24:00 mainland time indefinitely.
1282 # From Juan Correa (2019-02-04):
1283 # http://www.diariooficial.interior.gob.cl/publicaciones/2018/11/23/42212/01/1498738.pdf
1284 
1285 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1286 Rule    Chile   1927    1931    -       Sep      1      0:00    1:00    -
1287 Rule    Chile   1928    1932    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1288 Rule    Chile   1968    only    -       Nov      3      4:00u   1:00    -
1289 Rule    Chile   1969    only    -       Mar     30      3:00u   0       -
1290 Rule    Chile   1969    only    -       Nov     23      4:00u   1:00    -
1291 Rule    Chile   1970    only    -       Mar     29      3:00u   0       -
1292 Rule    Chile   1971    only    -       Mar     14      3:00u   0       -
1293 Rule    Chile   1970    1972    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    -
1294 Rule    Chile   1972    1986    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1295 Rule    Chile   1973    only    -       Sep     30      4:00u   1:00    -
1296 Rule    Chile   1974    1987    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    -
1297 Rule    Chile   1987    only    -       Apr     12      3:00u   0       -
1298 Rule    Chile   1988    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1299 Rule    Chile   1988    1989    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    -
1300 Rule    Chile   1990    only    -       Sep     16      4:00u   1:00    -
1301 Rule    Chile   1991    1996    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1302 Rule    Chile   1991    1997    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    -
1303 Rule    Chile   1997    only    -       Mar     30      3:00u   0       -
1304 Rule    Chile   1998    only    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1305 Rule    Chile   1998    only    -       Sep     27      4:00u   1:00    -
1306 Rule    Chile   1999    only    -       Apr      4      3:00u   0       -
1307 Rule    Chile   1999    2010    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    -
1308 Rule    Chile   2000    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1309 # N.B.: the end of March 29 in Chile is March 30 in Universal time,
1310 # which is used below in specifying the transition.
1311 Rule    Chile   2008    only    -       Mar     30      3:00u   0       -
1312 Rule    Chile   2009    only    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1313 Rule    Chile   2010    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       3:00u   0       -
1314 Rule    Chile   2011    only    -       May     Sun>=2       3:00u   0       -
1315 Rule    Chile   2011    only    -       Aug     Sun>=16      4:00u   1:00    -
1316 Rule    Chile   2012    2014    -       Apr     Sun>=23      3:00u   0       -
1317 Rule    Chile   2012    2014    -       Sep     Sun>=2       4:00u   1:00    -
1318 Rule    Chile   2016    2018    -       May     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1319 Rule    Chile   2016    2018    -       Aug     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    -
1320 Rule    Chile   2019    max     -       Apr     Sun>=2       3:00u   0       -
1321 Rule    Chile   2019    max     -       Sep     Sun>=2       4:00u   1:00    -
1322 # IATA SSIM anomalies: (1992-02) says 1992-03-14;
1323 # (1996-09) says 1998-03-08.  Ignore these.
1324 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1325 Zone America/Santiago   -4:42:46 -      LMT     1890
1326                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1910 Jan 10 # Santiago Mean Time
1327                         -5:00   -       -05     1916 Jul  1
1328                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1918 Sep 10
1329                         -4:00   -       -04     1919 Jul  1
1330                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1927 Sep  1
1331                         -5:00   Chile   -05/-04 1932 Sep  1
1332                         -4:00   -       -04     1942 Jun  1
1333                         -5:00   -       -05     1942 Aug  1
1334                         -4:00   -       -04     1946 Jul 15
1335                         -4:00   1:00    -03     1946 Sep  1 # central Chile
1336                         -4:00   -       -04     1947 Apr  1
1337                         -5:00   -       -05     1947 May 21 23:00
1338                         -4:00   Chile   -04/-03
1339 Zone America/Punta_Arenas -4:43:40 -    LMT     1890
1340                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1910 Jan 10
1341                         -5:00   -       -05     1916 Jul  1
1342                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1918 Sep 10
1343                         -4:00   -       -04     1919 Jul  1
1344                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1927 Sep  1


1353                         -7:17:28 -      EMT     1932 Sep    # Easter Mean Time
1354                         -7:00   Chile   -07/-06 1982 Mar 14 3:00u # Easter Time
1355                         -6:00   Chile   -06/-05
1356 #
1357 # Salas y Gómez Island is uninhabited.
1358 # Other Chilean locations, including Juan Fernández Is, Desventuradas Is,
1359 # and Antarctic bases, are like America/Santiago.
1360 
1361 # Antarctic base using South American rules
1362 # (See the file 'antarctica' for more.)
1363 #
1364 # Palmer, Anvers Island, since 1965 (moved 2 miles in 1968)
1365 #
1366 # From Ethan Dicks (1996-10-06):
1367 # It keeps the same time as Punta Arenas, Chile, because, just like us
1368 # and the South Pole, that's the other end of their supply line....
1369 # I verified with someone who was there that since 1980,
1370 # Palmer has followed Chile.  Prior to that, before the Falklands War,
1371 # Palmer used to be supplied from Argentina.
1372 #
1373 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1374 Zone Antarctica/Palmer  0       -       -00     1965
1375                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
1376                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1982 May
1377                         -4:00   Chile   -04/-03 2016 Dec  4
1378                         -3:00   -       -03
1379 
1380 # Colombia
1381 
1382 # Milne gives 4:56:16.4 for Bogotá time in 1899; round to nearest.  He writes,
1383 # "A variation of fifteen minutes in the public clocks of Bogota is not rare."
1384 
1385 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1386 Rule    CO      1992    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    -
1387 Rule    CO      1993    only    -       Apr      4      0:00    0       -
1388 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1389 Zone    America/Bogota  -4:56:16 -      LMT     1884 Mar 13
1390                         -4:56:16 -      BMT     1914 Nov 23 # Bogotá Mean Time
1391                         -5:00   CO      -05/-04
1392 # Malpelo, Providencia, San Andres
1393 # no information; probably like America/Bogota
1394 
1395 # Curaçao
1396 
1397 # Milne gives 4:35:46.9 for Curaçao mean time; round to nearest.
