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*** 1,6 **** ! .\" Copyright (c) 1994, 2019, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. .\" DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER. .\" .\" This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it .\" under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as .\" published by the Free Software Foundation. --- 1,7 ---- ! '\" t ! .\" Copyright (c) 1997, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved. .\" DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER. .\" .\" This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it .\" under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as .\" published by the Free Software Foundation.
*** 17,346 **** .\" .\" Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA .\" or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any .\" questions. .\" ! .\" Automatically generated by Pandoc 2.3.1 .\" ! .TH "JAR" "1" "2018" "JDK 13" "JDK Commands" ! .hy ! .SH NAME ! .PP ! jar \- create an archive for classes and resources, and manipulate or ! restore individual classes or resources from an archive ! .SH SYNOPSIS ! .PP ! \f[CB]jar\f[R] [\f[I]OPTION\f[R] ...] [ [\f[CB]\-\-release\f[R] ! \f[I]VERSION\f[R]] [\f[CB]\-C\f[R] \f[I]dir\f[R]] \f[I]files\f[R]] ... ! .SH DESCRIPTION ! .PP ! The \f[CB]jar\f[R] command is a general\-purpose archiving and compression ! tool, based on the ZIP and ZLIB compression formats. ! Initially, the \f[CB]jar\f[R] command was designed to package Java applets ! (not supported since JDK 11) or applications; however, beginning with ! JDK 9, users can use the \f[CB]jar\f[R] command to create modular JARs. ! For transportation and deployment, it\[aq]s usually more convenient to ! package modules as modular JARs. ! .PP ! The syntax for the \f[CB]jar\f[R] command resembles the syntax for the ! \f[CB]tar\f[R] command. ! It has several main operation modes, defined by one of the mandatory ! operation arguments. ! Other arguments are either options that modify the behavior of the ! operation or are required to perform the operation. ! .PP ! When modules or the components of an application (files, images and ! sounds) are combined into a single archive, they can be downloaded by a ! Java agent (such as a browser) in a single HTTP transaction, rather than ! requiring a new connection for each piece. ! This dramatically improves download times. ! The \f[CB]jar\f[R] command also compresses files, which further improves ! download time. ! The \f[CB]jar\f[R] command also enables individual entries in a file to be ! signed so that their origin can be authenticated. ! A JAR file can be used as a class path entry, whether or not it\[aq]s ! compressed. ! .PP ! An archive becomes a modular JAR when you include a module descriptor, ! \f[CB]module\-info.class\f[R], in the root of the given directories or in ! the root of the \f[CB]\&.jar\f[R] archive. ! The following operations described in \f[B]Operation Modifiers Valid ! Only in Create and Update Modes\f[R] are valid only when creating or ! updating a modular jar or updating an existing non\-modular jar: ! .IP \[bu] 2 ! \f[CB]\-\-module\-version\f[R] ! .IP \[bu] 2 ! \f[CB]\-\-hash\-modules\f[R] ! .IP \[bu] 2 ! \f[CB]\-\-module\-path\f[R] ! .PP ! \f[B]Note:\f[R] ! .PP ! All mandatory or optional arguments for long options are also mandatory ! or optional for any corresponding short options. ! .SH MAIN OPERATION MODES ! .PP ! When using the \f[CB]jar\f[R] command, you must specify the operation for ! it to perform. ! You specify the operation mode for the \f[CB]jar\f[R] command by including ! the appropriate operation arguments described in this section. ! You can mix an operation argument with other one\-letter options. ! Generally the operation argument is the first argument specified on the ! command line. ! .TP ! .B \f[CB]\-c\f[R] or \f[CB]\-\-create\f[R] ! Creates the