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  95 Rule    Algeria 1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S
  96 Rule    Algeria 1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00s  1:00    S
  97 Rule    Algeria 1920    only    -       Oct     23      23:00s  0       -
  98 Rule    Algeria 1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00s  1:00    S
  99 Rule    Algeria 1921    only    -       Jun     21      23:00s  0       -
 100 Rule    Algeria 1939    only    -       Sep     11      23:00s  1:00    S
 101 Rule    Algeria 1939    only    -       Nov     19       1:00   0       -
 102 Rule    Algeria 1944    1945    -       Apr     Mon>=1        2:00   1:00    S
 103 Rule    Algeria 1944    only    -       Oct      8       2:00   0       -
 104 Rule    Algeria 1945    only    -       Sep     16       1:00   0       -
 105 Rule    Algeria 1971    only    -       Apr     25      23:00s  1:00    S
 106 Rule    Algeria 1971    only    -       Sep     26      23:00s  0       -
 107 Rule    Algeria 1977    only    -       May      6       0:00   1:00    S
 108 Rule    Algeria 1977    only    -       Oct     21       0:00   0       -
 109 Rule    Algeria 1978    only    -       Mar     24       1:00   1:00    S
 110 Rule    Algeria 1978    only    -       Sep     22       3:00   0       -
 111 Rule    Algeria 1980    only    -       Apr     25       0:00   1:00    S
 112 Rule    Algeria 1980    only    -       Oct     31       2:00   0       -
 113 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
 114 # more precise 0:09:21.
 115 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 116 Zone    Africa/Algiers  0:12:12 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15  0:01
 117                         0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
 118                         0:00    Algeria WE%sT   1940 Feb 25  2:00
 119                         1:00    Algeria CE%sT   1946 Oct  7
 120                         0:00    -       WET     1956 Jan 29
 121                         1:00    -       CET     1963 Apr 14
 122                         0:00    Algeria WE%sT   1977 Oct 21
 123                         1:00    Algeria CE%sT   1979 Oct 26
 124                         0:00    Algeria WE%sT   1981 May
 125                         1:00    -       CET
 126 
 127 # Angola
 128 # Benin
 129 # See Africa/Lagos.
 130 
 131 # Botswana
 132 # See Africa/Maputo.
 133 
 134 # Burkina Faso
 135 # See Africa/Abidjan.
 136 
 137 # Burundi
 138 # See Africa/Maputo.
 139 
 140 # Cameroon
 141 # See Africa/Lagos.
 142 
 143 # Cape Verde / Cabo Verde
 144 #
 145 # From Paul Eggert (2018-02-16):
 146 # Shanks gives 1907 for the transition to +02.
 147 # For now, ignore that and follow the 1911-05-26 Portuguese decree
 148 # (see Europe/Lisbon).
 149 #
 150 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 151 Zone Atlantic/Cape_Verde -1:34:04 -     LMT     1912 Jan 01  2:00u # Praia
 152                         -2:00   -       -02     1942 Sep
 153                         -2:00   1:00    -01     1945 Oct 15
 154                         -2:00   -       -02     1975 Nov 25  2:00
 155                         -1:00   -       -01
 156 
 157 # Central African Republic
 158 # See Africa/Lagos.
 159 
 160 # Chad
 161 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 162 Zone    Africa/Ndjamena 1:00:12 -       LMT     1912        # N'Djamena
 163                         1:00    -       WAT     1979 Oct 14
 164                         1:00    1:00    WAST    1980 Mar  8
 165                         1:00    -       WAT
 166 
 167 # Comoros
 168 # See Africa/Nairobi.
 169 
 170 # Democratic Republic of the Congo
 171 # See Africa/Lagos for the western part and Africa/Maputo for the eastern.
 172 
 173 # Republic of the Congo
 174 # See Africa/Lagos.
 175 
 176 # Côte d'Ivoire / Ivory Coast
 177 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 178 Zone    Africa/Abidjan  -0:16:08 -      LMT     1912
 179                          0:00   -       GMT
 180 Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Bamako       # Mali
 181 Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Banjul       # Gambia
 182 Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Conakry      # Guinea
 183 Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Dakar        # Senegal
 184 Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Freetown     # Sierra Leone
 185 Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Lome         # Togo
 186 Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Nouakchott   # Mauritania
 187 Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Ouagadougou  # Burkina Faso
 188 Link Africa/Abidjan Atlantic/St_Helena  # St Helena
 189 
 190 # Djibouti
 191 # See Africa/Nairobi.
 192 
 193 ###############################################################################
 194 
 195 # Egypt
 196 
 197 # Milne says Cairo used 2:05:08.9, the local mean time of the Abbasizeh


 362 # Yesterday the office of Egyptian President El-Sisi announced his
 363 # decision to abandon DST permanently.  See Ahram Online 2015-04-24.
 364 # http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/128509/Egypt/Politics-/Sisi-cancels-daylight-saving-time-in-Egypt.aspx
 365 
 366 # From Steffen Thorsen (2016-04-29):
 367 # Egypt will have DST from July 7 until the end of October....
 368 # http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContentP/1/204655/Egypt/Daylight-savings-time-returning-to-Egypt-on--July.aspx
 369 # From Mina Samuel (2016-07-04):
 370 # Egyptian government took the decision to cancel the DST,
 371 
 372 Rule    Egypt   2008    only    -       Aug     lastThu 24:00   0       -
 373 Rule    Egypt   2009    only    -       Aug     20      24:00   0       -
 374 Rule    Egypt   2010    only    -       Aug     10      24:00   0       -
 375 Rule    Egypt   2010    only    -       Sep      9      24:00   1:00    S
 376 Rule    Egypt   2010    only    -       Sep     lastThu 24:00   0       -
 377 Rule    Egypt   2014    only    -       May     15      24:00   1:00    S
 378 Rule    Egypt   2014    only    -       Jun     26      24:00   0       -
 379 Rule    Egypt   2014    only    -       Jul     31      24:00   1:00    S
 380 Rule    Egypt   2014    only    -       Sep     lastThu 24:00   0       -
 381 
 382 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 383 Zone    Africa/Cairo    2:05:09 -       LMT     1900 Oct
 384                         2:00    Egypt   EE%sT
 385 
 386 # Equatorial Guinea
 387 # See Africa/Lagos.
 388 
 389 # Eritrea
 390 # See Africa/Nairobi.
 391 
 392 # Eswatini (formerly Swaziland)
 393 # See Africa/Johannesburg.
 394 
 395 # Ethiopia
 396 # See Africa/Nairobi.
 397 #
 398 # Unfortunately tzdb records only Western clock time in use in Ethiopia,
 399 # as the tzdb format is not up to properly recording a common Ethiopian
 400 # timekeeping practice that is based on solar time.  See:
 401 # Mortada D. If you have a meeting in Ethiopia, you'd better double
 402 # check the time. PRI's The World. 2015-01-30 15:15 -05.
 403 # https://www.pri.org/stories/2015-01-30/if-you-have-meeting-ethiopia-you-better-double-check-time
 404 
 405 # Gabon
 406 # See Africa/Lagos.
 407 
 408 # Gambia
 409 # See Africa/Abidjan.
 410 
 411 # Ghana
 412 
 413 # From Paul Eggert (2018-01-30):
 414 # Whitman says DST was observed from 1931 to "the present";


 420 # lists the Determination of the Time Ordinance, 1919, No. 18,
 421 # "to advance the time observed locally by the space of twenty minutes
 422 # during the last four months of each year; the object in view being
 423 # to extend during those months the period of daylight-time available
 424 # for evening recreation after office hours."
 425 # Vanessa Ogle, The Global Transformation of Time, 1870-1950 (2015), p 33,
 426 # writes "In 1919, the Gold Coast (Ghana as of 1957) made Greenwich
 427 # time its legal time and simultaneously legalized a summer time of
 428 # UTC - 00:20 minutes from March to October."; a footnote lists
 429 # the ordinance as being dated 1919-11-24.
 430 # The Crown Colonist, Volume 12 (1942), p 176, says "the Government
 431 # intend advancing Gold Coast time half an hour ahead of G.M.T.
 432 # The actual date of the alteration has not yet been announced."
 433 # These sources are incomplete and contradictory.  Possibly what is
 434 # now Ghana observed different DST regimes in different years.  For
 435 # lack of better info, use Shanks except treat the minus sign as a
 436 # typo, and assume DST started in 1920 not 1936.
 437 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 438 Rule    Ghana   1920    1942    -       Sep      1      0:00    0:20    -
 439 Rule    Ghana   1920    1942    -       Dec     31      0:00    0       -
 440 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 441 Zone    Africa/Accra    -0:00:52 -      LMT     1918
 442                          0:00   Ghana   GMT/+0020
 443 
 444 # Guinea
 445 # See Africa/Abidjan.
 446 
 447 # Guinea-Bissau
 448 #
 449 # From Paul Eggert (2018-02-16):
 450 # Shanks gives 1911-05-26 for the transition to WAT,
 451 # evidently confusing the date of the Portuguese decree
 452 # (see Europe/Lisbon) with the date that it took effect.
 453 #
 454 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 455 Zone    Africa/Bissau   -1:02:20 -      LMT     1912 Jan  1  1:00u
 456                         -1:00   -       -01     1975
 457                          0:00   -       GMT
 458 
 459 # Kenya
 460 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 461 Zone    Africa/Nairobi  2:27:16 -       LMT     1928 Jul
 462                         3:00    -       EAT     1930
 463                         2:30    -       +0230   1940
 464                         2:45    -       +0245   1960
 465                         3:00    -       EAT
 466 Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Addis_Ababa   # Ethiopia
 467 Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Asmara        # Eritrea
 468 Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Dar_es_Salaam # Tanzania
 469 Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Djibouti
 470 Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Kampala       # Uganda
 471 Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Mogadishu     # Somalia
 472 Link Africa/Nairobi Indian/Antananarivo  # Madagascar
 473 Link Africa/Nairobi Indian/Comoro
 474 Link Africa/Nairobi Indian/Mayotte
 475 
 476 # Lesotho
 477 # See Africa/Johannesburg.
 478 
 479 # Liberia
 480 #
 481 # From Paul Eggert (2017-03-02):
 482 #
 483 # The Nautical Almanac for the Year 1970, p 264, is the source for -0:44:30.
 484 #
 485 # In 1972 Liberia was the last country to switch from a UT offset
 486 # that was not a multiple of 15 or 20 minutes.  The 1972 change was on
 487 # 1972-01-07, according to an entry dated 1972-01-04 on p 330 of:
 488 # Presidential Papers: First year of the administration of
 489 # President William R. Tolbert, Jr., July 23, 1971-July 31, 1972.
 490 # Monrovia: Executive Mansion.
 491 #
 492 # Use the abbreviation "MMT" before 1972, as the more-accurate numeric
 493 # abbreviation "-004430" would be one byte over the POSIX limit.
 494 #
 495 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 496 Zone    Africa/Monrovia -0:43:08 -      LMT     1882
 497                         -0:43:08 -      MMT     1919 Mar # Monrovia Mean Time
 498                         -0:44:30 -      MMT     1972 Jan 7 # approximately MMT
 499                          0:00   -       GMT
 500 
 501 ###############################################################################
 502 
 503 # Libya
 504 
 505 # From Even Scharning (2012-11-10):
 506 # Libya set their time one hour back at 02:00 on Saturday November 10.
 507 # https://www.libyaherald.com/2012/11/04/clocks-to-go-back-an-hour-on-saturday/
 508 # Here is an official source [in Arabic]: http://ls.ly/fb6Yc
 509 #
 510 # Steffen Thorsen forwarded a translation (2012-11-10) in
 511 # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2012-November/018451.html
 512 #
 513 # From Tim Parenti (2012-11-11):
 514 # Treat the 2012-11-10 change as a zone change from UTC+2 to UTC+1.
 515 # The DST rules planned for 2013 and onward roughly mirror those of Europe


