1 #
   2 # DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   3 #
   4 # This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   5 # under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   6 # published by the Free Software Foundation.  Oracle designates this
   7 # particular file as subject to the "Classpath" exception as provided
   8 # by Oracle in the LICENSE file that accompanied this code.
   9 #
  10 # This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  11 # ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  12 # FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  13 # version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  14 # accompanied this code).
  15 #
  16 # You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  17 # 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  18 # Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  19 #
  20 # Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  21 # or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  22 # questions.
  23 #
  24 # tzdb data for Asia and environs
  25 
  26 # This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of
  27 # 2009-05-17 by Arthur David Olson.
  28 
  29 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
  30 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
  31 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
  32 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
  33 
  34 # From Paul Eggert (2018-06-19):
  35 #
  36 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
  37 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
  38 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
  39 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
  40 #
  41 # Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source
  42 # for time zone data was the International Air Transport
  43 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
  44 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
  45 # of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
  46 # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
  47 #
  48 # Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
  49 # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
  50 # I found in the UCLA library.
  51 #
  52 # For data circa 1899, a common source is:
  53 # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
  54 # https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
  55 #
  56 # For Russian data circa 1919, a source is:
  57 # Byalokoz EL. New Counting of Time in Russia since July 1, 1919.
  58 # (See the 'europe' file for a fuller citation.)
  59 #
  60 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
  61 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
  62 #
  63 # The following alphabetic abbreviations appear in these tables
  64 # (corrections are welcome):
  65 #            std  dst
  66 #            LMT        Local Mean Time
  67 #       2:00 EET  EEST  Eastern European Time
  68 #       2:00 IST  IDT   Israel
  69 #       5:30 IST        India
  70 #       7:00 WIB        west Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Barat)
  71 #       8:00 WITA       central Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Tengah)
  72 #       8:00 CST        China
  73 #       8:00 PST  PDT*  Philippine Standard Time
  74 #       8:30 KST  KDT   Korea when at +0830
  75 #       9:00 WIT        east Indonesia (Waktu Indonesia Timur)
  76 #       9:00 JST  JDT   Japan
  77 #       9:00 KST  KDT   Korea when at +09
  78 #       9:30 ACST       Australian Central Standard Time
  79 # *I invented the abbreviation PDT; see "Philippines" below.
  80 # Otherwise, these tables typically use numeric abbreviations like +03
  81 # and +0330 for integer hour and minute UT offsets.  Although earlier
  82 # editions invented alphabetic time zone abbreviations for every
  83 # offset, this did not reflect common practice.
  84 #
  85 # See the 'europe' file for Russia and Turkey in Asia.
  86 
  87 # From Guy Harris:
  88 # Incorporates data for Singapore from Robert Elz' asia 1.1, as well as
  89 # additional information from Tom Yap, Sun Microsystems Intercontinental
  90 # Technical Support (including a page from the Official Airline Guide -
  91 # Worldwide Edition).
  92 
  93 ###############################################################################
  94 
  95 # These rules are stolen from the 'europe' file.
  96 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  97 Rule    EUAsia  1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  1:00    S
  98 Rule    EUAsia  1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
  99 Rule    EUAsia  1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 100 Rule E-EurAsia  1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  0:00   1:00    -
 101 Rule E-EurAsia  1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 102 Rule E-EurAsia  1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 103 Rule RussiaAsia 1981    1984    -       Apr     1        0:00   1:00    -
 104 Rule RussiaAsia 1981    1983    -       Oct     1        0:00   0       -
 105 Rule RussiaAsia 1984    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 106 Rule RussiaAsia 1985    2010    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    -
 107 Rule RussiaAsia 1996    2010    -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 108 
 109 # Afghanistan
 110 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 111 Zone    Asia/Kabul      4:36:48 -       LMT     1890
 112                         4:00    -       +04     1945
 113                         4:30    -       +0430
 114 
 115 # Armenia
 116 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
 117 # Shanks & Pottenger have Yerevan switching to 3:00 (with Russian DST)
 118 # in spring 1991, then to 4:00 with no DST in fall 1995, then
 119 # readopting Russian DST in 1997.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger, even
 120 # when they disagree with others.  Edgar Der-Danieliantz
 121 # reported (1996-05-04) that Yerevan probably wouldn't use DST
 122 # in 1996, though it did use DST in 1995.  IATA SSIM (1991/1998) reports that
 123 # Armenia switched from 3:00 to 4:00 in 1998 and observed DST after 1991,
 124 # but started switching at 3:00s in 1998.