archive. ! .RS ! .RE ! .TP ! .B \f[CB]\-i=\f[R]\f[I]FILE\f[R] or \f[CB]\-\-generate\-index=\f[R]\f[I]FILE\f[R] ! Generates index information for the specified JAR file. ! .RS ! .RE ! .TP ! .B \f[CB]\-t\f[R] or \f[CB]\-\-list\f[R] ! Lists the table of contents for the archive. ! .RS ! .RE ! .TP ! .B \f[CB]\-u\f[R] or \f[CB]\-\-update\f[R] ! Updates an existing JAR file. ! .RS ! .RE ! .TP ! .B \f[CB]\-x\f[R] or \f[CB]\-\-extract\f[R] ! Extracts the named (or all) files from the archive. ! .RS ! .RE ! .TP ! .B \f[CB]\-d\f[R] or \f[CB]\-\-describe\-module\f[R] ! Prints the module descriptor or automatic module name. ! .RS ! .RE ! .SH OPERATION MODIFIERS VALID IN ANY MODE ! .PP ! You can use the following options to customize the actions of any ! operation mode included in the \f[CB]jar\f[R] command. ! .TP ! .B \f[CB]\-C\f[R] \f[I]DIR\f[R] ! Changes the specified directory and includes the \f[I]files\f[R] ! specified at the end of the command line. ! .RS ! .PP ! \f[CB]jar\f[R] [\f[I]OPTION\f[R] ...] [ [\f[CB]\-\-release\f[R] ! \f[I]VERSION\f[R]] [\f[CB]\-C\f[R] \f[I]dir\f[R]] \f[I]files\f[R]] ! .RE ! .TP ! .B \f[CB]\-f=\f[R]\f[I]FILE\f[R] or \f[CB]\-\-file=\f[R]\f[I]FILE\f[R] ! Specifies the archive file name. ! .RS ! .RE ! .TP ! .B \f[CB]\-\-release\f[R] \f[I]VERSION\f[R] ! Creates a multirelease JAR file. ! Places all files specified after the option into a versioned directory ! of the JAR file named ! \f[CB]META\-INF/versions/\f[R]\f[I]VERSION\f[R]\f[CB]/\f[R], where ! \f[I]VERSION\f[R] must be must be a positive integer whose value is 9 or ! greater. ! .RS ! .PP ! At run time, where more than one version of a class exists in the JAR, ! the JDK will use the first one it finds, searching initially in the ! directory tree whose \f[I]VERSION\f[R] number matches the JDK\[aq]s major ! version number. ! It will then look in directories with successively lower ! \f[I]VERSION\f[R] numbers, and finally look in the root of the JAR. ! .RE ! .TP ! .B \f[CB]\-v\f[R] or \f[CB]\-\-verbose\f[R] ! Sends or prints verbose output to standard output. ! .RS ! .RE ! .SH OPERATION MODIFIERS VALID ONLY IN CREATE AND UPDATE MODES ! .PP ! You can use the following options to customize the actions of the create ! and the update main operation modes: ! .TP ! .B \f[CB]\-e=\f[R]\f[I]CLASSNAME\f[R] or \f[CB]\-\-main\-class=\f[R]\f[I]CLASSNAME\f[R] ! Specifies the application entry point for standalone applications ! bundled into a modular or executable modular JAR file. ! .RS ! .RE ! .TP ! .B \f[CB]\-m=\f[R]\f[I]FILE\f[R] or \f[CB]\-\-manifest=\f[R]\f[I]FILE\f[R] ! Includes the manifest information from the given manifest file. ! .RS ! .RE ! .TP ! .B \f[CB]\-M\f[R] or \f[CB]\-\-no\-manifest\f[R] ! Doesn\[aq]t create a manifest file for the entries. ! .RS ! .RE ! .TP ! .B \f[CB]\-\-module\-version=\f[R]\f[I]VERSION\f[R] ! Specifies the module version, when creating or updating a modular JAR ! file, or updating a non\-modular JAR file. ! .RS ! .RE ! .TP ! .B \f[CB]\-\-hash\-modules=\f[R]\f[I]PATTERN\f[R] ! Computes and records the hashes of modules matched by the given pattern ! and that depend upon directly or indirectly on a modular JAR file being ! created or a non\-modular JAR file being updated. ! .RS ! .RE ! .TP ! .B \f[CB]\-p\f[R] or \f[CB]\-\-module\-path\f[R] ! Specifies the location of module dependence for generating the hash. ! .RS ! .RE ! .TP ! .B \f[CB]\@\f[R]\f[I]file\f[R] ! Reads \f[CB]jar\f[R] options and file names from a text file. ! .RS ! .RE ! .SH OPERATION MODIFIERS VALID ONLY IN CREATE, UPDATE, AND ! GENERATE\-INDEX MODES ! .PP ! You can use the following options to customize the actions of the create ! (\f[CB]\-c\f[R] or \f[CB]\-\-create\f[R]) the update (\f[CB]\-u\f[R] or ! \f[CB]\-\-update\f[R] ) and the generate\-index (\f[CB]\-i\f[R] or ! \f[CB]\-\-generate\-index=\f[R]\f[I]FILE\f[R]) main operation modes: ! .TP ! .B \f[CB]\-0\f[R] or \f[CB]\-\-no\-compress\f[R] ! Stores without