1398 #
1399 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1400 # Shanks & Pottenger say that The Bottom and Philipsburg have been at
1401 # -4:00 since standard time was introduced on 1912-03-02; and that
1402 # Kralendijk and Rincon used Kralendijk Mean Time (-4:33:08) from
1403 # 1912-02-02 to 1965-01-01.  The former is dubious, since S&P also say
1404 # Saba Island has been like Curaçao.
1405 # This all predates our 1970 cutoff, though.
1406 #
1407 # By July 2007 Curaçao and St Maarten are planned to become
1408 # associated states within the Netherlands, much like Aruba;
1409 # Bonaire, Saba and St Eustatius would become directly part of the
1410 # Netherlands as Kingdom Islands.  This won't affect their time zones
1411 # though, as far as we know.
1412 #
1413 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1414 Zone    America/Curacao -4:35:47 -      LMT     1912 Feb 12 # Willemstad
1415                         -4:30   -       -0430   1965
1416                         -4:00   -       AST
1417 
1418 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
1419 # use links for places with new iso3166 codes.
1420 # The name "Lower Prince's Quarter" is both longer than fourteen characters
1421 # and contains an apostrophe; use "Lower_Princes" below.
1422 
1423 Link    America/Curacao America/Lower_Princes   # Sint Maarten
1424 Link    America/Curacao America/Kralendijk      # Caribbean Netherlands
1425 
1426 # Ecuador
1427 #
1428 # Milne says the Central and South American Telegraph Company used -5:24:15.
1429 #
1430 # From Alois Treindl (2016-12-15):
1431 # https://www.elcomercio.com/actualidad/hora-sixto-1993.html
1432 # ... Whether the law applied also to Galápagos, I do not know.
1433 # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-15):
1434 # https://www.elcomercio.com/afull/modificacion-husohorario-ecuador-presidentes-decreto.html
1435 # This says President Sixto Durán Ballén signed decree No. 285, which
1436 # established DST from 1992-11-28 to 1993-02-05; it does not give transition
1437 # times.  The people called it "hora de Sixto" ("Sixto hour").  The change did
1438 # not go over well; a popular song "Qué hora es" by Jaime Guevara had lyrics
1439 # that included "Amanecía en mitad de la noche, los guaguas iban a clase sin
1440 # sol" ("It was dawning in the middle of the night, the buses went to class
1441 # without sun").  Although Ballén's campaign slogan was "Ni un paso atrás"
1442 # (Not one step back), the clocks went back in 1993 and the experiment was not
1443 # repeated.  For now, assume transitions were at 00:00 local time country-wide.
1444 #
1445 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1446 Rule    Ecuador 1992    only    -       Nov     28      0:00    1:00    -
1447 Rule    Ecuador 1993    only    -       Feb      5      0:00    0       -
1448 #
1449 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1450 Zone America/Guayaquil  -5:19:20 -      LMT     1890
1451                         -5:14:00 -      QMT     1931 # Quito Mean Time
1452                         -5:00   Ecuador -05/-04
1453 Zone Pacific/Galapagos  -5:58:24 -      LMT     1931 # Puerto Baquerizo Moreno
1454                         -5:00   -       -05     1986
1455                         -6:00   Ecuador -06/-05
1456 
1457 # Falklands
1458 
1459 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1460 # Between 1990 and 2000 inclusive, Shanks & Pottenger and the IATA agree except
1461 # the IATA gives 1996-09-08.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1462 
1463 # From Falkland Islands Government Office, London (2001-01-22)
1464 # via Jesper Nørgaard:
1465 # ... the clocks revert back to Local Mean Time at 2 am on Sunday 15
1466 # April 2001 and advance one hour to summer time at 2 am on Sunday 2
1467 # September.  It is anticipated that the clocks will revert back at 2
1468 # am on Sunday 21 April 2002 and advance to summer time at 2 am on
1469 # Sunday 1 September.


1532 #   summer time on a trial basis only.  FIG need to contact IANA and/or
1533 #   the maintainers of the database to inform them we're adopting
1534 #   the same policy this year and suggest recommendations for future years.
1535 #
1536 # For now we will assume permanent -03 for the Falklands
1537 # until advised differently (to apply for 2012 and beyond, after the 2011
1538 # experiment was apparently successful.)
1539 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1540 Rule    Falk    1937    1938    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    -
1541 Rule    Falk    1938    1942    -       Mar     Sun>=19      0:00    0       -
1542 Rule    Falk    1939    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    1:00    -
1543 Rule    Falk    1940    1942    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    -
1544 Rule    Falk    1943    only    -       Jan     1       0:00    0       -
1545 Rule    Falk    1983    only    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    -
1546 Rule    Falk    1984    1985    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1547 Rule    Falk    1984    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    1:00    -
1548 Rule    Falk    1985    2000    -       Sep     Sun>=9       0:00    1:00    -
1549 Rule    Falk    1986    2000    -       Apr     Sun>=16      0:00    0       -
1550 Rule    Falk    2001    2010    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00    0       -
1551 Rule    Falk    2001    2010    -       Sep     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    -
1552 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1553 Zone Atlantic/Stanley   -3:51:24 -      LMT     1890
1554                         -3:51:24 -      SMT     1912 Mar 12 # Stanley Mean Time
1555                         -4:00   Falk    -04/-03 1983 May
1556                         -3:00   Falk    -03/-02 1985 Sep 15
1557                         -4:00   Falk    -04/-03 2010 Sep  5  2:00
1558                         -3:00   -       -03
1559 
1560 # French Guiana
1561 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1562 Zone America/Cayenne    -3:29:20 -      LMT     1911 Jul
1563                         -4:00   -       -04     1967 Oct
1564                         -3:00   -       -03
1565 
1566 # Guyana
1567 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1568 Zone    America/Guyana  -3:52:40 -      LMT     1915 Mar    # Georgetown
1569                         -3:45   -       -0345   1975 Jul 31
1570                         -3:00   -       -03     1991
1571 # IATA SSIM (1996-06) says -4:00.  Assume a 1991 switch.