 525 # For now, assume they're reverting to the pre-2012 rules of permanent UT +02.
 526 
 527 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 528 Rule    Libya   1951    only    -       Oct     14      2:00    1:00    S
 529 Rule    Libya   1952    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       -
 530 Rule    Libya   1953    only    -       Oct      9      2:00    1:00    S
 531 Rule    Libya   1954    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       -
 532 Rule    Libya   1955    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    1:00    S
 533 Rule    Libya   1956    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       -
 534 Rule    Libya   1982    1984    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
 535 Rule    Libya   1982    1985    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 536 Rule    Libya   1985    only    -       Apr      6      0:00    1:00    S
 537 Rule    Libya   1986    only    -       Apr      4      0:00    1:00    S
 538 Rule    Libya   1986    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
 539 Rule    Libya   1987    1989    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
 540 Rule    Libya   1987    1989    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 541 Rule    Libya   1997    only    -       Apr      4      0:00    1:00    S
 542 Rule    Libya   1997    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       -
 543 Rule    Libya   2013    only    -       Mar     lastFri 1:00    1:00    S
 544 Rule    Libya   2013    only    -       Oct     lastFri 2:00    0       -
 545 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 546 Zone    Africa/Tripoli  0:52:44 -       LMT     1920
 547                         1:00    Libya   CE%sT   1959
 548                         2:00    -       EET     1982
 549                         1:00    Libya   CE%sT   1990 May  4
 550 # The 1996 and 1997 entries are from Shanks & Pottenger;
 551 # the IATA SSIM data entries contain some obvious errors.
 552                         2:00    -       EET     1996 Sep 30
 553                         1:00    Libya   CE%sT   1997 Oct  4
 554                         2:00    -       EET     2012 Nov 10  2:00
 555                         1:00    Libya   CE%sT   2013 Oct 25  2:00
 556                         2:00    -       EET
 557 
 558 # Madagascar
 559 # See Africa/Nairobi.
 560 
 561 # Malawi
 562 # See Africa/Maputo.
 563 
 564 # Mali
 565 # Mauritania


 635 # According to several sources, Mauritius will not continue to observe
 636 # DST the coming summer...
 637 #
 638 # Some sources, in French:
 639 # http://www.defimedia.info/news/946/Rashid-Beebeejaun-:-%C2%AB-L%E2%80%99heure-d%E2%80%99%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ne-sera-pas-appliqu%C3%A9e-cette-ann%C3%A9e-%C2%BB
 640 # http://lexpress.mu/Story/3398~Beebeejaun---Les-objectifs-d-%C3%A9conomie-d-%C3%A9nergie-de-l-heure-d-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ont-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-atteints-
 641 #
 642 # Our wrap-up:
 643 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat.html
 644 
 645 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-07-11):
 646 # The "mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat" wrapup includes this:
 647 # "The trial ended on March 29, 2009, when the clocks moved back by one hour
 648 # at 2am (or 02:00) local time..."
 649 
 650 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 651 Rule Mauritius  1982    only    -       Oct     10      0:00    1:00    -
 652 Rule Mauritius  1983    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    0       -
 653 Rule Mauritius  2008    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    -
 654 Rule Mauritius  2009    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       -
 655 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 656 Zone Indian/Mauritius   3:50:00 -       LMT     1907 # Port Louis
 657                         4:00 Mauritius  +04/+05
 658 # Agalega Is, Rodriguez
 659 # no information; probably like Indian/Mauritius
 660 
 661 # Mayotte
 662 # See Africa/Nairobi.
 663 
 664 # Morocco
 665 # See the 'europe' file for Spanish Morocco (Africa/Ceuta).
 666 
 667 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09):
 668 # Here is an article that Morocco plan to introduce Daylight Saving Time between
 669 # 1 June, 2008 and 27 September, 2008.
 670 #
 671 # "... Morocco is to save energy by adjusting its clock during summer so it will
 672 # be one hour ahead of GMT between 1 June and 27 September, according to
 673 # Communication Minister and Government Spokesman, Khalid Naciri...."
 674 #
 675 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco01.html


 858 # that the time will be advanced again 60 minutes Sunday, July 19,
 859 # 2015 at 2:00.  The move comes under 2.12.126 Decree of 26 Jumada I
 860 # 1433 (18 April 2012) and the decision of the Head of Government of
 861 # 16 N. 3-29-15 Chaaban 1435 (4 June 2015).
 862 # Source (french):
 863 # https://lnt.ma/le-maroc-reculera-dune-heure-le-dimanche-14-juin/
 864 #
 865 # From Milamber (2015-06-09):
 866 # http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=863
 867 #
 868 # From Michael Deckers (2015-06-09):
 869 # [The gov.ma announcement] would (probably) make the switch on 2015-07-19 go
 870 # from 03:00 to 04:00 rather than from 02:00 to 03:00, as in the patch....
 871 # I think the patch is correct and the quoted text is wrong; the text in
 872 # <https://lnt.ma/le-maroc-reculera-dune-heure-le-dimanche-14-juin/> agrees
 873 # with the patch.
 874 
 875 # From Mohamed Essedik Najd (2018-10-26):
 876 # Today, a Moroccan government council approved the perpetual addition
 877 # of 60 minutes to the regular Moroccan timezone.
 878 # From Matt Johnson (2018-10-28):
 879 # http://www.sgg.gov.ma/Portals/1/BO/2018/BO_6720-bis_Ar.pdf
 880 #
 881 # From Maamar Abdelkader (2018-11-01):
 882 # We usually move clocks back the previous week end and come back to the +1
 883 # the week end after....  The government does not announce yet the decision
 884 # about this temporary change.  But it s 99% sure that it will be the case,
 885 # as in previous years.  An unofficial survey was done these days, showing
 886 # that 64% of asked people are ok for moving from +1 to +0 during Ramadan.
 887 # https://leconomiste.com/article/1035870-enquete-l-economiste-sunergia-64-des-marocains-plebiscitent-le-gmt-pendant-ramadan
 888 
 889 # From Naoufal Semlali (2019-04-16):
 890 # Morocco will be on GMT starting from Sunday, May 5th 2019 at 3am.
 891 # The switch to GMT+1 will occur on Sunday, June 9th 2019 at 2am....
 892 # http://fr.le360.ma/societe/voici-la-date-du-retour-a-lheure-legale-au-maroc-188222
 893 #
 894 # From Paul Eggert (2019-05-20):
 895 # This agrees with our 2018-11-01 guess that the Moroccan government
 896 # would continue the practice of falling back at 03:00 the last Sunday
 897 # before Ramadan, and of springing forward at 02:00 the first Sunday after
 898 # Ramadan, as this has been the practice since 2012.  To implement this,
 899 # transition dates for 2019 through 2087 were determined by running the
 900 # following program under GNU Emacs 26.2.
 901 # (let ((islamic-year 1440))
 902 #   (require 'cal-islam)
 903 #   (while (< islamic-year 1511)
 904 #     (let ((a (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 9 1 islamic-year)))
 905 #           (b (calendar-islamic-to-absolute (list 10 1 islamic-year)))
 906 #           (sunday 0))
 907 #       (while (/= sunday (mod (setq a (1- a)) 7)))
 908 #       (while (/= sunday (mod b 7))
 909 #         (setq b (1+ b)))
 910 #       (setq a (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute a))
 911 #       (setq b (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute b))
 912 #       (insert
 913 #        (format
 914 #         (concat "Rule\tMorocco\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t%2d\t 3:00\t-1:00\t-\n"
 915 #                 "Rule\tMorocco\t%d\tonly\t-\t%s\t%2d\t 2:00\t0\t-\n")
 916 #         (car (cdr (cdr a))) (calendar-month-name (car a) t) (car (cdr a))
 917 #         (car (cdr (cdr b))) (calendar-month-name (car b) t) (car (cdr b)))))
 918 #     (setq islamic-year (+ 1 islamic-year))))
 919 
 920 # RULE  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 921 Rule    Morocco 1939    only    -       Sep     12       0:00   1:00    -
 922 Rule    Morocco 1939    only    -       Nov     19       0:00   0       -
 923 Rule    Morocco 1940    only    -       Feb     25       0:00   1:00    -
 924 Rule    Morocco 1945    only    -       Nov     18       0:00   0       -
 925 Rule    Morocco 1950    only    -       Jun     11       0:00   1:00    -
 926 Rule    Morocco 1950    only    -       Oct     29       0:00   0       -
 927 Rule    Morocco 1967    only    -       Jun      3      12:00   1:00    -
 928 Rule    Morocco 1967    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
 929 Rule    Morocco 1974    only    -       Jun     24       0:00   1:00    -
 930 Rule    Morocco 1974    only    -       Sep      1       0:00   0       -
 931 Rule    Morocco 1976    1977    -       May      1       0:00   1:00    -
 932 Rule    Morocco 1976    only    -       Aug      1       0:00   0       -
 933 Rule    Morocco 1977    only    -       Sep     28       0:00   0       -
 934 Rule    Morocco 1978    only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    -
 935 Rule    Morocco 1978    only    -       Aug      4       0:00   0       -
 936 Rule    Morocco 2008    only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    -
 937 Rule    Morocco 2008    only    -       Sep      1       0:00   0       -
 938 Rule    Morocco 2009    only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    -