using ZIP compression. ! .RS ! .RE ! .SH OTHER OPTIONS ! .PP ! The following options are recognized by the \f[CB]jar\f[R] command and not ! used with operation modes: ! .TP ! .B \f[CB]\-h\f[R] or \f[CB]\-\-help\f[R][\f[CB]:compat\f[R]] ! Displays the command\-line help for the \f[CB]jar\f[R] command or ! optionally the compatibility help. ! .RS ! .RE ! .TP ! .B \f[CB]\-\-help\-extra\f[R] ! Displays help on extra options. ! .RS ! .RE ! .TP ! .B \f[CB]\-\-version\f[R] ! Prints the program version. ! .RS ! .RE ! .SH EXAMPLES OF JAR COMMAND SYNTAX ! .IP \[bu] 2 ! Create an archive, \f[CB]classes.jar\f[R], that contains two class files, ! \f[CB]Foo.class\f[R] and \f[CB]Bar.class\f[R]. ! .RS 2 ! .RS ! .PP ! \f[CB]jar\ \-\-create\ \-\-file\ classes.jar\ Foo.class\ Bar.class\f[R] ! .RE ! .RE ! .IP \[bu] 2 ! Create an archive, \f[CB]classes.jar\f[R], by using an existing manifest, ! \f[CB]mymanifest\f[R], that contains all of the files in the directory ! \f[CB]foo/\f[R]. ! .RS 2 ! .RS ! .PP ! \f[CB]jar\ \-\-create\ \-\-file\ classes.jar\ \-\-manifest\ mymanifest\ \-C\ foo/\f[R] ! .RE ! .RE ! .IP \[bu] 2 ! Create a modular JAR archive,\f[CB]foo.jar\f[R], where the module ! descriptor is located in \f[CB]classes/module\-info.class\f[R]. ! .RS 2 ! .RS ! .PP ! \f[CB]jar\ \-\-create\ \-\-file\ foo.jar\ \-\-main\-class\ com.foo.Main\ \-\-module\-version\ 1.0\ \-C\ foo/classes\ resources\f[R] ! .RE ! .RE ! .IP \[bu] 2 ! Update an existing non\-modular JAR, \f[CB]foo.jar\f[R], to a modular JAR ! file. ! .RS 2 ! .RS ! .PP ! \f[CB]jar\ \-\-update\ \-\-file\ foo.jar\ \-\-main\-class\ com.foo.Main\ \-\-module\-version\ 1.0\ \-C\ foo/module\-info.class\f[R] ! .RE ! .RE ! .IP \[bu] 2 ! Create a versioned or multi\-release JAR, \f[CB]foo.jar\f[R], that places ! the files in the \f[CB]classes\f[R] directory at the root of the JAR, and ! the files in the \f[CB]classes\-10\f[R] directory in the ! \f[CB]META\-INF/versions/10\f[R] directory of the JAR. ! .RS 2 ! .PP ! In this example, the \f[CB]classes/com/foo\f[R] directory contains two ! classes, \f[CB]com.foo.Hello\f[R] (the entry point class) and ! \f[CB]com.foo.NameProvider\f[R], both compiled for JDK 8. ! The \f[CB]classes\-10/com/foo\f[R] directory contains a different version ! of the \f[CB]com.foo.NameProvider\f[R] class, this one containing JDK 10 ! specific code and compiled for JDK 10. ! .PP ! Given this setup, create a multirelease JAR file \f[CB]foo.jar\f[R] by ! running the following command from the directory containing the ! directories \f[CB]classes\f[R] and \f[CB]classes\-10\f[R] . ! .RS ! .PP ! \f[CB]jar\ \-\-create\ \-\-file\ foo.jar\ \-\-main\-class\ com.foo.Hello\ \-C\ classes\ .\ \-\-release\ 10\ \-C\ classes\-10\ .\f[R] ! .RE ! .PP ! The JAR file \f[CB]foo.jar\f[R] now contains: ! .IP ! .nf ! \f[CB] ! %\ jar\ \-tf\ foo.jar ! ! META\-INF/ ! META\-INF/MANIFEST.MF ! com/ ! com/foo/ ! com/foo/Hello.class ! com/foo/NameProvider.class ! META\-INF/versions/10/com/ ! META\-INF/versions/10/com/foo/ ! META\-INF/versions/10/com/foo/NameProvider.class ! \f[R] ! .fi ! .PP ! As well as other information, the file \f[CB]META\-INF/MANIFEST.MF\f[R], ! will contain the following lines to indicate that this is a multirelease ! JAR file with an entry point of \f[CB]com.foo.Hello\f[R]. ! .IP ! .nf ! \f[CB] ! \&... ! Main\-Class:\ com.foo.Hello ! Multi\-Release:\ true ! \f[R] ! .fi ! .PP ! Assuming that the \f[CB]com.foo.Hello\f[R] class calls a method on the ! \f[CB]com.foo.NameProvider\f[R] class, running the program using JDK 10 ! will ensure that the \f[CB]com.foo.NameProvider\f[R] class is the one in ! \f[CB]META\-INF/versions/10/com/foo/\f[R]. ! Running the program using JDK 8 will ensure that the ! \f[CB]com.foo.NameProvider\f[R] class is the one at the root of the JAR, ! in \f[CB]com/foo\f[R]. ! .RE ! .IP \[bu] 2 ! Create an archive, \f[CB]my.jar\f[R], by reading options and lists of ! class files from the file \f[CB]classes.list\f[R]. ! .RS 2 ! .PP ! \f[B]Note:\f[R] ! .PP ! To shorten or simplify the \f[CB]jar\f[R] command, you can specify ! arguments in a separate text file and pass it to the \f[CB]jar\f[R] ! command with the at sign (\f[CB]\@\f[R]) as a prefix. ! .RS ! .PP ! \f[CB]jar\ \-\-create\ \-\-file\ my.jar\ \@classes.list\f[R] ! .RE ! .RE --- 18,484 ---- .