 125 
 126 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
 127 # While Russia abandoned DST in 2011, Armenia may choose to
 128 # follow Russia's "old" rules.
 129 
 130 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2012-02-10):
 131 # According to News Armenia, on Feb 9, 2012,
 132 # http://newsarmenia.ru/society/20120209/42609695.html
 133 #
 134 # The Armenia National Assembly adopted final reading of Amendments to the
 135 # Law "On procedure of calculation time on the territory of the Republic of
 136 # Armenia" according to which Armenia [is] abolishing Daylight Saving Time.
 137 # or
 138 # (brief)
 139 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_armenia03.html
 140 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 141 Rule Armenia    2011    only    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    -
 142 Rule Armenia    2011    only    -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 143 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 144 Zone    Asia/Yerevan    2:58:00 -       LMT     1924 May  2
 145                         3:00    -       +03     1957 Mar
 146                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
 147                         3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04 1995 Sep 24  2:00s
 148                         4:00    -       +04     1997
 149                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 2011
 150                         4:00    Armenia +04/+05
 151 
 152 # Azerbaijan
 153 
 154 # From Rustam Aliyev of the Azerbaijan Internet Forum (2005-10-23):
 155 # According to the resolution of Cabinet of Ministers, 1997
 156 # From Paul Eggert (2015-09-17): It was Resolution No. 21 (1997-03-17).
 157 # http://code.az/files/daylight_res.pdf
 158 
 159 # From Steffen Thorsen (2016-03-17):
 160 # ... the Azerbaijani Cabinet of Ministers has cancelled switching to
 161 # daylight saving time....
 162 # https://www.azernews.az/azerbaijan/94137.html
 163 # http://vestnikkavkaza.net/news/Azerbaijani-Cabinet-of-Ministers-cancels-daylight-saving-time.html
 164 # http://en.apa.az/xeber_azerbaijan_abolishes_daylight_savings_ti_240862.html
 165 
 166 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 167 Rule    Azer    1997    2015    -       Mar     lastSun  4:00   1:00    -
 168 Rule    Azer    1997    2015    -       Oct     lastSun  5:00   0       -
 169 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 170 Zone    Asia/Baku       3:19:24 -       LMT     1924 May  2
 171                         3:00    -       +03     1957 Mar
 172                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
 173                         3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04 1992 Sep lastSun  2:00s
 174                         4:00    -       +04     1996
 175                         4:00    EUAsia  +04/+05 1997
 176                         4:00    Azer    +04/+05
 177 
 178 # Bahrain
 179 # See Asia/Qatar.
 180 
 181 # Bangladesh
 182 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-05-13):
 183 # According to newspaper Asian Tribune (May 6, 2009) Bangladesh may introduce
 184 # Daylight Saving Time from June 16 to Sept 30
 185 #
 186 # Bangladesh to introduce daylight saving time likely from June 16
 187 # http://www.asiantribune.com/?q=node/17288
 188 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh02.html
 189 #
 190 # "... Bangladesh government has decided to switch daylight saving time from
 191 # June
 192 # 16 till September 30 in a bid to ensure maximum use of daylight to cope with
 193 # crippling power crisis. "
 194 #
 195 # The switch will remain in effect from June 16 to Sept 30 (2009) but if
 196 # implemented the next year, it will come in force from April 1, 2010
 197 
 198 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-06-02):
 199 # They have finally decided now, but changed the start date to midnight between
 200 # the 19th and 20th, and they have not set the end date yet.
 201 #
 202 # Some sources:
 203 # https://in.reuters.com/article/southAsiaNews/idINIndia-40017620090601
 204 # http://bdnews24.com/details.php?id=85889&cid=2
 205 #
 206 # Our wrap-up:
 207 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/bangladesh-daylight-saving-2009.html
 208 
 209 # From A. N. M. Kamrus Saadat (2009-06-15):
 210 # Finally we've got the official mail regarding DST start time where DST start
 211 # time is mentioned as Jun 19 2009, 23:00 from BTRC (Bangladesh
 212 # Telecommunication Regulatory Commission).
 213 #
 214 # No DST end date has been announced yet.
 215 
 216 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-25):
 217 # Bangladesh won't go back to Standard Time from October 1, 2009,
 218 # instead it will continue DST measure till the cabinet makes a fresh decision.