 942 Rule    Morocco 2011    only    -       Apr      3       0:00   1:00    -
 943 Rule    Morocco 2011    only    -       Jul     31       0:00   0       -
 944 Rule    Morocco 2012    2013    -       Apr     lastSun  2:00   1:00    -
 945 Rule    Morocco 2012    only    -       Jul     20       3:00   0       -
 946 Rule    Morocco 2012    only    -       Aug     20       2:00   1:00    -
 947 Rule    Morocco 2012    only    -       Sep     30       3:00   0       -
 948 Rule    Morocco 2013    only    -       Jul      7       3:00   0       -
 949 Rule    Morocco 2013    only    -       Aug     10       2:00   1:00    -
 950 Rule    Morocco 2013    2018    -       Oct     lastSun  3:00   0       -
 951 Rule    Morocco 2014    2018    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00   1:00    -
 952 Rule    Morocco 2014    only    -       Jun     28       3:00   0       -
 953 Rule    Morocco 2014    only    -       Aug      2       2:00   1:00    -
 954 Rule    Morocco 2015    only    -       Jun     14       3:00   0       -
 955 Rule    Morocco 2015    only    -       Jul     19       2:00   1:00    -
 956 Rule    Morocco 2016    only    -       Jun      5       3:00   0       -
 957 Rule    Morocco 2016    only    -       Jul     10       2:00   1:00    -
 958 Rule    Morocco 2017    only    -       May     21       3:00   0       -
 959 Rule    Morocco 2017    only    -       Jul      2       2:00   1:00    -
 960 Rule    Morocco 2018    only    -       May     13       3:00   0       -
 961 Rule    Morocco 2018    only    -       Jun     17       2:00   1:00    -
 962 Rule    Morocco 2019    only    -       May      5       3:00   -1:00   -
 963 Rule    Morocco 2019    only    -       Jun      9       2:00   0       -
 964 Rule    Morocco 2020    only    -       Apr     19       3:00   -1:00   -
 965 Rule    Morocco 2020    only    -       May     24       2:00   0       -
 966 Rule    Morocco 2021    only    -       Apr     11       3:00   -1:00   -
 967 Rule    Morocco 2021    only    -       May     16       2:00   0       -
 968 Rule    Morocco 2022    only    -       Mar     27       3:00   -1:00   -
 969 Rule    Morocco 2022    only    -       May      8       2:00   0       -
 970 Rule    Morocco 2023    only    -       Mar     19       3:00   -1:00   -
 971 Rule    Morocco 2023    only    -       Apr     23       2:00   0       -
 972 Rule    Morocco 2024    only    -       Mar     10       3:00   -1:00   -
 973 Rule    Morocco 2024    only    -       Apr     14       2:00   0       -
 974 Rule    Morocco 2025    only    -       Feb     23       3:00   -1:00   -
 975 Rule    Morocco 2025    only    -       Apr      6       2:00   0       -
 976 Rule    Morocco 2026    only    -       Feb     15       3:00   -1:00   -
 977 Rule    Morocco 2026    only    -       Mar     22       2:00   0       -
 978 Rule    Morocco 2027    only    -       Feb      7       3:00   -1:00   -
 979 Rule    Morocco 2027    only    -       Mar     14       2:00   0       -
 980 Rule    Morocco 2028    only    -       Jan     23       3:00   -1:00   -
 981 Rule    Morocco 2028    only    -       Feb     27       2:00   0       -
 982 Rule    Morocco 2029    only    -       Jan     14       3:00   -1:00   -
 983 Rule    Morocco 2029    only    -       Feb     18       2:00   0       -
 984 Rule    Morocco 2029    only    -       Dec     30       3:00   -1:00   -
 985 Rule    Morocco 2030    only    -       Feb     10       2:00   0       -
 986 Rule    Morocco 2030    only    -       Dec     22       3:00   -1:00   -
 987 Rule    Morocco 2031    only    -       Jan     26       2:00   0       -
 988 Rule    Morocco 2031    only    -       Dec     14       3:00   -1:00   -
 989 Rule    Morocco 2032    only    -       Jan     18       2:00   0       -
 990 Rule    Morocco 2032    only    -       Nov     28       3:00   -1:00   -
 991 Rule    Morocco 2033    only    -       Jan      9       2:00   0       -
 992 Rule    Morocco 2033    only    -       Nov     20       3:00   -1:00   -
 993 Rule    Morocco 2033    only    -       Dec     25       2:00   0       -
 994 Rule    Morocco 2034    only    -       Nov      5       3:00   -1:00   -
 995 Rule    Morocco 2034    only    -       Dec     17       2:00   0       -
 996 Rule    Morocco 2035    only    -       Oct     28       3:00   -1:00   -
 997 Rule    Morocco 2035    only    -       Dec      2       2:00   0       -
 998 Rule    Morocco 2036    only    -       Oct     19       3:00   -1:00   -
 999 Rule    Morocco 2036    only    -       Nov     23       2:00   0       -
1000 Rule    Morocco 2037    only    -       Oct      4       3:00   -1:00   -
1001 Rule    Morocco 2037    only    -       Nov     15       2:00   0       -
1002 Rule    Morocco 2038    only    -       Sep     26       3:00   -1:00   -
1003 Rule    Morocco 2038    only    -       Oct     31       2:00   0       -
1004 Rule    Morocco 2039    only    -       Sep     18       3:00   -1:00   -
1005 Rule    Morocco 2039    only    -       Oct     23       2:00   0       -
1006 Rule    Morocco 2040    only    -       Sep      2       3:00   -1:00   -
1007 Rule    Morocco 2040    only    -       Oct     14       2:00   0       -
1008 Rule    Morocco 2041    only    -       Aug     25       3:00   -1:00   -
1009 Rule    Morocco 2041    only    -       Sep     29       2:00   0       -
1010 Rule    Morocco 2042    only    -       Aug     10       3:00   -1:00   -
1011 Rule    Morocco 2042    only    -       Sep     21       2:00   0       -
1012 Rule    Morocco 2043    only    -       Aug      2       3:00   -1:00   -
1013 Rule    Morocco 2043    only    -       Sep      6       2:00   0       -
1014 Rule    Morocco 2044    only    -       Jul     24       3:00   -1:00   -
1015 Rule    Morocco 2044    only    -       Aug     28       2:00   0       -
1016 Rule    Morocco 2045    only    -       Jul      9       3:00   -1:00   -
1017 Rule    Morocco 2045    only    -       Aug     20       2:00   0       -
1018 Rule    Morocco 2046    only    -       Jul      1       3:00   -1:00   -
1019 Rule    Morocco 2046    only    -       Aug      5       2:00   0       -
1020 Rule    Morocco 2047    only    -       Jun     23       3:00   -1:00   -
1021 Rule    Morocco 2047    only    -       Jul     28       2:00   0       -
1022 Rule    Morocco 2048    only    -       Jun      7       3:00   -1:00   -
1023 Rule    Morocco 2048    only    -       Jul     19       2:00   0       -
1024 Rule    Morocco 2049    only    -       May     30       3:00   -1:00   -
1025 Rule    Morocco 2049    only    -       Jul      4       2:00   0       -
1026 Rule    Morocco 2050    only    -       May     15       3:00   -1:00   -
1027 Rule    Morocco 2050    only    -       Jun     26       2:00   0       -
1028 Rule    Morocco 2051    only    -       May      7       3:00   -1:00   -
1029 Rule    Morocco 2051    only    -       Jun     11       2:00   0       -
1030 Rule    Morocco 2052    only    -       Apr     28       3:00   -1:00   -
1031 Rule    Morocco 2052    only    -       Jun      2       2:00   0       -
1032 Rule    Morocco 2053    only    -       Apr     13       3:00   -1:00   -
1033 Rule    Morocco 2053    only    -       May     25       2:00   0       -
1034 Rule    Morocco 2054    only    -       Apr      5       3:00   -1:00   -
1035 Rule    Morocco 2054    only    -       May     10       2:00   0       -
1036 Rule    Morocco 2055    only    -       Mar     28       3:00   -1:00   -
1037 Rule    Morocco 2055    only    -       May      2       2:00   0       -
1038 Rule    Morocco 2056    only    -       Mar     12       3:00   -1:00   -
1039 Rule    Morocco 2056    only    -       Apr     23       2:00   0       -
1040 Rule    Morocco 2057    only    -       Mar      4       3:00   -1:00   -
1041 Rule    Morocco 2057    only    -       Apr      8       2:00   0       -
1042 Rule    Morocco 2058    only    -       Feb     17       3:00   -1:00   -
1043 Rule    Morocco 2058    only    -       Mar     31       2:00   0       -
1044 Rule    Morocco 2059    only    -       Feb      9       3:00   -1:00   -
1045 Rule    Morocco 2059    only    -       Mar     16       2:00   0       -
1046 Rule    Morocco 2060    only    -       Feb      1       3:00   -1:00   -
1047 Rule    Morocco 2060    only    -       Mar      7       2:00   0       -
1048 Rule    Morocco 2061    only    -       Jan     16       3:00   -1:00   -
1049 Rule    Morocco 2061    only    -       Feb     27       2:00   0       -
1050 Rule    Morocco 2062    only    -       Jan      8       3:00   -1:00   -
1051 Rule    Morocco 2062    only    -       Feb     12       2:00   0       -
1052 Rule    Morocco 2062    only    -       Dec     31       3:00   -1:00   -
1053 Rule    Morocco 2063    only    -       Feb      4       2:00   0       -
1054 Rule    Morocco 2063    only    -       Dec     16       3:00   -1:00   -
1055 Rule    Morocco 2064    only    -       Jan     20       2:00   0       -
1056 Rule    Morocco 2064    only    -       Dec      7       3:00   -1:00   -
1057 Rule    Morocco 2065    only    -       Jan     11       2:00   0       -
1058 Rule    Morocco 2065    only    -       Nov     22       3:00   -1:00   -
1059 Rule    Morocco 2066    only    -       Jan      3       2:00   0       -
1060 Rule    Morocco 2066    only    -       Nov     14       3:00   -1:00   -
1061 Rule    Morocco 2066    only    -       Dec     19       2:00   0       -
1062 Rule    Morocco 2067    only    -       Nov      6       3:00   -1:00   -
1063 Rule    Morocco 2067    only    -       Dec     11       2:00   0       -
1064 Rule    Morocco 2068    only    -       Oct     21       3:00   -1:00   -
1065 Rule    Morocco 2068    only    -       Dec      2       2:00   0       -
1066 Rule    Morocco 2069    only    -       Oct     13       3:00   -1:00   -
1067 Rule    Morocco 2069    only    -       Nov     17       2:00   0       -
1068 Rule    Morocco 2070    only    -       Oct      5       3:00   -1:00   -
1069 Rule    Morocco 2070    only    -       Nov      9       2:00   0       -
1070 Rule    Morocco 2071    only    -       Sep     20       3:00   -1:00   -
1071 Rule    Morocco 2071    only    -       Oct     25       2:00   0       -
1072 Rule    Morocco 2072    only    -       Sep     11       3:00   -1:00   -
1073 Rule    Morocco 2072    only    -       Oct     16       2:00   0       -
1074 Rule    Morocco 2073    only    -       Aug     27       3:00   -1:00   -
1075 Rule    Morocco 2073    only    -       Oct      8       2:00   0       -
1076 Rule    Morocco 2074    only    -       Aug     19       3:00   -1:00   -
1077 Rule    Morocco 2074    only    -       Sep     23       2:00   0       -
1078 Rule    Morocco 2075    only    -       Aug     11       3:00   -1:00   -
1079 Rule    Morocco 2075    only    -       Sep     15       2:00   0       -
1080 Rule    Morocco 2076    only    -       Jul     26       3:00   -1:00   -
1081 Rule    Morocco 2076    only    -       Sep      6       2:00   0       -
1082 Rule    Morocco 2077    only    -       Jul     18       3:00   -1:00   -
1083 Rule    Morocco 2077    only    -       Aug     22       2:00   0       -
1084 Rule    Morocco 2078    only    -       Jul     10       3:00   -1:00   -
1085 Rule    Morocco 2078    only    -       Aug     14       2:00   0       -
1086 Rule    Morocco 2079    only    -       Jun     25       3:00   -1:00   -
1087 Rule    Morocco 2079    only    -       Jul     30       2:00   0       -
1088 Rule    Morocco 2080    only    -       Jun     16       3:00   -1:00   -
1089 Rule    Morocco 2080    only    -       Jul     21       2:00   0       -
1090 Rule    Morocco 2081    only    -       Jun      1       3:00   -1:00   -
1091 Rule    Morocco 2081    only    -       Jul     13       2:00   0       -
1092 Rule    Morocco 2082    only    -       May     24       3:00   -1:00   -
1093 Rule    Morocco 2082    only    -       Jun     28       2:00   0       -
1094 Rule    Morocco 2083    only    -       May     16       3:00   -1:00   -
1095 Rule    Morocco 2083    only    -       Jun     20       2:00   0       -
1096 Rule    Morocco 2084    only    -       Apr     30       3:00   -1:00   -
1097 Rule    Morocco 2084    only    -       Jun     11       2:00   0       -
1098 Rule    Morocco 2085    only    -       Apr     22       3:00   -1:00   -
1099 Rule    Morocco 2085    only    -       May     27       2:00   0       -
1100 Rule    Morocco 2086    only    -       Apr     14       3:00   -1:00   -
1101 Rule    Morocco 2086    only    -       May     19       2:00   0       -
1102 Rule    Morocco 2087    only    -       Mar     30       3:00   -1:00   -
1103 Rule    Morocco 2087    only    -       May      4       2:00   0       -
1104 # For dates after the somewhat-arbitrary cutoff of 2087, assume that
1105 # Morocco will no longer observe DST.  At some point this table will
1106 # need to be extended, though quite possibly Morocco will change the
1107 # rules first.
1108 
1109 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1110 Zone Africa/Casablanca  -0:30:20 -      LMT     1913 Oct 26
1111                          0:00   Morocco +00/+01 1984 Mar 16
1112                          1:00   -       +01     1986
1113                          0:00   Morocco +00/+01 2018 Oct 28  3:00
1114                          1:00   Morocco +01/+00
1115 
1116 # Western Sahara
1117 #
1118 # From Gwillim Law (2013-10-22):
1119 # A correspondent who is usually well informed about time zone matters
1120 # ... says that Western Sahara observes daylight saving time, just as
1121 # Morocco does.
1122 #
1123 # From Paul Eggert (2013-10-23):
1124 # Assume that this has been true since Western Sahara switched to GMT,
1125 # since most of it was then controlled by Morocco.
1126 
1127 Zone Africa/El_Aaiun    -0:52:48 -      LMT     1934 Jan # El Aaiún
1128                         -1:00   -       -01     1976 Apr 14
1129                          0:00   Morocco +00/+01 2018 Oct 28  3:00
1130                          1:00   Morocco +01/+00
1131 
1132 # Mozambique
1133 #
1134 # Shanks gives 1903-03-01 for the transition to CAT.
1135 # Perhaps the 1911-05-26 Portuguese decree
1136 # https://dre.pt/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf
1137 # merely made it official?
1138 #
1139 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1140 Zone    Africa/Maputo   2:10:20 -       LMT     1903 Mar
1141                         2:00    -       CAT
1142 Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Blantyre      # Malawi
1143 Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Bujumbura     # Burundi
1144 Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Gaborone      # Botswana
1145 Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Harare        # Zimbabwe
1146 Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Kigali        # Rwanda
1147 Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Lubumbashi    # E Dem. Rep. of Congo
1148 Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Lusaka        # Zambia
1149 
1150 
1151 # Namibia
1152 
1153 # From Arthur David Olson (2017-08-09):
1154 # The text of the "Namibia Time Act, 1994" is available online at
1155 # www.lac.org.na/laws/1994/811.pdf
1156 # and includes this nugget:
1157 # Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (2) of section 1, the
1158 # first winter period after the commencement of this Act shall
1159 # commence at OOhOO on Monday 21 March 1994 and shall end at 02h00 on