\" .\" Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA .\" or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any .\" questions. .\" ! .\" Arch: generic ! .\" Software: JDK 8 ! .\" Date: 21 November 2013 ! .\" SectDesc: Basic Tools ! .\" Title: jar.1 .\" ! .if n .pl 99999 ! .TH jar 1 "21 November 2013" "JDK 8" "Basic Tools" ! .\" ----------------------------------------------------------------- ! .\" * Define some portability stuff ! .\" ----------------------------------------------------------------- ! .\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ! .\" http://bugs.debian.org/507673 ! .\" http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/groff/2009-02/msg00013.html ! .\" ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ! .ie \n(.g .ds Aq \(aq ! .el .ds Aq ' ! .\" ----------------------------------------------------------------- ! .\" * set default formatting ! .\" ----------------------------------------------------------------- ! .\" disable hyphenation ! .nh ! .\" disable justification (adjust text to left margin only) ! .ad l ! .\" ----------------------------------------------------------------- ! .\" * MAIN CONTENT STARTS HERE * ! .\" ----------------------------------------------------------------- ! ! .SH NAME ! jar \- Manipulates Java Archive (JAR) files\&. ! .SH SYNOPSIS ! Create JAR file ! .sp ! .nf ! ! \fBjar c\fR[\fBefmMnv0\fR] [\fIentrypoint\fR] [\fIjarfile\fR] [\fImanifest\fR] [\fB\-C\fR \fIdir\fR] \fIfile\fR \&.\&.\&. [\-J\fIoption\fR \&.\&.\&.] [@\fIarg\-file\fR \&.\&.\&.] ! .fi ! .sp ! ! Update JAR file ! .sp ! .nf ! ! \fBjar u\fR[\fBefmMnv0\fR] [\fIentrypoint\fR] [\fIjarfile\fR] [\fImanifest\fR] [\fB\-C\fR \fIdir\fR] \fIfile\fR \&.\&.\&. [\-J\fIoption\fR \&.\&.\&.] [@\fIarg\-file\fR \&.\&.\&.] ! .fi ! .sp ! ! Extract JAR file ! .sp ! .nf ! ! \fBjar\fR \fBx\fR[\fBvf\fR] [\fIjarfile\fR] \fIfile\fR \&.\&.\&. [\-J\fIoption\fR \&.\&.\&.] [@\fIarg\-file\fR \&.\&.\&.] ! .fi ! .sp ! ! List Contents of JAR file ! .sp ! .nf ! ! \fBjar\fR \fBt\fR[\fBvf\fR] [\fIjarfile\fR] \fIfile\fR \&.\&.\&. [\-J\fIoption\fR \&.\&.\&.] [@\fIarg\-file\fR \&.\&.\&.] ! .fi ! .sp ! ! Add Index to JAR file ! .sp ! .nf ! ! \fBjar\fR \fBi\fR \fIjarfile\fR [\-J\fIoption\fR \&.\&.\&.] [@\fIarg\-file\fR \&.\&.\&.] ! .fi ! .sp ! .SH DESCRIPTION ! The \f3jar\fR command is a general-purpose archiving and compression tool, based on ZIP and the ZLIB compression format\&. However, the \f3jar\fR command was designed mainly to package Java applets or applications into a single archive\&. When the components of an applet or application (files, images and sounds) are combined into a single archive, they can be downloaded by a Java agent (such as a browser) in a single HTTP transaction, rather than requiring a new connection for each piece\&. This dramatically improves download times\&. The \f3jar\fR command also compresses files, which further improves download time\&. The \f3jar\fR command also allows individual entries in a file to be signed by the applet author so that their origin can be authenticated\&. A JAR file can be used as a class path entry, whether or not it is compressed\&. ! .PP ! The syntax for the \f3jar\fR command resembles the syntax for the \f3tar\fR command\&. It has several operation modes, defined by one of the mandatory \fIoperation arguments\fR\&. Other arguments are either \fIoptions\fR that modify the behavior of the operation, or \fIoperands\fR required to perform the operation\&. ! .SH OPERATION\ ARGUMENTS ! When using the \f3jar\fR command, you have to select an operation to be performed by