 219 #
 220 # Following report by same newspaper-"The Daily Star Friday":
 221 # "DST change awaits cabinet decision-Clock won't go back by 1-hr from Oct 1"
 222 # http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=107021
 223 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh04.html
 224 
 225 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-13):
 226 # IANS (Indo-Asian News Service) now reports:
 227 # Bangladesh has decided that the clock advanced by an hour to make
 228 # maximum use of daylight hours as an energy saving measure would
 229 # "continue for an indefinite period."
 230 #
 231 # One of many places where it is published:
 232 # http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal/business/bangladesh-to-continue-indefinitely-with-advanced-time_100259987.html
 233 
 234 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-12-24):
 235 # According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"
 236 # Bangladesh will change its clock back to Standard Time on Dec 31, 2009.
 237 #
 238 # Clock goes back 1-hr on Dec 31 night.
 239 # http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=119228
 240 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh05.html
 241 #
 242 # "...The government yesterday decided to put the clock back by one hour
 243 # on December 31 midnight and the new time will continue until March 31,
 244 # 2010 midnight. The decision came at a cabinet meeting at the Prime
 245 # Minister's Office last night..."
 246 
 247 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-22):
 248 # According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"
 249 # Cabinet cancels Daylight Saving Time
 250 # http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/latest_news.php?nid=22817
 251 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh06.html
 252 
 253 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 254 Rule    Dhaka   2009    only    -       Jun     19      23:00   1:00    -
 255 Rule    Dhaka   2009    only    -       Dec     31      24:00   0       -
 256 
 257 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 258 Zone    Asia/Dhaka      6:01:40 -       LMT     1890
 259                         5:53:20 -       HMT     1941 Oct    # Howrah Mean Time?
 260                         6:30    -       +0630   1942 May 15
 261                         5:30    -       +0530   1942 Sep
 262                         6:30    -       +0630   1951 Sep 30
 263                         6:00    -       +06     2009
 264                         6:00    Dhaka   +06/+07
 265 
 266 # Bhutan
 267 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 268 Zone    Asia/Thimphu    5:58:36 -       LMT     1947 Aug 15 # or Thimbu
 269                         5:30    -       +0530   1987 Oct
 270                         6:00    -       +06
 271 
 272 # British Indian Ocean Territory
 273 # Whitman and the 1995 CIA time zone map say 5:00, but the
 274 # 1997 and later maps say 6:00.  Assume the switch occurred in 1996.
 275 # We have no information as to when standard time was introduced;
 276 # assume it occurred in 1907, the same year as Mauritius (which
 277 # then contained the Chagos Archipelago).
 278 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 279 Zone    Indian/Chagos   4:49:40 -       LMT     1907
 280                         5:00    -       +05     1996
 281                         6:00    -       +06
 282 
 283 # Brunei
 284 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 285 Zone    Asia/Brunei     7:39:40 -       LMT     1926 Mar # Bandar Seri Begawan
 286                         7:30    -       +0730   1933
 287                         8:00    -       +08
 288 
 289 # Burma / Myanmar
 290 
 291 # Milne says 6:24:40 was the meridian of the time ball observatory at Rangoon.
 292 
 293 # From Paul Eggert (2017-04-20):
 294 # Page 27 of Reed & Low (cited for Asia/Kolkata) says "Rangoon local time is
 295 # used upon the railways and telegraphs of Burma, and is 6h. 24m. 47s. ahead
 296 # of Greenwich."  This refers to the period before Burma's transition to +0630,
 297 # a transition for which Shanks is the only source.
 298 
 299 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 300 Zone    Asia/Yangon     6:24:47 -       LMT     1880        # or Rangoon
 301                         6:24:47 -       RMT     1920        # Rangoon local time
 302                         6:30    -       +0630   1942 May
 303                         9:00    -       +09     1945 May  3
 304                         6:30    -       +0630
 305 
 306 # Cambodia
 307 # See Asia/Bangkok.
 308 
 309 
 310 # China
 311 
 312 # From Paul Eggert (2018-10-02):
 313 # The following comes from Table 1 of:
 314 # Li Yu. Research on the daylight saving movement in 1940s Shanghai.
 315 # Nanjing Journal of Social Sciences. 2014;(2):144-50.
 316 # http://oversea.cnki.net/kns55/detail.aspx?dbname=CJFD2014&filename=NJSH201402020
 317 # The table lists dates only; I am guessing 00:00 and 24:00 transition times.
 318 # Also, the table lists the planned end of DST in 1949, but the corresponding
 319 # zone line cuts this off on May 28, when the Communists took power.