1182 # From Steffen Thorsen (2017-08-09):
1183 # Namibia is going to change their time zone to what is now their DST:
1184 # https://www.newera.com.na/2017/02/23/namibias-winter-time-might-be-repealed/
1185 # This video is from the government decision:
1186 # https://www.nbc.na/news/na-passes-namibia-time-bill-repealing-1994-namibia-time-act.8665
1187 # We have made the assumption so far that they will change their time zone at
1188 # the same time they would normally start DST, the first Sunday in September:
1189 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/namibia-new-time-zone.html
1190 
1191 # From Paul Eggert (2017-04-09):
1192 # Before the change, summer and winter time were both standard time legally.
1193 # However in common parlance, winter time was considered to be DST.  See, e.g.:
1194 # http://www.nbc.na/news/namibias-winter-time-could-be-scrapped.2706
1195 # https://zone.my.na/news/times-are-changing-in-namibia
1196 # https://www.newera.com.na/2017/02/23/namibias-winter-time-might-be-repealed/
1197 # Use plain "WAT" and "CAT" for the time zone abbreviations, to be compatible
1198 # with Namibia's neighbors.
1199 
1200 # RULE  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1201 # Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST.
1202 Rule    Namibia 1994    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    -1:00   WAT
1203 Rule    Namibia 1994    2017    -       Sep     Sun>=1       2:00    0       CAT
1204 Rule    Namibia 1995    2017    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    -1:00   WAT
1205 # Rearguard section, for parsers that do not support negative DST.
1206 #Rule   Namibia 1994    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    0       WAT
1207 #Rule   Namibia 1994    2017    -       Sep     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    CAT
1208 #Rule   Namibia 1995    2017    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    0       WAT
1209 # End of rearguard section.
1210 
1211 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1212 Zone    Africa/Windhoek 1:08:24 -       LMT     1892 Feb 8
1213                         1:30    -       +0130   1903 Mar
1214                         2:00    -       SAST    1942 Sep 20  2:00
1215                         2:00    1:00    SAST    1943 Mar 21  2:00
1216                         2:00    -       SAST    1990 Mar 21 # independence
1217 # Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST.
1218                         2:00    Namibia %s
1219 # Rearguard section, for parsers that do not support negative DST.
1220 #                       2:00    -       CAT     1994 Mar 21  0:00
1221 # From Paul Eggert (2017-04-07):
1222 # The official date of the 2017 rule change was 2017-10-24.  See:
1223 # http://www.lac.org.na/laws/annoSTAT/Namibian%20Time%20Act%209%20of%202017.pdf
1224 #                       1:00    Namibia %s      2017 Oct 24
1225 #                       2:00    -       CAT
1226 # End of rearguard section.
1227 
1228 # Niger
1229 # See Africa/Lagos.
1230 
1231 # Nigeria
1232 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1233 Zone    Africa/Lagos    0:13:36 -       LMT     1919 Sep
1234                         1:00    -       WAT
1235 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Bangui      # Central African Republic
1236 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Brazzaville # Rep. of the Congo
1237 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Douala      # Cameroon
1238 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Kinshasa    # Dem. Rep. of the Congo (west)
1239 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Libreville  # Gabon
1240 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Luanda      # Angola
1241 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Malabo      # Equatorial Guinea
1242 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Niamey      # Niger
1243 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Porto-Novo  # Benin
1244 
1245 # Réunion
1246 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1247 Zone    Indian/Reunion  3:41:52 -       LMT     1911 Jun # Saint-Denis
1248                         4:00    -       +04
1249 #
1250 # Crozet Islands also observes Réunion time; see the 'antarctica' file.
1251 #
1252 # Scattered Islands (Îles Éparses) administered from Réunion are as follows.
1253 # The following information about them is taken from
1254 # Îles Éparses (<http://www.outre-mer.gouv.fr/domtom/ile.htm>, 1997-07-22,
1255 # in French; no longer available as of 1999-08-17).
1256 # We have no info about their time zone histories.
1257 #
1258 # Bassas da India - uninhabited
1259 # Europa Island - inhabited from 1905 to 1910 by two families
1260 # Glorioso Is - inhabited until at least 1958
1261 # Juan de Nova - uninhabited
1262 # Tromelin - inhabited until at least 1958
1263 
1264 # Rwanda
1265 # See Africa/Maputo.
1266 
1267 # St Helena
1268 # See Africa/Abidjan.
1269 # The other parts of the St Helena territory are similar:
1270 #       Tristan da Cunha: on GMT, say Whitman and the CIA
1271 #       Ascension: on GMT, say the USNO (1995-12-21) and the CIA
1272 #       Gough (scientific station since 1955; sealers wintered previously):
1273 #               on GMT, says the CIA
1274 #       Inaccessible, Nightingale: uninhabited
1275 
1276 # São Tomé and Príncipe
1277 
1278 # See Europe/Lisbon for info about the 1912 transition.
1279 
1280 # From Steffen Thorsen (2018-01-08):
1281 # Multiple sources tell that São Tomé changed from UTC to UTC+1 as
1282 # they entered the year 2018.
1283 # From Michael Deckers (2018-01-08):
1284 # the switch is from 01:00 to 02:00 ... [Decree No. 25/2017]
1285 # http://www.mnec.gov.st/index.php/publicacoes/documentos/file/90-decreto-lei-n-25-2017
1286 
1287 # From Vadim Nasardinov (2018-12-29):
1288 # São Tomé and Príncipe is about to do the following on Jan 1, 2019:
1289 # https://www.stp-press.st/2018/12/05/governo-jesus-ja-decidiu-repor-hora-legal-sao-tomense/
1290 #
1291 # From Michael Deckers (2018-12-30):
1292 # https://www.legis-palop.org/download.jsp?idFile=102818
1293 # ... [The legal time of the country, which coincides with universal
1294 # coordinated time, will be restituted at 2 o'clock on day 1 of January, 2019.]
1295 
1296 Zone    Africa/Sao_Tome  0:26:56 -      LMT     1884
1297                         -0:36:45 -      LMT     1912 Jan  1 00:00u # Lisbon MT
1298                          0:00   -       GMT     2018 Jan  1 01:00
1299                          1:00   -       WAT     2019 Jan  1 02:00
1300                          0:00   -       GMT
1301 
1302 # Senegal
1303 # See Africa/Abidjan.
1304 
1305 # Seychelles
1306 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1307 Zone    Indian/Mahe     3:41:48 -       LMT     1906 Jun # Victoria
1308                         4:00    -       +04
1309 # From Paul Eggert (2001-05-30):
1310 # Aldabra, Farquhar, and Desroches, originally dependencies of the
1311 # Seychelles, were transferred to the British Indian Ocean Territory
1312 # in 1965 and returned to Seychelles control in 1976.  We don't know
1313 # whether this affected their time zone, so omit this for now.
1314 # Possibly the islands were uninhabited.
1315 
1316 # Sierra Leone
1317 # See Africa/Abidjan.
1318 
1319 # Somalia
1320 # See Africa/Nairobi.
1321 
1322 # South Africa
1323 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1324 Rule    SA      1942    1943    -       Sep     Sun>=15      2:00    1:00    -
1325 Rule    SA      1943    1944    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00    0       -
1326 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1327 Zone Africa/Johannesburg 1:52:00 -      LMT     1892 Feb 8
1328                         1:30    -       SAST    1903 Mar
1329                         2:00    SA      SAST
1330 Link Africa/Johannesburg Africa/Maseru     # Lesotho
1331 Link Africa/Johannesburg Africa/Mbabane    # Eswatini
1332 #
1333 # Marion and Prince Edward Is
1334 # scientific station since 1947
1335 # no information
1336 
1337 # Sudan
1338 
1339 # From <http://www.sunanews.net/sn13jane.html>
1340 # Sudan News Agency (2000-01-13),
1341 # also reported by Michaël De Beukelaer-Dossche via Steffen Thorsen:
1342 # Clocks will be moved ahead for 60 minutes all over the Sudan as of noon
1343 # Saturday....  This was announced Thursday by Caretaker State Minister for
1344 # Manpower Abdul-Rahman Nur-Eddin.
1345 
1346 # From Ahmed Atyya, National Telecommunications Corp. (NTC), Sudan (2017-10-17):
1347 # ... the Republic of Sudan is going to change the time zone from (GMT+3:00)
1348 # to (GMT+ 2:00) starting from Wednesday 1 November 2017.
1349 #
1350 # From Paul Eggert (2017-10-18):
1351 # A scanned copy (in Arabic) of Cabinet Resolution No. 352 for the
1352 # year 2017 can be found as an attachment in email today from Yahia
1353 # Abdalla of NTC, archived at:
1354 # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2017-October/025333.html
1355 
1356 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1357 Rule    Sudan   1970    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
1358 Rule    Sudan   1970    1985    -       Oct     15      0:00    0       -
1359 Rule    Sudan   1971    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    S
1360 Rule    Sudan   1972    1985    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
1361 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1362 Zone    Africa/Khartoum 2:10:08 -       LMT     1931
1363                         2:00    Sudan   CA%sT   2000 Jan 15 12:00
1364                         3:00    -       EAT     2017 Nov  1
1365                         2:00    -       CAT
1366 
1367 # South Sudan
1368 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1369 Zone    Africa/Juba     2:06:28 -       LMT     1931
1370                         2:00    Sudan   CA%sT   2000 Jan 15 12:00
1371                         3:00    -       EAT
1372 