specifying one of the following operation arguments\&. You can mix them up with other one-letter options on the command line, but usually the operation argument is the first argument specified\&. ! .TP ! c ! Create a new JAR archive\&. ! .TP ! i ! Generate index information for a JAR archive\&. ! .TP ! t ! List the contents of a JAR archive\&. ! .TP ! u ! Update a JAR archive\&. ! .TP ! x ! Extract files from a JAR archive\&. ! .SH OPTIONS ! Use the following options to customize how the JAR file is created, updated, extracted, or viewed: ! .TP ! e ! Sets the class specified by the \fIentrypoint\fR operand to be the entry point\f3\fR for a standalone Java application bundled into an executable JAR file\&. The use of this option creates or overrides the \f3Main-Class\fR attribute value in the manifest file\&. The \f3e\fR option can be used when creating (\f3c\fR) or updating (\f3u\fR) the JAR file\&. ! ! For example, the following command creates the \f3Main\&.jar\fR archive with the \f3Main\&.class\fR file where the \f3Main-Clas\fRs attribute value in the manifest is set to \f3Main\fR: ! .sp ! .nf ! \f3jar cfe Main\&.jar Main Main\&.class\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3\fP ! .fi ! .sp ! ! ! The Java Runtime Environment (JRE) can directly call this application by running the following command: ! .sp ! .nf ! \f3java \-jar Main\&.jar\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3\fP ! .fi ! .sp ! ! ! If the entry point class name is in a package, then it could use either the dot (\&.) or slash (/) as the delimiter\&. For example, if \f3Main\&.class\fR is in a package called \f3mydir\fR, then the entry point can be specified in one of the following ways: ! .sp ! .nf ! \f3jar \-cfe Main\&.jar mydir/Main mydir/Main\&.class\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3jar \-cfe Main\&.jar mydir\&.Main mydir/Main\&.class\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3\fP ! .fi ! .sp ! ! ! Note ! ! Specifying both \f3m\fR and \f3e\fR options together when a particular manifest also contains the \f3Main-Class\fR attribute results in an ambiguous \f3Main-Class\fR specification\&. The ambiguity leads to an error and the \f3jar\fR command creation or update operation is terminated\&. ! .TP ! f ! Sets the file specified by the \fI\fR\fIjarfile\fR operand to be the name of the JAR file that is created (\f3c\fR), updated (\f3u\fR), extracted (\f3x\fR) from, or viewed (\f3t\fR)\&. Omitting the \f3f\fR option and the \fIjarfile\fR operand instructs the \f3jar\fR command to accept the JAR file name from \f3stdin\fR (for \f3x\fR and \f3t\fR) or send the JAR \f3\fRfile to \f3stdout\fR (for \f3c\fR and \f3u\fR)\&. ! .TP ! m ! Includes names and values of attributes from the file specified by the \f3manifest\fR operand in the manifest file of the \f3jar\fR command (located in the archive at \f3META-INF/MANIFEST\&.MF\fR)\&. The \f3jar\fR command adds the attribute\(cqs name and value to the JAR file unless an entry already exists with the same name, in which case the \f3jar\fR command updates the value of the attribute\&. The \f3m\fR option can be used when creating (\f3c\fR) or updating (\f3u\fR) the JAR file\&. ! ! You can add special-purpose name-value attribute pairs to the manifest that are not contained in the default manifest file\&. For example, you can add attributes that specify vendor information, release information, package sealing, or to make JAR-bundled applications executable\&. For examples of using the \f3m\fR option, see Packaging Programs at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/tutorial/deployment/jar/index\&.html ! .TP ! M ! Does not create a manifest file entry (for \f3c\fR and \f3u\fR), or delete a manifest file entry when one exists (for \f3u\fR)\&. The \f3M\fR option can be used when creating (\f3c\fR) or updating (\f3u\fR) the JAR file\&. ! .TP ! n ! When creating (\f3c\fR) a JAR file, this option normalizes the archive so that the content is not affected by the packing and unpacking operations of the pack200(1) command\&. Without this normalization, the signature of a signed JAR can become invalid\&. ! .TP ! v ! Generates verbose output to standard output\&. See Examples\&. ! .TP ! 