 320 #
 321 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 322 Rule    Shang   1940    only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    D
 323 Rule    Shang   1940    only    -       Oct     12      24:00   0       S
 324 Rule    Shang   1941    only    -       Mar     15       0:00   1:00    D
 325 Rule    Shang   1941    only    -       Nov      1      24:00   0       S
 326 Rule    Shang   1942    only    -       Jan     31       0:00   1:00    D
 327 Rule    Shang   1945    only    -       Sep      1      24:00   0       S
 328 Rule    Shang   1946    only    -       May     15       0:00   1:00    D
 329 Rule    Shang   1946    only    -       Sep     30      24:00   0       S
 330 Rule    Shang   1947    only    -       Apr     15       0:00   1:00    D
 331 Rule    Shang   1947    only    -       Oct     31      24:00   0       S
 332 Rule    Shang   1948    1949    -       May      1       0:00   1:00    D
 333 Rule    Shang   1948    1949    -       Sep     30      24:00   0       S #plan
 334 
 335 # From Guy Harris:
 336 # People's Republic of China.  Yes, they really have only one time zone.
 337 
 338 # From Bob Devine (1988-01-28):
 339 # No they don't.  See TIME mag, 1986-02-17 p.52.  Even though
 340 # China is across 4 physical time zones, before Feb 1, 1986 only the
 341 # Peking (Beijing) time zone was recognized.  Since that date, China
 342 # has two of 'em - Peking's and Ürümqi (named after the capital of
 343 # the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region).  I don't know about DST for it.
 344 #
 345 # . . .I just deleted the DST table and this editor makes it too
 346 # painful to suck in another copy.  So, here is what I have for
 347 # DST start/end dates for Peking's time zone (info from AP):
 348 #
 349 #     1986 May 4 - Sept 14
 350 #     1987 mid-April - ??
 351 
 352 # From U. S. Naval Observatory (1989-01-19):
 353 # CHINA               8 H  AHEAD OF UTC  ALL OF CHINA, INCL TAIWAN
 354 # CHINA               9 H  AHEAD OF UTC  APR 17 - SEP 10
 355 
 356 # From Paul Eggert (2008-02-11):
 357 # Jim Mann, "A clumsy embrace for another western custom: China on daylight
 358 # time - sort of", Los Angeles Times, 1986-05-05 ... [says] that China began
 359 # observing daylight saving time in 1986.
 360 
 361 # From P Chan (2018-05-07):
 362 # The start and end time of DST in China [from 1986 on] should be 2:00
 363 # (i.e. 2:00 to 3:00 at the start and 2:00 to 1:00 at the end)....
 364 # Government notices about summer time:
 365 #
 366 # 1986-04-12 http://www.zj.gov.cn/attach/zfgb/198608.pdf p.21-22
 367 # (To establish summer time from 1986. On 4 May, set the clocks ahead one hour
 368 # at 2 am. On 14 September, set the clocks backward one hour at 2 am.)
 369 #
 370 # 1987-02-15 http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/shuju/1987/gwyb198703.pdf p.114
 371 # (Summer time in 1987 to start from 12 April until 13 September)
 372 #
 373 # 1987-09-09 http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/shuju/1987/gwyb198721.pdf p.709
 374 # (From 1988, summer time to start from 2 am of the first Sunday of mid-April
 375 # until 2 am of the first Sunday of mid-September)
 376 #
 377 # 1992-03-03 http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/shuju/1992/gwyb199205.pdf p.152
 378 # (To suspend summer time from 1992)
 379 #
 380 # The first page of People's Daily on 12 April 1988 stating that summer time
 381 # to begin on 17 April.
 382 # http://data.people.com.cn/pic/101p/1988/04/1988041201.jpg
 383 
 384 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 385 Rule    PRC     1986    only    -       May      4       2:00   1:00    D
 386 Rule    PRC     1986    1991    -       Sep     Sun>=11       2:00   0       S
 387 Rule    PRC     1987    1991    -       Apr     Sun>=11       2:00   1:00    D
 388 
 389 # From Anthony Fok (2001-12-20):
 390 # BTW, I did some research on-line and found some info regarding these five
 391 # historic timezones from some Taiwan websites.  And yes, there are official
 392 # Chinese names for these locales (before 1949).
 393 #
 394 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-07-14):
 395 # I have investigated the timezones around 1970 on the
 396 # https://www.astro.com/atlas site [with provinces and county
 397 # boundaries summarized below]....  A few other exceptions were two
 398 # counties on the Sichuan side of the Xizang-Sichuan border,
 399 # counties Dege and Baiyu which lies on the Sichuan side and are
 400 # therefore supposed to be GMT+7, Xizang region being GMT+6, but Dege
 401 # county is GMT+8 according to astro.com while Baiyu county is GMT+6
 402 # (could be true), for the moment I am assuming that those two
 403 # counties are mistakes in the astro.com data.