1373 # Tanzania
1374 # See Africa/Nairobi.
1375 
1376 # Togo
1377 # See Africa/Abidjan.
1378 
1379 # Tunisia
1380 
1381 # From Gwillim Law (2005-04-30):
1382 # My correspondent, Risto Nykänen, has alerted me to another adoption of DST,
1383 # this time in Tunisia.  According to Yahoo France News
1384 # <http://fr.news.yahoo.com/050426/5/4dumk.html>, in a story attributed to AP
1385 # and dated 2005-04-26, "Tunisia has decided to advance its official time by
1386 # one hour, starting on Sunday, May 1.  Henceforth, Tunisian time will be
1387 # UTC+2 instead of UTC+1.  The change will take place at 23:00 UTC next
1388 # Saturday."  (My translation)
1389 #
1390 # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-02):
1391 # La Presse, the first national daily newspaper ...
1392 # http://www.lapresse.tn/archives/archives280405/actualites/lheure.html


1454 Rule    Tunisia 1943    only    -       Oct      4       2:00   0       -
1455 Rule    Tunisia 1944    1945    -       Apr     Mon>=1        2:00   1:00    S
1456 Rule    Tunisia 1944    only    -       Oct      8       0:00   0       -
1457 Rule    Tunisia 1945    only    -       Sep     16       0:00   0       -
1458 Rule    Tunisia 1977    only    -       Apr     30       0:00s  1:00    S
1459 Rule    Tunisia 1977    only    -       Sep     24       0:00s  0       -
1460 Rule    Tunisia 1978    only    -       May      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1461 Rule    Tunisia 1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       -
1462 Rule    Tunisia 1988    only    -       Jun      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1463 Rule    Tunisia 1988    1990    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
1464 Rule    Tunisia 1989    only    -       Mar     26       0:00s  1:00    S
1465 Rule    Tunisia 1990    only    -       May      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1466 Rule    Tunisia 2005    only    -       May      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1467 Rule    Tunisia 2005    only    -       Sep     30       1:00s  0       -
1468 Rule    Tunisia 2006    2008    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
1469 Rule    Tunisia 2006    2008    -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
1470 
1471 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
1472 # more precise 0:09:21.
1473 # Shanks & Pottenger say the 1911 switch was on Mar 9; go with Howse's Mar 11.
1474 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1475 Zone    Africa/Tunis    0:40:44 -       LMT     1881 May 12
1476                         0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
1477                         1:00    Tunisia CE%sT
1478 
1479 # Uganda
1480 # See Africa/Nairobi.
1481 
1482 # Zambia
1483 # Zimbabwe
1484 # See Africa/Maputo.


  95 Rule    Algeria 1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00s  1:00    S
  96 Rule    Algeria 1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00s  1:00    S
  97 Rule    Algeria 1920    only    -       Oct     23      23:00s  0       -
  98 Rule    Algeria 1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00s  1:00    S
  99 Rule    Algeria 1921    only    -       Jun     21      23:00s  0       -
 100 Rule    Algeria 1939    only    -       Sep     11      23:00s  1:00    S
 101 Rule    Algeria 1939    only    -       Nov     19       1:00   0       -
 102 Rule    Algeria 1944    1945    -       Apr     Mon>=1        2:00   1:00    S
 103 Rule    Algeria 1944    only    -       Oct      8       2:00   0       -
 104 Rule    Algeria 1945    only    -       Sep     16       1:00   0       -
 105 Rule    Algeria 1971    only    -       Apr     25      23:00s  1:00    S
 106 Rule    Algeria 1971    only    -       Sep     26      23:00s  0       -
 107 Rule    Algeria 1977    only    -       May      6       0:00   1:00    S
 108 Rule    Algeria 1977    only    -       Oct     21       0:00   0       -
 109 Rule    Algeria 1978    only    -       Mar     24       1:00   1:00    S
 110 Rule    Algeria 1978    only    -       Sep     22       3:00   0       -
 111 Rule    Algeria 1980    only    -       Apr     25       0:00   1:00    S
 112 Rule    Algeria 1980    only    -       Oct     31       2:00   0       -
 113 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
 114 # more precise 0:09:21.
 115 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 116 Zone    Africa/Algiers  0:12:12 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15  0:01
 117                         0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
 118                         0:00    Algeria WE%sT   1940 Feb 25  2:00
 119                         1:00    Algeria CE%sT   1946 Oct  7
 120                         0:00    -       WET     1956 Jan 29
 121                         1:00    -       CET     1963 Apr 14
 122                         0:00    Algeria WE%sT   1977 Oct 21
 123                         1:00    Algeria CE%sT   1979 Oct 26
 124                         0:00    Algeria WE%sT   1981 May
 125                         1:00    -       CET
 126 
 127 # Angola
 128 # Benin
 129 # See Africa/Lagos.
 130 
 131 # Botswana
 132 # See Africa/Maputo.
 133 
 134 # Burkina Faso
 135 # See Africa/Abidjan.
 136 
 137 # Burundi
 138 # See Africa/Maputo.
 139 
 140 # Cameroon
 141 # See Africa/Lagos.
 142 
 143 # Cape Verde / Cabo Verde
 144 #
 145 # From Paul Eggert (2018-02-16):
 146 # Shanks gives 1907 for the transition to +02.
 147 # For now, ignore that and follow the 1911-05-26 Portuguese decree
 148 # (see Europe/Lisbon).
 149 #
 150 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 151 Zone Atlantic/Cape_Verde -1:34:04 -     LMT     1912 Jan 01  2:00u # Praia
 152                         -2:00   -       -02     1942 Sep
 153                         -2:00   1:00    -01     1945 Oct 15
 154                         -2:00   -       -02     1975 Nov 25  2:00
 155                         -1:00   -       -01
 156 
 157 # Central African Republic
 158 # See Africa/Lagos.
 159 
 160 # Chad
 161 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 162 Zone    Africa/Ndjamena 1:00:12 -       LMT     1912        # N'Djamena
 163                         1:00    -       WAT     1979 Oct 14
 164                         1:00    1:00    WAST    1980 Mar  8
 165                         1:00    -       WAT
 166 
 167 # Comoros
 168 # See Africa/Nairobi.
 169 
 170 # Democratic Republic of the Congo
 171 # See Africa/Lagos for the western part and Africa/Maputo for the eastern.
 172 
 173 # Republic of the Congo
 174 # See Africa/Lagos.
 175 
 176 # Côte d'Ivoire / Ivory Coast
 177 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 178 Zone    Africa/Abidjan  -0:16:08 -      LMT     1912
 179                          0:00   -       GMT
 180 Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Bamako       # Mali
 181 Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Banjul       # Gambia
 182 Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Conakry      # Guinea
 183 Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Dakar        # Senegal
 184 Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Freetown     # Sierra Leone
 185 Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Lome         # Togo
 186 Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Nouakchott   # Mauritania
 187 Link Africa/Abidjan Africa/Ouagadougou  # Burkina Faso
 188 Link Africa/Abidjan Atlantic/St_Helena  # St Helena
 189 
 190 # Djibouti
 191 # See Africa/Nairobi.
 192 
 193 ###############################################################################
 194 
 195 # Egypt
 196 
 197 # Milne says Cairo used 2:05:08.9, the local mean time of the Abbasizeh