1572                         -4:00   -       -04
1573 
1574 # Paraguay
1575 #
1576 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1577 # Shanks & Pottenger say that spring transitions are 01:00 -> 02:00,
1578 # and autumn transitions are 00:00 -> 23:00.  Go with pre-1999
1579 # editions of Shanks, and with the IATA, who say transitions occur at 00:00.
1580 #
1581 # From Waldemar Villamayor-Venialbo (2013-09-20):
1582 # No time of the day is established for the adjustment, so people normally
1583 # adjust their clocks at 0 hour of the given dates.
1584 #
1585 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1586 Rule    Para    1975    1988    -       Oct      1      0:00    1:00    -
1587 Rule    Para    1975    1978    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       -


1641 # Art. 1. It is hereby established that from the second Sunday of the month of
1642 # April of this year (2010), the official time is to be set back 60 minutes,
1643 # and that on the first Sunday of the month of October, it is to be set
1644 # forward 60 minutes, in all the territory of the Paraguayan Republic.
1645 # ...
1646 Rule    Para    2010    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    -
1647 Rule    Para    2010    2012    -       Apr     Sun>=8       0:00    0       -
1648 #
1649 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-03-07):
1650 # Paraguay will end DST on 2013-03-24 00:00....
1651 # http://www.ande.gov.py/interna.php?id=1075
1652 #
1653 # From Carlos Raúl Perasso (2013-03-15):
1654 # The change in Paraguay is now final.  Decree number 10780
1655 # http://www.presidencia.gov.py/uploads/pdf/presidencia-3b86ff4b691c79d4f5927ca964922ec74772ce857c02ca054a52a37b49afc7fb.pdf
1656 # From Carlos Raúl Perasso (2014-02-28):
1657 # Decree 1264 can be found at:
1658 # http://www.presidencia.gov.py/archivos/documentos/DECRETO1264_ey9r8zai.pdf
1659 Rule    Para    2013    max     -       Mar     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
1660 
1661 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1662 Zone America/Asuncion   -3:50:40 -      LMT     1890
1663                         -3:50:40 -      AMT     1931 Oct 10 # Asunción Mean Time
1664                         -4:00   -       -04     1972 Oct
1665                         -3:00   -       -03     1974 Apr
1666                         -4:00   Para    -04/-03
1667 
1668 # Peru
1669 #
1670 # From Evelyn C. Leeper via Mark Brader (2003-10-26)
1671 # <news:xrGmb.39935$gA1.13896113@news4.srv.hcvlny.cv.net>:
1672 # When we were in Peru in 1985-1986, they apparently switched over
1673 # sometime between December 29 and January 3 while we were on the Amazon.
1674 #
1675 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1676 # Shanks & Pottenger don't have this transition.  Assume 1986 was like 1987.
1677 
1678 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1679 Rule    Peru    1938    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    -
1680 Rule    Peru    1938    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1681 Rule    Peru    1938    1939    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    -
1682 Rule    Peru    1939    1940    -       Mar     Sun>=24      0:00    0       -
1683 Rule    Peru    1986    1987    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    -
1684 Rule    Peru    1986    1987    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1685 Rule    Peru    1990    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    -
1686 Rule    Peru    1990    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1687 # IATA is ambiguous for 1993/1995; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1688 Rule    Peru    1994    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    -
1689 Rule    Peru    1994    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1690 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1691 Zone    America/Lima    -5:08:12 -      LMT     1890
1692                         -5:08:36 -      LMT     1908 Jul 28 # Lima Mean Time?
1693                         -5:00   Peru    -05/-04
1694 
1695 # South Georgia
1696 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1697 Zone Atlantic/South_Georgia -2:26:08 -  LMT     1890 # Grytviken
1698                         -2:00   -       -02
1699 
1700 # South Sandwich Is
1701 # uninhabited; scientific personnel have wintered
1702 
1703 # Suriname
1704 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1705 Zone America/Paramaribo -3:40:40 -      LMT     1911
1706                         -3:40:52 -      PMT     1935     # Paramaribo Mean Time
1707                         -3:40:36 -      PMT     1945 Oct    # The capital moved?
1708                         -3:30   -       -0330   1984 Oct
1709                         -3:00   -       -03
1710 
1711 # Trinidad and Tobago
1712 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1713 Zone America/Port_of_Spain -4:06:04 -   LMT     1912 Mar 2
1714                         -4:00   -       AST
1715 
1716 # These all agree with Trinidad and Tobago since 1970.
1717 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Anguilla
1718 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Antigua
1719 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Dominica
1720 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Grenada
1721 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Guadeloupe
1722 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Marigot      # St Martin (French part)
1723 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Montserrat
1724 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Barthelemy # St Barthélemy
1725 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Kitts     # St Kitts & Nevis
1726 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Lucia
1727 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Thomas    # Virgin Islands (US)
1728 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Vincent
1729 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Tortola      # Virgin Islands (UK)
1730 
1731 # Uruguay
1732 # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):


1963 # published today in the "Gaceta Oficial de la República Bolivariana
1964 # de Venezuela, número 38.819" (official document for all laws or
1965 # resolution publication)
1966 # http://www.globovision.com/news.php?nid=72208
1967 
1968 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-04-15):
1969 # https://actualidad.rt.com/actualidad/204758-venezuela-modificar-huso-horario-sequia-elnino
1970 #
1971 # From Paul Eggert (2016-04-15):
1972 # Clocks advance 30 minutes on 2016-05-01 at 02:30....