0 ! (Zero) Creates (\f3c\fR) or updates (\f3u\fR) the JAR file without using ZIP compression\&. ! .TP ! -C \fIdir\fR ! .br ! When creating (\f3c\fR) or updating (\f3u\fR) a JAR file, this option temporarily changes the directory while processing files specified by the \fIfile\fR operands\&. Its operation is intended to be similar to the \f3-C\fR option of the UNIX \f3tar\fR utility\&.For example, the following command changes to the \f3classes\fR directory and adds the \f3Bar\&.class\fR file from that directory to \f3my\&.jar\fR: ! .sp ! .nf ! \f3jar uf my\&.jar \-C classes Bar\&.class\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3\fP ! .fi ! .sp ! ! ! The following command changes to the \f3classes\fR directory and adds to \f3my\&.jar\fR all files within the classes directory (without creating a \f3classes\fR directory in the JAR file), then changes back to the original directory before changing to the \f3bin\fR directory to add \f3Xyz\&.class\fR to \f3my\&.jar\fR\&. ! .sp ! .nf ! \f3jar uf my\&.jar \-C classes \&. \-C bin Xyz\&.class\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3\fP ! .fi ! .sp ! ! ! If \f3classes\fR contained files \f3bar1\fR and \f3bar2\fR, then the JAR file will contain the following after running the previous command: ! .sp ! .nf ! \f3% \fIjar tf my\&.jar\fR\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3META\-INF/\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3META\-INF/MANIFEST\&.MF\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3bar1\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3bar2\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3Xyz\&.class\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3\fP ! .fi ! .sp ! ! .TP ! \fI\fR-J\fIoption\fR ! Sets the specified JVM option to be used when the JRE runs the JAR file\&. JVM options are described on the reference page for the java(1) command\&. For example, \f3-J-Xms48m\fR sets the startup memory to 48 MB\&. ! .SH OPERANDS ! The following operands are recognized by the \f3jar\fR command\&. ! .TP ! \fIfile\fR ! When creating (\f3c\fR) or updating (\f3u\fR) a JAR file, the \fIfile\fR operand defines the path and name of the file or directory that should be added to the archive\&. When extracting (\f3x\fR) or listing the contents (\f3t\fR) of a JAR file, the \fIfile\fR operand defines the path and name of the file to be extrated or listed\&. At least one valid file or directory must be specified\&. Separate multiple \fIfile\fR operands with spaces\&. If the \fIentrypoint\fR, \fIjarfile\fR, or \fImanifest\fR operands are used, the \fIfile\fR operands must be specified after them\&. ! .TP ! \fIentrypoint\fR ! When creating (\f3c\fR) or updating (\f3u\fR) a JAR file, the \fIentrypoint\fR operand defines the name of the class that should be the entry point\f3\fR for a standalone Java application bundled into an executable JAR file\&. The \fIentrypoint\fR operand must be specified if the \f3e\fR option is present\&. ! .TP ! \fIjarfile\fR ! Defines the name of the file to be created (\f3c\fR), updated (\f3u\fR), extracted (\f3x\fR), or viewed (\f3t\fR)\&. The \fIjarfile\fR operand must be specified if the \f3f\fR option is present\&. Omitting the \f3f\fR option and the \fIjarfile\fR operand instructs the \f3jar\fR command to accept the JAR file name from \f3stdin\fR (for \f3x\fR and \f3t\fR) or send the JAR \f3\fRfile to \f3stdout\fR (for \f3c\fR and \f3u\fR)\&. ! ! When indexing (\f3i\fR) a JAR file, specify the \fIjarfile\fR operand without the \f3f\fR option\&. ! .TP ! \fImanifest\fR ! When creating (\f3c\fR) or updating (\f3u\fR) a JAR file, the \fImanifest\fR operand