 404 
 405 # From Paul Eggert (2017-01-05):
 406 # Alois Treindl kindly sent me translations of the following two sources:
 407 #
 408 # (1)
 409 # Guo Qing-sheng (National Time-Service Center, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China)
 410 # Beijing Time at the Beginning of the PRC
 411 # China Historical Materials of Science and Technology
 412 # (Zhongguo ke ji shi liao, 中国科技史料). 2003;24(1):5-9.
 413 # http://oversea.cnki.net/kcms/detail/detail.aspx?filename=ZGKS200301000&dbname=CJFD2003
 414 # It gives evidence that at the beginning of the PRC, Beijing time was
 415 # officially apparent solar time!  However, Guo also says that the
 416 # evidence is dubious, as the relevant institute of astronomy had not
 417 # been taken over by the PRC yet.  It's plausible that apparent solar
 418 # time was announced but never implemented, and that people continued
 419 # to use UT+8.  As the Shanghai radio station (and I presume the
 420 # observatory) was still under control of French missionaries, it
 421 # could well have ignored any such mandate.
 422 #
 423 # (2)
 424 # Guo Qing-sheng (Shaanxi Astronomical Observatory, CAS, Xi'an 710600, China)
 425 # A Study on the Standard Time Changes for the Past 100 Years in China
 426 # [undated and unknown publication location]
 427 # It says several things:
 428 #   * The Qing dynasty used local apparent solar time throughout China.
 429 #   * The Republic of China instituted Beijing mean solar time effective
 430 #     the official calendar book of 1914.
 431 #   * The French Concession in Shanghai set up signal stations in
 432 #     French docks in the 1890s, controlled by Xujiahui (Zikawei)
 433 #     Observatory and set to local mean time.
 434 #   * "From the end of the 19th century" it changed to UT+8.
 435 #   * Chinese Customs (by then reduced to a tool of foreign powers)
 436 #     eventually standardized on this time for all ports, and it
 437 #     became used by railways as well.
 438 #   * In 1918 the Central Observatory proposed dividing China into
 439 #     five time zones (see below for details).  This caught on
 440 #     at first only in coastal areas observing UT+8.
 441 #   * During WWII all of China was in theory was at UT+7.  In practice
 442 #     this was ignored in the west, and I presume was ignored in
 443 #     Japanese-occupied territory.
 444 #   * Japanese-occupied Manchuria was at UT+9, i.e., Japan time.
 445 #   * The five-zone plan was resurrected after WWII and officially put into
 446 #     place (with some modifications) in March 1948.  It's not clear
 447 #     how well it was observed in areas under Nationalist control.
 448 #   * The People's Liberation Army used UT+8 during the civil war.
 449 #
 450 # An AP article "Shanghai Internat'l Area Little Changed" in the
 451 # Lewiston (ME) Daily Sun (1939-05-29), p 17, said "Even the time is
 452 # different - the occupied districts going by Tokyo time, an hour
 453 # ahead of that prevailing in the rest of Shanghai."  Guess that the
 454 # Xujiahui Observatory was under French control and stuck with UT +08.
 455 #
 456 # In earlier versions of this file, China had many separate Zone entries, but
 457 # this was based on what were apparently incorrect data in Shanks & Pottenger.
 458 # This has now been simplified to the two entries Asia/Shanghai and
 459 # Asia/Urumqi, with the others being links for backward compatibility.
 460 # Proposed in 1918 and theoretically in effect until 1949 (although in practice
 461 # mainly observed in coastal areas), the five zones were:
 462 #
 463 # Changbai Time ("Long-white Time", Long-white = Heilongjiang area) UT +08:30
 464 # Now part of Asia/Shanghai; its pre-1970 times are not recorded here.
 465 # Heilongjiang (except Mohe county), Jilin
 466 #
 467 # Zhongyuan Time ("Central plain Time") UT +08
 468 # Now part of Asia/Shanghai.
 469 # most of China
 470 # Milne gives 8:05:43.2 for Xujiahui Observatory time; round to nearest.
 471 # Guo says Shanghai switched to UT +08 "from the end of the 19th century".
 472 #
 473 # Long-shu Time (probably as Long and Shu were two names of the area) UT +07
 474 # Now part of Asia/Shanghai; its pre-1970 times are not recorded here.