1973 # "'Venezuela's new time-zone: hours without light, hours without water,
1974 # hours of presidential broadcasts, hours of lines,' quipped comedian
1975 # Jean Mary Curró ...". See: Cawthorne A, Kai D. Venezuela scraps
1976 # half-hour time difference set by Chavez. Reuters 2016-04-15 14:50 -0400
1977 # https://www.reuters.com/article/us-venezuela-timezone-idUSKCN0XC2BE
1978 #
1979 # From Matt Johnson (2016-04-20):
1980 # ... published in the official Gazette [2016-04-18], here:
1981 # http://historico.tsj.gob.ve/gaceta_ext/abril/1842016/E-1842016-4551.pdf
1982 
1983 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1984 Zone    America/Caracas -4:27:44 -      LMT     1890
1985                         -4:27:40 -      CMT     1912 Feb 12 # Caracas Mean Time?
1986                         -4:30   -       -0430   1965 Jan  1  0:00
1987                         -4:00   -       -04     2007 Dec  9  3:00
1988                         -4:30   -       -0430   2016 May  1  2:30
1989                         -4:00   -       -04


 402 # or (some English translation):
 403 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_argentina08.html
 404 
 405 # From Mariano Absatz (2010-04-12):
 406 # yes...I can confirm this...and given that San Luis keeps calling
 407 # UTC-03:00 "summer time", we should't just let San Luis go back to "Arg"
 408 # rules...San Luis is still using "Western ARgentina Time" and it got
 409 # stuck on Summer daylight savings time even though the summer is over.
 410 
 411 # From Paul Eggert (2018-01-23):
 412 # Perhaps San Luis operates on the legal fiction that it is at -04
 413 # with perpetual daylight saving time, but ordinary usage typically seems to
 414 # just say it's at -03; see, for example,
 415 # https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hora_oficial_argentina
 416 # We've documented similar situations as being plain changes to
 417 # standard time, so let's do that here too.  This does not change UTC
 418 # offsets, only tm_isdst and the time zone abbreviations.  One minor
 419 # plus is that this silences a zic complaint that there's no POSIX TZ
 420 # setting for timestamps past 2038.
 421 
 422 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 423 #
 424 # Buenos Aires (BA), Capital Federal (CF),
 425 Zone America/Argentina/Buenos_Aires -3:53:48 - LMT      1894 Oct 31
 426                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May    # Córdoba Mean Time
 427                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 428                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 429                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 430                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 431                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02
 432 #
 433 # Córdoba (CB), Santa Fe (SF), Entre Ríos (ER), Corrientes (CN), Misiones (MN),
 434 # Chaco (CC), Formosa (FM), Santiago del Estero (SE)
 435 #
 436 # Shanks & Pottenger also make the following claims, which we haven't verified:
 437 # - Formosa switched to -3:00 on 1991-01-07.
 438 # - Misiones switched to -3:00 on 1990-12-29.
 439 # - Chaco switched to -3:00 on 1991-01-04.
 440 # - Santiago del Estero switched to -4:00 on 1991-04-01,
 441 #   then to -3:00 on 1991-04-26.
 442 #


 583                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jun 20
 584                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 585                         -3:00   -       -03
 586 #
 587 # Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur (TF)
 588 Zone America/Argentina/Ushuaia -4:33:12 - LMT   1894 Oct 31
 589                         -4:16:48 -      CMT     1920 May
 590                         -4:00   -       -04     1930 Dec
 591                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
 592                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1999 Oct  3
 593                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 2000 Mar  3
 594                         -3:00   -       -03     2004 May 30
 595                         -4:00   -       -04     2004 Jun 20
 596                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 2008 Oct 18
 597                         -3:00   -       -03
 598 
 599 # Aruba
 600 Link America/Curacao America/Aruba
 601 
 602 # Bolivia
 603 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 604 Zone    America/La_Paz  -4:32:36 -      LMT     1890
 605                         -4:32:36 -      CMT     1931 Oct 15 # Calamarca MT
 606                         -4:32:36 1:00   BST     1932 Mar 21 # Bolivia ST
 607                         -4:00   -       -04
 608 
 609 # Brazil
 610 
 611 # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
 612 # The mayor of Rio recently attempted to change the time zone rules
 613 # just in his city, in order to leave more summer time for the tourist trade.
 614 # The rule change lasted only part of the day;
 615 # the federal government refused to follow the city's rules, and business
 616 # was in a chaos, so the mayor backed down that afternoon.
 617 
 618 # From IATA SSIM (1996-02):
 619 # _Only_ the following states in BR1 observe DST: Rio Grande do Sul (RS),
 620 # Santa Catarina (SC), Paraná (PR), São Paulo (SP), Rio de Janeiro (RJ),
 621 # Espírito Santo (ES), Minas Gerais (MG), Bahia (BA), Goiás (GO),
 622 # Distrito Federal (DF), Tocantins (TO), Sergipe [SE] and Alagoas [AL].
 623 # [The last three states are new to this issue of the IATA SSIM.]


 926 # Decree 6,212 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/DecHV6212.gif> (2007-09-26),
 927 # adopted by the same states as before.
 928 Rule    Brazil  2007    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8        0:00   1:00    -
 929 # From Frederico A. C. Neves (2008-09-10):
 930 # According to this decree
 931 # http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2007-2010/2008/Decreto/D6558.htm
 932 # [t]he DST period in Brazil now on will be from the 3rd Oct Sunday to the
 933 # 3rd Feb Sunday. There is an exception on the return date when this is
 934 # the Carnival Sunday then the return date will be the next Sunday...
 935 Rule    Brazil  2008    2017    -       Oct     Sun>=15      0:00    1:00    -
 936 Rule    Brazil  2008    2011    -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 937 # Decree 7,584 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HVdecreto7584_20111013.jpg> (2011-10-13)
 938 # added Bahia.