defines the preexisting manifest files with names and values of attributes to be included in \f3MANIFEST\&.MF\fR in the JAR file\&. The \fImanifest\fR operand must be specified if the \f3f\fR option is present\&. ! .TP ! \fI@arg-file\fR ! To shorten or simplify the \f3jar\fR command, you can specify arguments in a separate text file and pass it to the \f3jar\fR command with the at sign (@) as a prefix\&. When the \f3jar\fR command encounters an argument beginning with the at sign, it expands the contents of that file into the argument list\&. ! ! An argument file can include options and arguments of the \f3jar\fR command (except the \f3-J\fR options, because they are passed to the launcher, which does not support argument files)\&. The arguments within a file can be separated by spaces or newline characters\&. File names within an argument file are relative to the current directory from which you run the \f3jar\fR command, not relative to the location of the argument file\&. Wild cards, such as the asterisk (*), that might otherwise be expanded by the operating system shell, are not expanded\&. ! ! The following example, shows how to create a \f3classes\&.list\fR file with names of files from the current directory output by the \f3find\fR command: ! .sp ! .nf ! \f3find \&. \-name \&'*\&.class\&' \-print > classes\&.list\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3\fP ! .fi ! .sp ! ! ! You can then execute the \f3jar\fR command and pass the \f3classes\&.list\fR file to it using the \fI@arg-file\fR syntax: ! .sp ! .nf ! \f3jar cf my\&.jar @classes\&.list\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3\fP ! .fi ! .sp ! ! ! An argument file can be specified with a path, but any file names inside the argument file that have relative paths are relative to the current working directory of the \f3jar\fR command, not to the path passed in, for example: ! .sp ! .nf ! \f3jar @dir/classes\&.list\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3\fP ! .fi ! .sp ! ! .SH NOTES ! The \f3e\fR, \f3f\fR, and \f3m\fR options must appear in the same order on the command line as the \fIentrypoint\fR, \fIjarfile\fR, and \fImanifest\fR operands, for example: ! .sp ! .nf ! \f3jar cmef myManifestFile MyMainClass myFile\&.jar *\&.class\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3\fP ! .fi ! .sp ! .SH EXAMPLES ! \f3Example 1 Adding All Files From the Current Directory With Verbose Output\fR ! .sp ! .nf ! \f3% ls\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f31\&.au Animator\&.class monkey\&.jpg\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f32\&.au Wave\&.class spacemusic\&.au\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f33\&.au at_work\&.gif\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3% jar cvf bundle\&.jar *\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3added manifest\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3adding: 1\&.au(in = 2324) (out= 67)(deflated 97%)\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3adding: 2\&.au(in = 6970) (out= 90)(deflated 98%)\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3adding: 3\&.au(in = 11616) (out= 108)(deflated 99%)\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3adding: Animator\&.class(in = 2266) (out= 66)(deflated 97%)\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3adding: Wave\&.class(in = 3778) (out= 81)(deflated 97%)\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3adding: at_work\&.gif(in = 6621) (out= 89)(deflated 98%)\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3adding: monkey\&.jpg(in = 7667) (out= 91)(deflated 98%)\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3adding: spacemusic\&.au(in = 3079) (out= 73)(deflated 97%)\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3\fP ! .fi ! .sp ! \f3Example 2 Adding Files From Subdirectories\fR ! .sp ! .nf ! \f3% ls \-F\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3audio/ classes/ images/\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3% jar cvf bundle\&.jar audio classes images\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3added manifest\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3adding: audio/(in = 0) (out= 0)(stored 0%)\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3adding: audio/1\&.au(in = 2324) (out= 67)(deflated 97%)\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3adding: audio/2\&.au(in = 6970) (out= 90)(deflated 98%)\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3adding: audio/3\&.au(in = 11616) (out= 108)(deflated 99%)\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3adding: audio/spacemusic\&.au(in = 3079) (out= 73)(deflated 97%)\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3adding: classes/(in = 0) (out= 0)(stored 0%)\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3adding: classes/Animator\&.class(in = 2266) (out= 66)(deflated 97%)\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3adding: classes/Wave\&.class(in = 3778) (out= 81)(deflated 97%)\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3adding: images/(in = 0) (out= 0)(stored 0%)\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3adding: images/monkey\&.jpg(in = 7667) (out= 91)(deflated 98%)\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3adding: images/at_work\&.gif(in = 6621) (out= 89)(deflated 98%)\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3% ls \-F\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3audio/ bundle\&.jar classes/ images/\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3\fP ! .fi ! .sp ! \f3Example 3 Listing the Contents of JAR\fR ! .sp ! .nf ! \f3% jar tf bundle\&.jar\fP ! .fi ! .sp ! .sp ! .nf ! \f3META\-INF/\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3META\-INF/MANIFEST\&.MF\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3audio/1\&.au\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3audio/2\&.au\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3audio/3\&.au\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3audio/spacemusic\&.au\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3classes/Animator\&.class\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3classes/Wave\&.class\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3images/monkey\&.jpg\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3images/at_work\&.gif\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3\fP ! .fi ! .sp ! \f3Example 4 Adding an Index\fR ! .PP ! Use the \f3i\fR option when you split the interdependent classes for a stock trade application into three JAR files: \f3main\&.jar\fR, \f3buy\&.jar\fR, and \f3sell\&.jar\fR\&. If you specify the \f3Class-Path\fR attribute in the \f3main\&.jar\fR manifest, then you can use the \f3i\fR option to speed up the class loading time for your application: ! .sp ! .nf ! \f3Class\-Path: buy\&.jar sell\&.jar\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3jar i main\&.jar\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3\fP ! .fi ! .sp ! An \f3INDEX\&.LIST\fR file is inserted to the \f3META-INF\fR directory\&. This enables the application class loader to download the specified JAR files when it is searching for classes or resources\&. ! .PP ! The application class loader uses the information stored in this file for efficient class loading\&. To copy directories, first compress files in \f3dir1\fR to \f3stdout\fR, then pipeline and extract from \f3stdin\fR to \f3dir2\fR (omitting the \f3-f\fR option from both \f3jar\fR commands): ! .sp ! .nf ! \f3(cd dir1; jar c \&.) | (cd dir2; jar x)\fP ! .fi ! .nf ! \f3\fP ! .fi ! .sp ! .SH SEE\ ALSO ! .TP 0.2i ! \(bu ! pack200(1)\&. ! .TP 0.2i ! \(bu ! The JAR section of The Java Tutorials at http://docs\&.oracle\&.com/javase/tutorial/deployment/jar/index\&.html ! .RE ! .br ! 'pl 8.5i ! 'bp
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