 475 # Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Ningxia, Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Yunnan;
 476 # most of Gansu; west Inner Mongolia; east Qinghai; and the Guangdong
 477 # counties Deqing, Enping, Kaiping, Luoding, Taishan, Xinxing,
 478 # Yangchun, Yangjiang, Yu'nan, and Yunfu.
 479 #
 480 # Xin-zang Time ("Xinjiang-Tibet Time") UT +06
 481 # This region is now part of either Asia/Urumqi or Asia/Shanghai with
 482 # current boundaries uncertain; times before 1970 for areas that
 483 # disagree with Ürümqi or Shanghai are not recorded here.
 484 # The Gansu counties Aksay, Anxi, Dunhuang, Subei; west Qinghai;
 485 # the Guangdong counties  Xuwen, Haikang, Suixi, Lianjiang,
 486 # Zhanjiang, Wuchuan, Huazhou, Gaozhou, Maoming, Dianbai, and Xinyi;
 487 # east Tibet, including Lhasa, Chamdo, Shigaise, Jimsar, Shawan and Hutubi;
 488 # east Xinjiang, including Ürümqi, Turpan, Karamay, Korla, Minfeng, Jinghe,
 489 # Wusu, Qiemo, Xinyan, Wulanwusu, Jinghe, Yumin, Tacheng, Tuoli, Emin,
 490 # Shihezi, Changji, Yanqi, Heshuo, Tuokexun, Tulufan, Shanshan, Hami,
 491 # Fukang, Kuitun, Kumukuli, Miquan, Qitai, and Turfan.
 492 #
 493 # Kunlun Time UT +05:30
 494 # This region is now in the same status as Xin-zang Time (see above).
 495 # West Tibet, including Pulan, Aheqi, Shufu, Shule;
 496 # West Xinjiang, including Aksu, Atushi, Yining, Hetian, Cele, Luopu, Nileke,
 497 # Zhaosu, Tekesi, Gongliu, Chabuchaer, Huocheng, Bole, Pishan, Suiding,
 498 # and Yarkand.
 499 
 500 # From Luther Ma (2009-10-17):
 501 # Almost all (>99.9%) ethnic Chinese (properly ethnic Han) living in
 502 # Xinjiang use Chinese Standard Time. Some are aware of Xinjiang time,
 503 # but have no need of it. All planes, trains, and schools function on
 504 # what is called "Beijing time." When Han make an appointment in Chinese
 505 # they implicitly use Beijing time.
 506 #
 507 # On the other hand, ethnic Uyghurs, who make up about half the
 508 # population of Xinjiang, typically use "Xinjiang time" which is two
 509 # hours behind Beijing time, or UT +06. The government of the Xinjiang
 510 # Uyghur Autonomous Region, (XAUR, or just Xinjiang for short) as well as
 511 # local governments such as the Ürümqi city government use both times in
 512 # publications, referring to what is popularly called Xinjiang time as
 513 # "Ürümqi time." When Uyghurs make an appointment in the Uyghur language
 514 # they almost invariably use Xinjiang time.
 515 #
 516 # (Their ethnic Han compatriots would typically have no clue of its
 517 # widespread use, however, because so extremely few of them are fluent in
 518 # Uyghur, comparable to the number of Anglo-Americans fluent in Navajo.)
 519 #
 520 # (...As with the rest of China there was a brief interval ending in 1990
 521 # or 1991 when summer time was in use.  The confusion was severe, with
 522 # the province not having dual times but four times in use at the same
 523 # time. Some areas remained on standard Xinjiang time or Beijing time and
 524 # others moving their clocks ahead.)
 525 
 526 # From Luther Ma (2009-11-19):
 527 # With the risk of being redundant to previous answers these are the most common
 528 # English "transliterations" (w/o using non-English symbols):
 529 #
 530 # 1. Wulumuqi...
 531 # 2. Kashi...
 532 # 3. Urumqi...
 533 # 4. Kashgar...
 534 # ...
 535 # 5. It seems that Uyghurs in Ürümqi has been using Xinjiang since at least the
 536 # 1960's. I know of one Han, now over 50, who grew up in the surrounding
 537 # countryside and used Xinjiang time as a child.
 538 #
 539 # 6. Likewise for Kashgar and the rest of south Xinjiang I don't know of any
 540 # start date for Xinjiang time.