 939 Rule    Brazil  2012    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
 940 # Decree 7,826 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HVdecreto7826_20121015.jpg> (2012-10-15)
 941 # removed Bahia and added Tocantins.
 942 # Decree 8,112 <http://pcdsh01.on.br/HVdecreto8112_20130930.JPG> (2013-09-30)
 943 # removed Tocantins.
 944 Rule    Brazil  2013    2014    -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 945 Rule    Brazil  2015    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
 946 Rule    Brazil  2016    2022    -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 947 # From Steffen Thorsen (2017-12-18):
 948 # According to many media sources, next year's DST start in Brazil will move to
 949 # the first Sunday of November, and it will stay like that for the years after.
 950 # ... https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/brazil-delays-dst-2018.html
 951 # From Steffen Thorsen (2017-12-20):
 952 # http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_ato2015-2018/2017/decreto/D9242.htm
 953 #
 954 # From Fábio Gomes (2018-10-04):
 955 # The Brazilian president just announced a new change on this year DST.
 956 # It was scheduled to start on November 4th and it was changed to November 18th.
 957 # From Rodrigo Brüning Wessler (2018-10-15):
 958 # The Brazilian government just announced that the change in DST was
 959 # canceled....  Maybe the president Michel Temer also woke up one hour
 960 # earlier today. :)
 961 Rule    Brazil  2018    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    -
 962 Rule    Brazil  2023    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
 963 Rule    Brazil  2024    2025    -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 964 Rule    Brazil  2026    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
 965 Rule    Brazil  2027    2033    -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 966 Rule    Brazil  2034    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
 967 Rule    Brazil  2035    2036    -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 968 Rule    Brazil  2037    only    -       Feb     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
 969 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-09-29):
 970 # The next is wrong in some years but is better than nothing.
 971 Rule    Brazil  2038    max     -       Feb     Sun>=15      0:00    0       -
 972 
 973 # The latest ruleset listed above says that the following states observe DST:
 974 # DF, ES, GO, MG, MS, MT, PR, RJ, RS, SC, SP.










 975 
 976 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 977 #
 978 # Fernando de Noronha (administratively part of PE)
 979 Zone America/Noronha    -2:09:40 -      LMT     1914
 980                         -2:00   Brazil  -02/-01 1990 Sep 17
 981                         -2:00   -       -02     1999 Sep 30
 982                         -2:00   Brazil  -02/-01 2000 Oct 15
 983                         -2:00   -       -02     2001 Sep 13
 984                         -2:00   Brazil  -02/-01 2002 Oct  1
 985                         -2:00   -       -02
 986 # Other Atlantic islands have no permanent settlement.
 987 # These include Trindade and Martim Vaz (administratively part of ES),
 988 # Rocas Atoll (RN), and the St Peter and St Paul Archipelago (PE).
 989 # Fernando de Noronha was a separate territory from 1942-09-02 to 1989-01-01;
 990 # it also included the Penedos.
 991 #
 992 # Amapá (AP), east Pará (PA)
 993 # East Pará includes Belém, Marabá, Serra Norte, and São Félix do Xingu.
 994 # The division between east and west Pará is the river Xingu.
 995 # In the north a very small part from the river Javary (now Jari I guess,
 996 # the border with Amapá) to the Amazon, then to the Xingu.


1264 # they will switch from -03 to -04 one hour after Santiago does that day.
1265 # For now, assume that they will not revert.
1266 
1267 # From Juan Correa (2018-08-13):
1268 # As of moments ago, the Ministry of Energy in Chile has announced the new
1269 # schema for DST. ...  Announcement in video (in Spanish):
1270 # https://twitter.com/MinEnergia/status/1029000399129374720
1271 # From Yonathan Dossow (2018-08-13):
1272 # The video says "first Saturday of September", we all know it means Sunday at
1273 # midnight.
1274 # From Tim Parenti (2018-08-13):
1275 # Translating the captions on the video at 0:44-0:55, "We want to announce as
1276 # Government that from 2019, Winter Time will be increased to 5 months, between
1277 # the first Saturday of April and the first Saturday of September."
1278 # At 2:08-2:20, "The Magallanes region will maintain its current time, as
1279 # decided by the citizens during 2017, but our Government will promote a
1280 # regional dialogue table to gather their opinion on this matter."
1281 # https://twitter.com/MinEnergia/status/1029009354001973248
1282 # "We will keep the new time policy unchanged for at least the next 4 years."
1283 # So we extend the new rules on Saturdays at 24:00 mainland time indefinitely.


1284 
1285 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1286 Rule    Chile   1927    1931    -       Sep      1      0:00    1:00    -
1287 Rule    Chile   1928    1932    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1288 Rule    Chile   1968    only    -       Nov      3      4:00u   1:00    -
1289 Rule    Chile   1969    only    -       Mar     30      3:00u   0       -
1290 Rule    Chile   1969    only    -       Nov     23      4:00u   1:00    -
1291 Rule    Chile   1970    only    -       Mar     29      3:00u   0       -
1292 Rule    Chile   1971    only    -       Mar     14      3:00u   0       -
1293 Rule    Chile   1970    1972    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    -
1294 Rule    Chile   1972    1986    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1295 Rule    Chile   1973    only    -       Sep     30      4:00u   1:00    -
1296 Rule    Chile   1974    1987    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    -
1297 Rule    Chile   1987    only    -       Apr     12      3:00u   0       -
1298 Rule    Chile   1988    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1299 Rule    Chile   1988    1989    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    -
1300 Rule    Chile   1990    only    -       Sep     16      4:00u   1:00    -
1301 Rule    Chile   1991    1996    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1302 Rule    Chile   1991    1997    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    -
1303 Rule    Chile   1997    only    -       Mar     30      3:00u   0       -
1304 Rule    Chile   1998    only    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1305 Rule    Chile   1998    only    -       Sep     27      4:00u   1:00    -
1306 Rule    Chile   1999    only    -       Apr      4      3:00u   0       -
1307 Rule    Chile   1999    2010    -       Oct     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    -
1308 Rule    Chile   2000    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1309 # N.B.: the end of March 29 in Chile is March 30 in Universal time,
1310 # which is used below in specifying the transition.