 362 # Yesterday the office of Egyptian President El-Sisi announced his
 363 # decision to abandon DST permanently.  See Ahram Online 2015-04-24.
 364 # http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/128509/Egypt/Politics-/Sisi-cancels-daylight-saving-time-in-Egypt.aspx
 365 
 366 # From Steffen Thorsen (2016-04-29):
 367 # Egypt will have DST from July 7 until the end of October....
 368 # http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContentP/1/204655/Egypt/Daylight-savings-time-returning-to-Egypt-on--July.aspx
 369 # From Mina Samuel (2016-07-04):
 370 # Egyptian government took the decision to cancel the DST,
 371 
 372 Rule    Egypt   2008    only    -       Aug     lastThu 24:00   0       -
 373 Rule    Egypt   2009    only    -       Aug     20      24:00   0       -
 374 Rule    Egypt   2010    only    -       Aug     10      24:00   0       -
 375 Rule    Egypt   2010    only    -       Sep      9      24:00   1:00    S
 376 Rule    Egypt   2010    only    -       Sep     lastThu 24:00   0       -
 377 Rule    Egypt   2014    only    -       May     15      24:00   1:00    S
 378 Rule    Egypt   2014    only    -       Jun     26      24:00   0       -
 379 Rule    Egypt   2014    only    -       Jul     31      24:00   1:00    S
 380 Rule    Egypt   2014    only    -       Sep     lastThu 24:00   0       -
 381 
 382 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 383 Zone    Africa/Cairo    2:05:09 -       LMT     1900 Oct
 384                         2:00    Egypt   EE%sT
 385 
 386 # Equatorial Guinea
 387 # See Africa/Lagos.
 388 
 389 # Eritrea





 390 # Ethiopia
 391 # See Africa/Nairobi.
 392 #
 393 # Unfortunately tzdb records only Western clock time in use in Ethiopia,
 394 # as the tzdb format is not up to properly recording a common Ethiopian
 395 # timekeeping practice that is based on solar time.  See:
 396 # Mortada D. If you have a meeting in Ethiopia, you'd better double
 397 # check the time. PRI's The World. 2015-01-30 15:15 -05.
 398 # https://www.pri.org/stories/2015-01-30/if-you-have-meeting-ethiopia-you-better-double-check-time
 399 
 400 # Gabon
 401 # See Africa/Lagos.
 402 
 403 # Gambia
 404 # See Africa/Abidjan.
 405 
 406 # Ghana
 407 
 408 # From Paul Eggert (2018-01-30):
 409 # Whitman says DST was observed from 1931 to "the present";


 415 # lists the Determination of the Time Ordinance, 1919, No. 18,
 416 # "to advance the time observed locally by the space of twenty minutes
 417 # during the last four months of each year; the object in view being
 418 # to extend during those months the period of daylight-time available
 419 # for evening recreation after office hours."
 420 # Vanessa Ogle, The Global Transformation of Time, 1870-1950 (2015), p 33,
 421 # writes "In 1919, the Gold Coast (Ghana as of 1957) made Greenwich
 422 # time its legal time and simultaneously legalized a summer time of
 423 # UTC - 00:20 minutes from March to October."; a footnote lists
 424 # the ordinance as being dated 1919-11-24.
 425 # The Crown Colonist, Volume 12 (1942), p 176, says "the Government
 426 # intend advancing Gold Coast time half an hour ahead of G.M.T.
 427 # The actual date of the alteration has not yet been announced."
 428 # These sources are incomplete and contradictory.  Possibly what is
 429 # now Ghana observed different DST regimes in different years.  For
 430 # lack of better info, use Shanks except treat the minus sign as a
 431 # typo, and assume DST started in 1920 not 1936.
 432 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 433 Rule    Ghana   1920    1942    -       Sep      1      0:00    0:20    -
 434 Rule    Ghana   1920    1942    -       Dec     31      0:00    0       -
 435 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 436 Zone    Africa/Accra    -0:00:52 -      LMT     1918
 437                          0:00   Ghana   GMT/+0020
 438 
 439 # Guinea
 440 # See Africa/Abidjan.
 441 
 442 # Guinea-Bissau
 443 #
 444 # From Paul Eggert (2018-02-16):
 445 # Shanks gives 1911-05-26 for the transition to WAT,
 446 # evidently confusing the date of the Portuguese decree
 447 # (see Europe/Lisbon) with the date that it took effect.
 448 #
 449 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 450 Zone    Africa/Bissau   -1:02:20 -      LMT     1912 Jan  1  1:00u
 451                         -1:00   -       -01     1975
 452                          0:00   -       GMT
 453 
 454 # Kenya
 455 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 456 Zone    Africa/Nairobi  2:27:16 -       LMT     1928 Jul
 457                         3:00    -       EAT     1930
 458                         2:30    -       +0230   1940
 459                         2:45    -       +0245   1960
 460                         3:00    -       EAT
 461 Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Addis_Ababa   # Ethiopia
 462 Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Asmara        # Eritrea
 463 Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Dar_es_Salaam # Tanzania
 464 Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Djibouti
 465 Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Kampala       # Uganda
 466 Link Africa/Nairobi Africa/Mogadishu     # Somalia
 467 Link Africa/Nairobi Indian/Antananarivo  # Madagascar
 468 Link Africa/Nairobi Indian/Comoro
 469 Link Africa/Nairobi Indian/Mayotte
 470 
 471 # Lesotho
 472 # See Africa/Johannesburg.
 473 
 474 # Liberia
 475 #
 476 # From Paul Eggert (2017-03-02):
 477 #
 478 # The Nautical Almanac for the Year 1970, p 264, is the source for -0:44:30.
 479 #
 480 # In 1972 Liberia was the last country to switch from a UT offset
 481 # that was not a multiple of 15 or 20 minutes.  The 1972 change was on
 482 # 1972-01-07, according to an entry dated 1972-01-04 on p 330 of:
 483 # Presidential Papers: First year of the administration of
 484 # President William R. Tolbert, Jr., July 23, 1971-July 31, 1972.
 485 # Monrovia: Executive Mansion.
 486 #
 487 # Use the abbreviation "MMT" before 1972, as the more-accurate numeric
 488 # abbreviation "-004430" would be one byte over the POSIX limit.
 489 #
 490 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 491 Zone    Africa/Monrovia -0:43:08 -      LMT     1882
 492                         -0:43:08 -      MMT     1919 Mar # Monrovia Mean Time
 493                         -0:44:30 -      MMT     1972 Jan 7 # approximately MMT
 494                          0:00   -       GMT
 495 
 496 ###############################################################################
 497 
 498 # Libya
 499 
 500 # From Even Scharning (2012-11-10):
 501 # Libya set their time one hour back at 02:00 on Saturday November 10.
 502 # https://www.libyaherald.com/2012/11/04/clocks-to-go-back-an-hour-on-saturday/
 503 # Here is an official source [in Arabic]: http://ls.ly/fb6Yc
 504 #
 505 # Steffen Thorsen forwarded a translation (2012-11-10) in
 506 # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2012-November/018451.html
 507 #
 508 # From Tim Parenti (2012-11-11):
 509 # Treat the 2012-11-10 change as a zone change from UTC+2 to UTC+1.
 510 # The DST rules planned for 2013 and onward roughly mirror those of Europe


 520 # For now, assume they're reverting to the pre-2012 rules of permanent UT +02.
 521 
 522 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 523 Rule    Libya   1951    only    -       Oct     14      2:00    1:00    S
 524 Rule    Libya   1952    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       -
 525 Rule    Libya   1953    only    -       Oct      9      2:00    1:00    S
 526 Rule    Libya   1954    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       -
 527 Rule    Libya   1955    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    1:00    S
 528 Rule    Libya   1956    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       -
 529 Rule    Libya   1982    1984    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
 530 Rule    Libya   1982    1985    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 531 Rule    Libya   1985    only    -       Apr      6      0:00    1:00    S
 532 Rule    Libya   1986    only    -       Apr      4      0:00    1:00    S
 533 Rule    Libya   1986    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
 534 Rule    Libya   1987    1989    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
 535 Rule    Libya   1987    1989    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 536 Rule    Libya   1997    only    -       Apr      4      0:00    1:00    S
 537 Rule    Libya   1997    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       -
 538 Rule    Libya   2013    only    -       Mar     lastFri 1:00    1:00    S
 539 Rule    Libya   2013    only    -       Oct     lastFri 2:00    0       -
 540 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 541 Zone    Africa/Tripoli  0:52:44 -       LMT     1920
 542                         1:00    Libya   CE%sT   1959
 543                         2:00    -       EET     1982
 544                         1:00    Libya   CE%sT   1990 May  4
 545 # The 1996 and 1997 entries are from Shanks & Pottenger;
 546 # the IATA SSIM data entries contain some obvious errors.
 547                         2:00    -       EET     1996 Sep 30
 548                         1:00    Libya   CE%sT   1997 Oct  4
 549                         2:00    -       EET     2012 Nov 10  2:00
 550                         1:00    Libya   CE%sT   2013 Oct 25  2:00
 551                         2:00    -       EET
 552 
 553 # Madagascar
 554 # See Africa/Nairobi.
 555 
 556 # Malawi
 557 # See Africa/Maputo.
 558 
 559 # Mali
 560 # Mauritania