 541 #
 542 # Without having access to local historical records, nor the ability to legally
 543 # publish them, I would go with October 1, 1949, when Xinjiang became the Uyghur
 544 # Autonomous Region under the PRC. (Before that Uyghurs, of course, would also
 545 # not be using Beijing time, but some local time.)
 546 
 547 # From David Cochrane (2014-03-26):
 548 # Just a confirmation that Ürümqi time was implemented in Ürümqi on 1 Feb 1986:
 549 # https://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,960684,00.html
 550 
 551 # From Luther Ma (2014-04-22):
 552 # I have interviewed numerous people of various nationalities and from
 553 # different localities in Xinjiang and can confirm the information in Guo's
 554 # report regarding Xinjiang, as well as the Time article reference by David
 555 # Cochrane.  Whether officially recognized or not (and both are officially
 556 # recognized), two separate times have been in use in Xinjiang since at least
 557 # the Cultural Revolution: Xinjiang Time (XJT), aka Ürümqi Time or local time;
 558 # and Beijing Time.  There is no confusion in Xinjiang as to which name refers
 559 # to which time. Both are widely used in the province, although in some
 560 # population groups might be use one to the exclusion of the other.  The only
 561 # problem is that computers and smart phones list Ürümqi (or Kashgar) as
 562 # having the same time as Beijing.
 563 
 564 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
 565 # In the early days of the PRC, Tibet was given its own time zone (UT +06)
 566 # but this was withdrawn in 1959 and never reinstated; see Tubten Khétsun,
 567 # Memories of life in Lhasa under Chinese Rule, Columbia U Press, ISBN
 568 # 978-0231142861 (2008), translator's introduction by Matthew Akester, p x.
 569 # As this is before our 1970 cutoff, Tibet doesn't need a separate zone.
 570 #
 571 # Xinjiang Time is well-documented as being officially recognized.  E.g., see
 572 # "The Working-Calendar for The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Government"
 573 # <http://www.sinkiang.gov.cn/service/ourworking/> (2014-04-22).
 574 # Unfortunately, we have no good records of time in Xinjiang before 1986.
 575 # During the 20th century parts of Xinjiang were ruled by the Qing dynasty,
 576 # the Republic of China, various warlords, the First and Second East Turkestan
 577 # Republics, the Soviet Union, the Kuomintang, and the People's Republic of
 578 # China, and tracking down all these organizations' timekeeping rules would be
 579 # quite a trick.  Approximate this lost history by a transition from LMT to
 580 # UT +06 at the start of 1928, the year of accession of the warlord Jin Shuren,
 581 # which happens to be the date given by Shanks & Pottenger (no doubt as a
 582 # guess) as the transition from LMT.  Ignore the usage of +08 before
 583 # 1986-02-01 under the theory that the transition date to +08 is unknown and
 584 # that the sort of users who prefer Asia/Urumqi now typically ignored the
 585 # +08 mandate back then.
 586 
 587 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 588 # Beijing time, used throughout China; represented by Shanghai.
 589 Zone    Asia/Shanghai   8:05:43 -       LMT     1901
 590                         8:00    Shang   C%sT    1949 May 28
 591                         8:00    PRC     C%sT
 592 # Xinjiang time, used by many in western China; represented by Ürümqi / Ürümchi
 593 # / Wulumuqi.  (Please use Asia/Shanghai if you prefer Beijing time.)
 594 Zone    Asia/Urumqi     5:50:20 -       LMT     1928
 595                         6:00    -       +06
 596 
 597 
 598 # Hong Kong (Xianggang)
 599 
 600 # Milne gives 7:36:41.7; round this.
 601 
 602 # From Lee Yiu Chung (2009-10-24):
 603 # I found there are some mistakes for the...DST rule for Hong
 604 # Kong. [According] to the DST record from Hong Kong Observatory (actually,
 605 # it is not [an] observatory, but the official meteorological agency of HK,
 606 # and also serves as the official timing agency), there are some missing
 607 # and incorrect rules. Although the exact switch over time is missing, I
 608 # think 3:30 is correct. The official DST record for Hong Kong can be
 609 # obtained from
 610 # http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
 611 
 612 # From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
 613 # According to Singaporean newspaper
 614 # http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepresswk19041102-1.2.37
 615 # the day that Hong Kong start using GMT+8 should be Oct 30, 1904.
 616 #
 617 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-17):
 618 # Hong Kong had a time ball near the Marine Police Station, Tsim Sha Tsui.
 619 # "The ball was raised manually each day and dropped at exactly 1pm
 620 # (except on Sundays and Government holidays)."