1311 Rule    Chile   2008    only    -       Mar     30      3:00u   0       -
1312 Rule    Chile   2009    only    -       Mar     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1313 Rule    Chile   2010    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       3:00u   0       -
1314 Rule    Chile   2011    only    -       May     Sun>=2       3:00u   0       -
1315 Rule    Chile   2011    only    -       Aug     Sun>=16      4:00u   1:00    -
1316 Rule    Chile   2012    2014    -       Apr     Sun>=23      3:00u   0       -
1317 Rule    Chile   2012    2014    -       Sep     Sun>=2       4:00u   1:00    -
1318 Rule    Chile   2016    2018    -       May     Sun>=9       3:00u   0       -
1319 Rule    Chile   2016    2018    -       Aug     Sun>=9       4:00u   1:00    -
1320 Rule    Chile   2019    max     -       Apr     Sun>=2       3:00u   0       -
1321 Rule    Chile   2019    max     -       Sep     Sun>=2       4:00u   1:00    -
1322 # IATA SSIM anomalies: (1992-02) says 1992-03-14;
1323 # (1996-09) says 1998-03-08.  Ignore these.
1324 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1325 Zone America/Santiago   -4:42:46 -      LMT     1890
1326                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1910 Jan 10 # Santiago Mean Time
1327                         -5:00   -       -05     1916 Jul  1
1328                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1918 Sep 10
1329                         -4:00   -       -04     1919 Jul  1
1330                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1927 Sep  1
1331                         -5:00   Chile   -05/-04 1932 Sep  1
1332                         -4:00   -       -04     1942 Jun  1
1333                         -5:00   -       -05     1942 Aug  1
1334                         -4:00   -       -04     1946 Jul 15
1335                         -4:00   1:00    -03     1946 Sep  1 # central Chile
1336                         -4:00   -       -04     1947 Apr  1
1337                         -5:00   -       -05     1947 May 21 23:00
1338                         -4:00   Chile   -04/-03
1339 Zone America/Punta_Arenas -4:43:40 -    LMT     1890
1340                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1910 Jan 10
1341                         -5:00   -       -05     1916 Jul  1
1342                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1918 Sep 10
1343                         -4:00   -       -04     1919 Jul  1
1344                         -4:42:46 -      SMT     1927 Sep  1


1353                         -7:17:28 -      EMT     1932 Sep    # Easter Mean Time
1354                         -7:00   Chile   -07/-06 1982 Mar 14 3:00u # Easter Time
1355                         -6:00   Chile   -06/-05
1356 #
1357 # Salas y Gómez Island is uninhabited.
1358 # Other Chilean locations, including Juan Fernández Is, Desventuradas Is,
1359 # and Antarctic bases, are like America/Santiago.
1360 
1361 # Antarctic base using South American rules
1362 # (See the file 'antarctica' for more.)
1363 #
1364 # Palmer, Anvers Island, since 1965 (moved 2 miles in 1968)
1365 #
1366 # From Ethan Dicks (1996-10-06):
1367 # It keeps the same time as Punta Arenas, Chile, because, just like us
1368 # and the South Pole, that's the other end of their supply line....
1369 # I verified with someone who was there that since 1980,
1370 # Palmer has followed Chile.  Prior to that, before the Falklands War,
1371 # Palmer used to be supplied from Argentina.
1372 #
1373 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1374 Zone Antarctica/Palmer  0       -       -00     1965
1375                         -4:00   Arg     -04/-03 1969 Oct  5
1376                         -3:00   Arg     -03/-02 1982 May
1377                         -4:00   Chile   -04/-03 2016 Dec  4
1378                         -3:00   -       -03
1379 
1380 # Colombia
1381 
1382 # Milne gives 4:56:16.4 for Bogotá time in 1899; round to nearest.  He writes,
1383 # "A variation of fifteen minutes in the public clocks of Bogota is not rare."
1384 
1385 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1386 Rule    CO      1992    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    -
1387 Rule    CO      1993    only    -       Apr      4      0:00    0       -
1388 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1389 Zone    America/Bogota  -4:56:16 -      LMT     1884 Mar 13
1390                         -4:56:16 -      BMT     1914 Nov 23 # Bogotá Mean Time
1391                         -5:00   CO      -05/-04
1392 # Malpelo, Providencia, San Andres
1393 # no information; probably like America/Bogota
1394 
1395 # Curaçao
1396 
1397 # Milne gives 4:35:46.9 for Curaçao mean time; round to nearest.
1398 #
1399 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1400 # Shanks & Pottenger say that The Bottom and Philipsburg have been at
1401 # -4:00 since standard time was introduced on 1912-03-02; and that
1402 # Kralendijk and Rincon used Kralendijk Mean Time (-4:33:08) from
1403 # 1912-02-02 to 1965-01-01.  The former is dubious, since S&P also say
1404 # Saba Island has been like Curaçao.
1405 # This all predates our 1970 cutoff, though.
1406 #
1407 # By July 2007 Curaçao and St Maarten are planned to become
1408 # associated states within the Netherlands, much like Aruba;
1409 # Bonaire, Saba and St Eustatius would become directly part of the
1410 # Netherlands as Kingdom Islands.  This won't affect their time zones
1411 # though, as far as we know.
1412 #
1413 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1414 Zone    America/Curacao -4:35:47 -      LMT     1912 Feb 12 # Willemstad
1415                         -4:30   -       -0430   1965
1416                         -4:00   -       AST
1417 
1418 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
1419 # use links for places with new iso3166 codes.