 630 # According to several sources, Mauritius will not continue to observe
 631 # DST the coming summer...
 632 #
 633 # Some sources, in French:
 634 # http://www.defimedia.info/news/946/Rashid-Beebeejaun-:-%C2%AB-L%E2%80%99heure-d%E2%80%99%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ne-sera-pas-appliqu%C3%A9e-cette-ann%C3%A9e-%C2%BB
 635 # http://lexpress.mu/Story/3398~Beebeejaun---Les-objectifs-d-%C3%A9conomie-d-%C3%A9nergie-de-l-heure-d-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-ont-%C3%A9t%C3%A9-atteints-
 636 #
 637 # Our wrap-up:
 638 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat.html
 639 
 640 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-07-11):
 641 # The "mauritius-dst-will-not-repeat" wrapup includes this:
 642 # "The trial ended on March 29, 2009, when the clocks moved back by one hour
 643 # at 2am (or 02:00) local time..."
 644 
 645 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 646 Rule Mauritius  1982    only    -       Oct     10      0:00    1:00    -
 647 Rule Mauritius  1983    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    0       -
 648 Rule Mauritius  2008    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    -
 649 Rule Mauritius  2009    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       -
 650 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 651 Zone Indian/Mauritius   3:50:00 -       LMT     1907 # Port Louis
 652                         4:00 Mauritius  +04/+05
 653 # Agalega Is, Rodriguez
 654 # no information; probably like Indian/Mauritius
 655 
 656 # Mayotte
 657 # See Africa/Nairobi.
 658 
 659 # Morocco
 660 # See the 'europe' file for Spanish Morocco (Africa/Ceuta).
 661 
 662 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-09):
 663 # Here is an article that Morocco plan to introduce Daylight Saving Time between
 664 # 1 June, 2008 and 27 September, 2008.
 665 #
 666 # "... Morocco is to save energy by adjusting its clock during summer so it will
 667 # be one hour ahead of GMT between 1 June and 27 September, according to
 668 # Communication Minister and Government Spokesman, Khalid Naciri...."
 669 #
 670 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_morocco01.html


 853 # that the time will be advanced again 60 minutes Sunday, July 19,
 854 # 2015 at 2:00.  The move comes under 2.12.126 Decree of 26 Jumada I
 855 # 1433 (18 April 2012) and the decision of the Head of Government of
 856 # 16 N. 3-29-15 Chaaban 1435 (4 June 2015).
 857 # Source (french):
 858 # https://lnt.ma/le-maroc-reculera-dune-heure-le-dimanche-14-juin/
 859 #
 860 # From Milamber (2015-06-09):
 861 # http://www.mmsp.gov.ma/fr/actualites.aspx?id=863
 862 #
 863 # From Michael Deckers (2015-06-09):
 864 # [The gov.ma announcement] would (probably) make the switch on 2015-07-19 go
 865 # from 03:00 to 04:00 rather than from 02:00 to 03:00, as in the patch....
 866 # I think the patch is correct and the quoted text is wrong; the text in
 867 # <https://lnt.ma/le-maroc-reculera-dune-heure-le-dimanche-14-juin/> agrees
 868 # with the patch.
 869 
 870 # From Mohamed Essedik Najd (2018-10-26):
 871 # Today, a Moroccan government council approved the perpetual addition
 872 # of 60 minutes to the regular Moroccan timezone.
 873 # From Brian Inglis (2018-10-26):
 874 # http://www.maroc.ma/fr/actualites/le-conseil-de-gouvernement-adopte-un-projet-de-decret-relatif-lheure-legale-stipulant-le







































 875 
 876 # RULE  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 877 Rule    Morocco 1939    only    -       Sep     12       0:00   1:00    -
 878 Rule    Morocco 1939    only    -       Nov     19       0:00   0       -
 879 Rule    Morocco 1940    only    -       Feb     25       0:00   1:00    -
 880 Rule    Morocco 1945    only    -       Nov     18       0:00   0       -
 881 Rule    Morocco 1950    only    -       Jun     11       0:00   1:00    -
 882 Rule    Morocco 1950    only    -       Oct     29       0:00   0       -
 883 Rule    Morocco 1967    only    -       Jun      3      12:00   1:00    -
 884 Rule    Morocco 1967    only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
 885 Rule    Morocco 1974    only    -       Jun     24       0:00   1:00    -
 886 Rule    Morocco 1974    only    -       Sep      1       0:00   0       -
 887 Rule    Morocco 1976    1977    -       May      1       0:00   1:00    -
 888 Rule    Morocco 1976    only    -       Aug      1       0:00   0       -
 889 Rule    Morocco 1977    only    -       Sep     28       0:00   0       -
 890 Rule    Morocco 1978    only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    -
 891 Rule    Morocco 1978    only    -       Aug      4       0:00   0       -
 892 Rule    Morocco 2008    only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    -
 893 Rule    Morocco 2008    only    -       Sep      1       0:00   0       -
 894 Rule    Morocco 2009    only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    -


 898 Rule    Morocco 2011    only    -       Apr      3       0:00   1:00    -
 899 Rule    Morocco 2011    only    -       Jul     31       0:00   0       -
 900 Rule    Morocco 2012    2013    -       Apr     lastSun  2:00   1:00    -
 901 Rule    Morocco 2012    only    -       Jul     20       3:00   0       -
 902 Rule    Morocco 2012    only    -       Aug     20       2:00   1:00    -
 903 Rule    Morocco 2012    only    -       Sep     30       3:00   0       -
 904 Rule    Morocco 2013    only    -       Jul      7       3:00   0       -
 905 Rule    Morocco 2013    only    -       Aug     10       2:00   1:00    -
 906 Rule    Morocco 2013    2018    -       Oct     lastSun  3:00   0       -
 907 Rule    Morocco 2014    2018    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00   1:00    -
 908 Rule    Morocco 2014    only    -       Jun     28       3:00   0       -
 909 Rule    Morocco 2014    only    -       Aug      2       2:00   1:00    -
 910 Rule    Morocco 2015    only    -       Jun     14       3:00   0       -
 911 Rule    Morocco 2015    only    -       Jul     19       2:00   1:00    -
 912 Rule    Morocco 2016    only    -       Jun      5       3:00   0       -
 913 Rule    Morocco 2016    only    -       Jul     10       2:00   1:00    -
 914 Rule    Morocco 2017    only    -       May     21       3:00   0       -
 915 Rule    Morocco 2017    only    -       Jul      2       2:00   1:00    -
 916 Rule    Morocco 2018    only    -       May     13       3:00   0       -
 917 Rule    Morocco 2018    only    -       Jun     17       2:00   1:00    -


















































































































































 918 
 919 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 920 Zone Africa/Casablanca  -0:30:20 -      LMT     1913 Oct 26
 921                          0:00   Morocco +00/+01 1984 Mar 16
 922                          1:00   -       +01     1986
 923                          0:00   Morocco +00/+01 2018 Oct 27
 924                          1:00   -       +01
 925 
 926 # Western Sahara
 927 #
 928 # From Gwillim Law (2013-10-22):
 929 # A correspondent who is usually well informed about time zone matters
 930 # ... says that Western Sahara observes daylight saving time, just as
 931 # Morocco does.
 932 #
 933 # From Paul Eggert (2013-10-23):
 934 # Assume that this has been true since Western Sahara switched to GMT,
 935 # since most of it was then controlled by Morocco.
 936 
 937 Zone Africa/El_Aaiun    -0:52:48 -      LMT     1934 Jan # El Aaiún
 938                         -1:00   -       -01     1976 Apr 14
 939                          0:00   Morocco +00/+01 2018 Oct 27
 940                          1:00   -       +01
 941 
 942 # Mozambique
 943 #
 944 # Shanks gives 1903-03-01 for the transition to CAT.
 945 # Perhaps the 1911-05-26 Portuguese decree
 946 # https://dre.pt/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf
 947 # merely made it official?
 948 #
 949 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 950 Zone    Africa/Maputo   2:10:20 -       LMT     1903 Mar
 951                         2:00    -       CAT
 952 Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Blantyre      # Malawi
 953 Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Bujumbura     # Burundi
 954 Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Gaborone      # Botswana
 955 Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Harare        # Zimbabwe
 956 Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Kigali        # Rwanda
 957 Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Lubumbashi    # E Dem. Rep. of Congo
 958 Link Africa/Maputo Africa/Lusaka        # Zambia
 959 
 960 
 961 # Namibia
 962 
 963 # From Arthur David Olson (2017-08-09):
 964 # The text of the "Namibia Time Act, 1994" is available online at
 965 # www.lac.org.na/laws/1994/811.pdf
 966 # and includes this nugget:
 967 # Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (2) of section 1, the
 968 # first winter period after the commencement of this Act shall
 969 # commence at OOhOO on Monday 21 March 1994 and shall end at 02h00 on