1420 # The name "Lower Prince's Quarter" is both longer than fourteen characters
1421 # and contains an apostrophe; use "Lower_Princes" below.
1422 
1423 Link    America/Curacao America/Lower_Princes   # Sint Maarten
1424 Link    America/Curacao America/Kralendijk      # Caribbean Netherlands
1425 
1426 # Ecuador
1427 #
1428 # Milne says the Central and South American Telegraph Company used -5:24:15.
1429 #
1430 # From Alois Treindl (2016-12-15):
1431 # https://www.elcomercio.com/actualidad/hora-sixto-1993.html
1432 # ... Whether the law applied also to Galápagos, I do not know.
1433 # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-15):
1434 # https://www.elcomercio.com/afull/modificacion-husohorario-ecuador-presidentes-decreto.html
1435 # This says President Sixto Durán Ballén signed decree No. 285, which
1436 # established DST from 1992-11-28 to 1993-02-05; it does not give transition
1437 # times.  The people called it "hora de Sixto" ("Sixto hour").  The change did
1438 # not go over well; a popular song "Qué hora es" by Jaime Guevara had lyrics
1439 # that included "Amanecía en mitad de la noche, los guaguas iban a clase sin
1440 # sol" ("It was dawning in the middle of the night, the buses went to class
1441 # without sun").  Although Ballén's campaign slogan was "Ni un paso atrás"
1442 # (Not one step back), the clocks went back in 1993 and the experiment was not
1443 # repeated.  For now, assume transitions were at 00:00 local time country-wide.
1444 #
1445 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1446 Rule    Ecuador 1992    only    -       Nov     28      0:00    1:00    -
1447 Rule    Ecuador 1993    only    -       Feb      5      0:00    0       -
1448 #
1449 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1450 Zone America/Guayaquil  -5:19:20 -      LMT     1890
1451                         -5:14:00 -      QMT     1931 # Quito Mean Time
1452                         -5:00   Ecuador -05/-04
1453 Zone Pacific/Galapagos  -5:58:24 -      LMT     1931 # Puerto Baquerizo Moreno
1454                         -5:00   -       -05     1986
1455                         -6:00   Ecuador -06/-05
1456 
1457 # Falklands
1458 
1459 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1460 # Between 1990 and 2000 inclusive, Shanks & Pottenger and the IATA agree except
1461 # the IATA gives 1996-09-08.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1462 
1463 # From Falkland Islands Government Office, London (2001-01-22)
1464 # via Jesper Nørgaard:
1465 # ... the clocks revert back to Local Mean Time at 2 am on Sunday 15
1466 # April 2001 and advance one hour to summer time at 2 am on Sunday 2
1467 # September.  It is anticipated that the clocks will revert back at 2
1468 # am on Sunday 21 April 2002 and advance to summer time at 2 am on
1469 # Sunday 1 September.


1532 #   summer time on a trial basis only.  FIG need to contact IANA and/or
1533 #   the maintainers of the database to inform them we're adopting
1534 #   the same policy this year and suggest recommendations for future years.
1535 #
1536 # For now we will assume permanent -03 for the Falklands
1537 # until advised differently (to apply for 2012 and beyond, after the 2011
1538 # experiment was apparently successful.)
1539 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1540 Rule    Falk    1937    1938    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    -
1541 Rule    Falk    1938    1942    -       Mar     Sun>=19      0:00    0       -
1542 Rule    Falk    1939    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    1:00    -
1543 Rule    Falk    1940    1942    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    -
1544 Rule    Falk    1943    only    -       Jan     1       0:00    0       -
1545 Rule    Falk    1983    only    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    -
1546 Rule    Falk    1984    1985    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1547 Rule    Falk    1984    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    1:00    -
1548 Rule    Falk    1985    2000    -       Sep     Sun>=9       0:00    1:00    -
1549 Rule    Falk    1986    2000    -       Apr     Sun>=16      0:00    0       -
1550 Rule    Falk    2001    2010    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00    0       -
1551 Rule    Falk    2001    2010    -       Sep     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    -
1552 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1553 Zone Atlantic/Stanley   -3:51:24 -      LMT     1890
1554                         -3:51:24 -      SMT     1912 Mar 12 # Stanley Mean Time
1555                         -4:00   Falk    -04/-03 1983 May
1556                         -3:00   Falk    -03/-02 1985 Sep 15
1557                         -4:00   Falk    -04/-03 2010 Sep  5  2:00
1558                         -3:00   -       -03
1559 
1560 # French Guiana
1561 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1562 Zone America/Cayenne    -3:29:20 -      LMT     1911 Jul
1563                         -4:00   -       -04     1967 Oct
1564                         -3:00   -       -03
1565 
1566 # Guyana
1567 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1568 Zone    America/Guyana  -3:52:40 -      LMT     1915 Mar    # Georgetown
1569                         -3:45   -       -0345   1975 Jul 31
1570                         -3:00   -       -03     1991
1571 # IATA SSIM (1996-06) says -4:00.  Assume a 1991 switch.
1572                         -4:00   -       -04
1573 
1574 # Paraguay
1575 #
1576 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1577 # Shanks & Pottenger say that spring transitions are 01:00 -> 02:00,
1578 # and autumn transitions are 00:00 -> 23:00.  Go with pre-1999
1579 # editions of Shanks, and with the IATA, who say transitions occur at 00:00.
1580 #
1581 # From Waldemar Villamayor-Venialbo (2013-09-20):
1582 # No time of the day is established for the adjustment, so people normally
1583 # adjust their clocks at 0 hour of the given dates.
1584 #
1585 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1586 Rule    Para    1975    1988    -       Oct      1      0:00    1:00    -
1587 Rule    Para    1975    1978    -       Mar      1      0:00    0       -


1641 # Art. 1. It is hereby established that from the second Sunday of the month of
1642 # April of this year (2010), the official time is to be set back 60 minutes,
1643 # and that on the first Sunday of the month of October, it is to be set
1644 # forward 60 minutes, in all the territory of the Paraguayan Republic.