 992 # From Steffen Thorsen (2017-08-09):
 993 # Namibia is going to change their time zone to what is now their DST:
 994 # https://www.newera.com.na/2017/02/23/namibias-winter-time-might-be-repealed/
 995 # This video is from the government decision:
 996 # https://www.nbc.na/news/na-passes-namibia-time-bill-repealing-1994-namibia-time-act.8665
 997 # We have made the assumption so far that they will change their time zone at
 998 # the same time they would normally start DST, the first Sunday in September:
 999 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/namibia-new-time-zone.html
1000 
1001 # From Paul Eggert (2017-04-09):
1002 # Before the change, summer and winter time were both standard time legally.
1003 # However in common parlance, winter time was considered to be DST.  See, e.g.:
1004 # http://www.nbc.na/news/namibias-winter-time-could-be-scrapped.2706
1005 # https://zone.my.na/news/times-are-changing-in-namibia
1006 # https://www.newera.com.na/2017/02/23/namibias-winter-time-might-be-repealed/
1007 # Use plain "WAT" and "CAT" for the time zone abbreviations, to be compatible
1008 # with Namibia's neighbors.
1009 
1010 # RULE  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1011 # Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST.
1012 #Rule   Namibia 1994    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    -1:00   WAT
1013 #Rule   Namibia 1994    2017    -       Sep     Sun>=1       2:00    0       CAT
1014 #Rule   Namibia 1995    2017    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    -1:00   WAT
1015 # Rearguard section, for parsers that do not support negative DST.
1016 Rule    Namibia 1994    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    0       WAT
1017 Rule    Namibia 1994    2017    -       Sep     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    CAT
1018 Rule    Namibia 1995    2017    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    0       WAT
1019 # End of rearguard section.
1020 
1021 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1022 Zone    Africa/Windhoek 1:08:24 -       LMT     1892 Feb 8
1023                         1:30    -       +0130   1903 Mar
1024                         2:00    -       SAST    1942 Sep 20  2:00
1025                         2:00    1:00    SAST    1943 Mar 21  2:00
1026                         2:00    -       SAST    1990 Mar 21 # independence
1027 # Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST.
1028 #                       2:00    Namibia %s
1029 # Rearguard section, for parsers that do not support negative DST.
1030                         2:00    -       CAT     1994 Mar 21  0:00
1031 # From Paul Eggert (2017-04-07):
1032 # The official date of the 2017 rule change was 2017-10-24.  See:
1033 # http://www.lac.org.na/laws/annoSTAT/Namibian%20Time%20Act%209%20of%202017.pdf
1034                         1:00    Namibia %s      2017 Oct 24
1035                         2:00    -       CAT
1036 # End of rearguard section.
1037 
1038 # Niger
1039 # See Africa/Lagos.
1040 
1041 # Nigeria
1042 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1043 Zone    Africa/Lagos    0:13:36 -       LMT     1919 Sep
1044                         1:00    -       WAT
1045 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Bangui      # Central African Republic
1046 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Brazzaville # Rep. of the Congo
1047 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Douala      # Cameroon
1048 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Kinshasa    # Dem. Rep. of the Congo (west)
1049 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Libreville  # Gabon
1050 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Luanda      # Angola
1051 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Malabo      # Equatorial Guinea
1052 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Niamey      # Niger
1053 Link Africa/Lagos Africa/Porto-Novo  # Benin
1054 
1055 # Réunion
1056 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1057 Zone    Indian/Reunion  3:41:52 -       LMT     1911 Jun # Saint-Denis
1058                         4:00    -       +04
1059 #
1060 # Crozet Islands also observes Réunion time; see the 'antarctica' file.
1061 #
1062 # Scattered Islands (Îles Éparses) administered from Réunion are as follows.
1063 # The following information about them is taken from
1064 # Îles Éparses (<http://www.outre-mer.gouv.fr/domtom/ile.htm>, 1997-07-22,
1065 # in French; no longer available as of 1999-08-17).
1066 # We have no info about their time zone histories.
1067 #
1068 # Bassas da India - uninhabited
1069 # Europa Island - inhabited from 1905 to 1910 by two families
1070 # Glorioso Is - inhabited until at least 1958
1071 # Juan de Nova - uninhabited
1072 # Tromelin - inhabited until at least 1958
1073 
1074 # Rwanda
1075 # See Africa/Maputo.
1076 
1077 # St Helena
1078 # See Africa/Abidjan.
1079 # The other parts of the St Helena territory are similar:
1080 #       Tristan da Cunha: on GMT, say Whitman and the CIA
1081 #       Ascension: on GMT, say the USNO (1995-12-21) and the CIA
1082 #       Gough (scientific station since 1955; sealers wintered previously):
1083 #               on GMT, says the CIA
1084 #       Inaccessible, Nightingale: uninhabited
1085 
1086 # São Tomé and Príncipe
1087 
1088 # See Europe/Lisbon for info about the 1912 transition.
1089 
1090 # From Steffen Thorsen (2018-01-08):
1091 # Multiple sources tell that São Tomé changed from UTC to UTC+1 as
1092 # they entered the year 2018.
1093 # From Michael Deckers (2018-01-08):
1094 # the switch is from 01:00 to 02:00 ... [Decree No. 25/2017]
1095 # http://www.mnec.gov.st/index.php/publicacoes/documentos/file/90-decreto-lei-n-25-2017
1096 









1097 Zone    Africa/Sao_Tome  0:26:56 -      LMT     1884
1098                         -0:36:45 -      LMT     1912 Jan  1 00:00u # Lisbon MT
1099                          0:00   -       GMT     2018 Jan  1 01:00
1100                          1:00   -       WAT

1101 
1102 # Senegal
1103 # See Africa/Abidjan.
1104 
1105 # Seychelles
1106 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1107 Zone    Indian/Mahe     3:41:48 -       LMT     1906 Jun # Victoria
1108                         4:00    -       +04
1109 # From Paul Eggert (2001-05-30):
1110 # Aldabra, Farquhar, and Desroches, originally dependencies of the
1111 # Seychelles, were transferred to the British Indian Ocean Territory
1112 # in 1965 and returned to Seychelles control in 1976.  We don't know
1113 # whether this affected their time zone, so omit this for now.
1114 # Possibly the islands were uninhabited.
1115 
1116 # Sierra Leone
1117 # See Africa/Abidjan.
1118 
1119 # Somalia
1120 # See Africa/Nairobi.
1121 
1122 # South Africa
1123 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1124 Rule    SA      1942    1943    -       Sep     Sun>=15      2:00    1:00    -
1125 Rule    SA      1943    1944    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00    0       -
1126 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1127 Zone Africa/Johannesburg 1:52:00 -      LMT     1892 Feb 8
1128                         1:30    -       SAST    1903 Mar
1129                         2:00    SA      SAST
1130 Link Africa/Johannesburg Africa/Maseru     # Lesotho
1131 Link Africa/Johannesburg Africa/Mbabane    # Swaziland
1132 #
1133 # Marion and Prince Edward Is
1134 # scientific station since 1947
1135 # no information
1136 
1137 # Sudan
1138 
1139 # From <http://www.sunanews.net/sn13jane.html>
1140 # Sudan News Agency (2000-01-13),
1141 # also reported by Michaël De Beukelaer-Dossche via Steffen Thorsen:
1142 # Clocks will be moved ahead for 60 minutes all over the Sudan as of noon
1143 # Saturday....  This was announced Thursday by Caretaker State Minister for
1144 # Manpower Abdul-Rahman Nur-Eddin.
1145 
1146 # From Ahmed Atyya, National Telecommunications Corp. (NTC), Sudan (2017-10-17):
1147 # ... the Republic of Sudan is going to change the time zone from (GMT+3:00)
1148 # to (GMT+ 2:00) starting from Wednesday 1 November 2017.
1149 #
1150 # From Paul Eggert (2017-10-18):
1151 # A scanned copy (in Arabic) of Cabinet Resolution No. 352 for the
1152 # year 2017 can be found as an attachment in email today from Yahia
1153 # Abdalla of NTC, archived at:
1154 # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2017-October/025333.html
1155 
1156 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1157 Rule    Sudan   1970    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
1158 Rule    Sudan   1970    1985    -       Oct     15      0:00    0       -
1159 Rule    Sudan   1971    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    S
1160 Rule    Sudan   1972    1985    -       Apr     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
1161 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1162 Zone    Africa/Khartoum 2:10:08 -       LMT     1931
1163                         2:00    Sudan   CA%sT   2000 Jan 15 12:00
1164                         3:00    -       EAT     2017 Nov  1
1165                         2:00    -       CAT
1166 
1167 # South Sudan
1168 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1169 Zone    Africa/Juba     2:06:28 -       LMT     1931
1170                         2:00    Sudan   CA%sT   2000 Jan 15 12:00
1171                         3:00    -       EAT
1172 
1173 # Swaziland
1174 # See Africa/Johannesburg.
1175 
1176 # Tanzania
1177 # See Africa/Nairobi.
1178 
1179 # Togo
1180 # See Africa/Abidjan.
1181 
1182 # Tunisia
1183 
1184 # From Gwillim Law (2005-04-30):
1185 # My correspondent, Risto Nykänen, has alerted me to another adoption of DST,
1186 # this time in Tunisia.  According to Yahoo France News
1187 # <http://fr.news.yahoo.com/050426/5/4dumk.html>, in a story attributed to AP
1188 # and dated 2005-04-26, "Tunisia has decided to advance its official time by
1189 # one hour, starting on Sunday, May 1.  Henceforth, Tunisian time will be
1190 # UTC+2 instead of UTC+1.  The change will take place at 23:00 UTC next
1191 # Saturday."  (My translation)
1192 #
1193 # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-02):
1194 # La Presse, the first national daily newspaper ...
1195 # http://www.lapresse.tn/archives/archives280405/actualites/lheure.html


1257 Rule    Tunisia 1943    only    -       Oct      4       2:00   0       -
1258 Rule    Tunisia 1944    1945    -       Apr     Mon>=1        2:00   1:00    S
1259 Rule    Tunisia 1944    only    -       Oct      8       0:00   0       -
1260 Rule    Tunisia 1945    only    -       Sep     16       0:00   0       -
1261 Rule    Tunisia 1977    only    -       Apr     30       0:00s  1:00    S
1262 Rule    Tunisia 1977    only    -       Sep     24       0:00s  0       -
1263 Rule    Tunisia 1978    only    -       May      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1264 Rule    Tunisia 1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       -
1265 Rule    Tunisia 1988    only    -       Jun      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1266 Rule    Tunisia 1988    1990    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
1267 Rule    Tunisia 1989    only    -       Mar     26       0:00s  1:00    S
1268 Rule    Tunisia 1990    only    -       May      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1269 Rule    Tunisia 2005    only    -       May      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1270 Rule    Tunisia 2005    only    -       Sep     30       1:00s  0       -
1271 Rule    Tunisia 2006    2008    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
1272 Rule    Tunisia 2006    2008    -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
1273 
1274 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
1275 # more precise 0:09:21.
1276 # Shanks & Pottenger say the 1911 switch was on Mar 9; go with Howse's Mar 11.
1277 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1278 Zone    Africa/Tunis    0:40:44 -       LMT     1881 May 12
1279                         0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
1280                         1:00    Tunisia CE%sT
1281 
1282 # Uganda
1283 # See Africa/Nairobi.
1284 
1285 # Zambia
1286 # Zimbabwe
1287 # See Africa/Maputo.
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