1645 # ...
1646 Rule    Para    2010    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    -
1647 Rule    Para    2010    2012    -       Apr     Sun>=8       0:00    0       -
1648 #
1649 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-03-07):
1650 # Paraguay will end DST on 2013-03-24 00:00....
1651 # http://www.ande.gov.py/interna.php?id=1075
1652 #
1653 # From Carlos Raúl Perasso (2013-03-15):
1654 # The change in Paraguay is now final.  Decree number 10780
1655 # http://www.presidencia.gov.py/uploads/pdf/presidencia-3b86ff4b691c79d4f5927ca964922ec74772ce857c02ca054a52a37b49afc7fb.pdf
1656 # From Carlos Raúl Perasso (2014-02-28):
1657 # Decree 1264 can be found at:
1658 # http://www.presidencia.gov.py/archivos/documentos/DECRETO1264_ey9r8zai.pdf
1659 Rule    Para    2013    max     -       Mar     Sun>=22      0:00    0       -
1660 
1661 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1662 Zone America/Asuncion   -3:50:40 -      LMT     1890
1663                         -3:50:40 -      AMT     1931 Oct 10 # Asunción Mean Time
1664                         -4:00   -       -04     1972 Oct
1665                         -3:00   -       -03     1974 Apr
1666                         -4:00   Para    -04/-03
1667 
1668 # Peru
1669 #
1670 # From Evelyn C. Leeper via Mark Brader (2003-10-26)
1671 # <news:xrGmb.39935$gA1.13896113@news4.srv.hcvlny.cv.net>:
1672 # When we were in Peru in 1985-1986, they apparently switched over
1673 # sometime between December 29 and January 3 while we were on the Amazon.
1674 #
1675 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1676 # Shanks & Pottenger don't have this transition.  Assume 1986 was like 1987.
1677 
1678 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1679 Rule    Peru    1938    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    -
1680 Rule    Peru    1938    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1681 Rule    Peru    1938    1939    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1:00    -
1682 Rule    Peru    1939    1940    -       Mar     Sun>=24      0:00    0       -
1683 Rule    Peru    1986    1987    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    -
1684 Rule    Peru    1986    1987    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1685 Rule    Peru    1990    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    -
1686 Rule    Peru    1990    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1687 # IATA is ambiguous for 1993/1995; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1688 Rule    Peru    1994    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    1:00    -
1689 Rule    Peru    1994    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    0       -
1690 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1691 Zone    America/Lima    -5:08:12 -      LMT     1890
1692                         -5:08:36 -      LMT     1908 Jul 28 # Lima Mean Time?
1693                         -5:00   Peru    -05/-04
1694 
1695 # South Georgia
1696 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1697 Zone Atlantic/South_Georgia -2:26:08 -  LMT     1890 # Grytviken
1698                         -2:00   -       -02
1699 
1700 # South Sandwich Is
1701 # uninhabited; scientific personnel have wintered
1702 
1703 # Suriname
1704 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1705 Zone America/Paramaribo -3:40:40 -      LMT     1911
1706                         -3:40:52 -      PMT     1935     # Paramaribo Mean Time
1707                         -3:40:36 -      PMT     1945 Oct    # The capital moved?
1708                         -3:30   -       -0330   1984 Oct
1709                         -3:00   -       -03
1710 
1711 # Trinidad and Tobago
1712 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1713 Zone America/Port_of_Spain -4:06:04 -   LMT     1912 Mar 2
1714                         -4:00   -       AST
1715 
1716 # These all agree with Trinidad and Tobago since 1970.
1717 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Anguilla
1718 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Antigua
1719 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Dominica
1720 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Grenada
1721 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Guadeloupe
1722 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Marigot      # St Martin (French part)
1723 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Montserrat
1724 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Barthelemy # St Barthélemy
1725 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Kitts     # St Kitts & Nevis
1726 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Lucia
1727 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Thomas    # Virgin Islands (US)
1728 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/St_Vincent
1729 Link America/Port_of_Spain America/Tortola      # Virgin Islands (UK)
1730 
1731 # Uruguay
1732 # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):


1963 # published today in the "Gaceta Oficial de la República Bolivariana
1964 # de Venezuela, número 38.819" (official document for all laws or
1965 # resolution publication)
1966 # http://www.globovision.com/news.php?nid=72208
1967 
1968 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2016-04-15):
1969 # https://actualidad.rt.com/actualidad/204758-venezuela-modificar-huso-horario-sequia-elnino
1970 #
1971 # From Paul Eggert (2016-04-15):
1972 # Clocks advance 30 minutes on 2016-05-01 at 02:30....
1973 # "'Venezuela's new time-zone: hours without light, hours without water,
1974 # hours of presidential broadcasts, hours of lines,' quipped comedian
1975 # Jean Mary Curró ...". See: Cawthorne A, Kai D. Venezuela scraps
1976 # half-hour time difference set by Chavez. Reuters 2016-04-15 14:50 -0400
1977 # https://www.reuters.com/article/us-venezuela-timezone-idUSKCN0XC2BE
1978 #
1979 # From Matt Johnson (2016-04-20):
1980 # ... published in the official Gazette [2016-04-18], here:
1981 # http://historico.tsj.gob.ve/gaceta_ext/abril/1842016/E-1842016-4551.pdf
1982 
1983 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1984 Zone    America/Caracas -4:27:44 -      LMT     1890
1985                         -4:27:40 -      CMT     1912 Feb 12 # Caracas Mean Time?
1986                         -4:30   -       -0430   1965 Jan  1  0:00
1987                         -4:00   -       -04     2007 Dec  9  3:00
1988                         -4:30   -       -0430   2016 May  1  2:30
1989                         -4:00   -       -04
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