 621 # Dyson AD. From Time Ball to Atomic Clock. Hong Kong Government. 1983.
 622 # <https://www.hko.gov.hk/publica/gen_pub/timeball_atomic_clock.pdf>
 623 # "From 1904 October 30 the time-ball at Hong Kong has been dropped by order
 624 # of the Governor of the Colony at 17h 0m 0s G.M.T., which is 23m 18s.14 in
 625 # advance of 1h 0m 0s of Hong Kong mean time."
 626 # Hollis HP. Universal Time, Longitudes, and Geodesy. Mon Not R Astron Soc.
 627 # 1905-02-10;65(4):405-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/65.4.382
 628 #
 629 # From Joseph Myers (2018-11-18):
 630 # An astronomer before 1925 referring to GMT would have been using the old
 631 # astronomical convention where the day started at noon, not midnight.
 632 #
 633 # From Steve Allen (2018-11-17):
 634 # Meteorological Observations made at the Hongkong Observatory in the year 1904
 635 # page 4 <https://books.google.com/books?id=kgw5AQAAMAAJ&pg=RA4-PA4>
 636 # ... the log of drop times in Table II shows that on Sunday 1904-10-30 the
 637 # ball was dropped.  So that looks like a special case drop for the sake
 638 # of broadcasting the new local time.
 639 #
 640 # From Phake Nick (2018-11-18):
 641 # According to The Hong Kong Weekly Press, 1904-10-29, p.324, the
 642 # governor of Hong Kong at the time stated that "We are further desired to
 643 # make it known that the change will be effected by firing the gun and by the
 644 # dropping of the Ball at 23min. 18sec. before one."
 645 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
 646 # See <https://mmis.hkpl.gov.hk> for this; unfortunately Flash is required.
 647 
 648 # From Phake Nick (2018-10-26):
 649 # I went to check microfilm records stored at Hong Kong Public Library....
 650 # on September 30 1941, according to Ta Kung Pao (Hong Kong edition), it was
 651 # stated that fallback would occur on the next day (the 1st)'s "03:00 am (Hong
 652 # Kong Time 04:00 am)" and the clock will fall back for a half hour. (03:00
 653 # probably refer to the time commonly used in mainland China at the time given
 654 # the paper's background) ... the sunrise/sunset time given by South China
 655 # Morning Post for October 1st was indeed moved by half an hour compares to
 656 # before.  After that, in December, the battle to capture Hong Kong started and
 657 # the library doesn't seems to have any record stored about press during that
 658 # period of time.  Some media resumed publication soon after that within the
 659 # same month, but there were not much information about time there.  Later they
 660 # started including a radio program guide when they restored radio service,
 661 # explicitly mentioning it use Tokyo standard time, and later added a note
 662 # saying it's half an hour ahead of the old Hong Kong standard time, and it
 663 # also seems to indicate that Hong Kong was not using GMT+8 when it was
 664 # captured by Japan.
 665 #
 666 # Image of related sections on newspaper:
 667 # * 1941-09-30, Ta Kung Pao (Hong Kong), "Winter Time start tomorrow".
 668 #   https://i.imgur.com/6waY51Z.jpg (Chinese)
 669 # * 1941-09-29, South China Morning Post, Information on sunrise/sunset
 670 #   time and other things for September 30 and October 1.
 671 #   https://i.imgur.com/kCiUR78.jpg
 672 # * 1942-02-05. The Hong Kong News, Radio Program Guide.
 673 #   https://i.imgur.com/eVvDMzS.jpg
 674 # * 1941-06-14. Hong Kong Daily Press, Daylight Saving from 3am Tomorrow.
 675 #   https://i.imgur.com/05KkvtC.png
 676 # * 1941-09-30, Hong Kong Daily Press, Winter Time Warning.
 677 #   https://i.imgur.com/dge4kFJ.png
 678 
 679 # From P Chan (2018-12-31):
 680 # * According to the Hong Kong Daylight-Saving Regulations, 1941, the
 681 #   1941 spring-forward transition was at 03:00.
 682 #       http://sunzi.lib.hku.hk/hkgro/view/g1941/304271.pdf
 683 #       http://sunzi.lib.hku.hk/hkgro/view/g1941/305516.pdf
 684 # * According to some articles from South China Morning Post, +08 was
 685 #   resumed on 1945-11-18 at 02:00.
 686 #       https://i.imgur.com/M2IsZ3c.png
 687 #       https://i.imgur.com/iOPqrVo.png
 688 #       https://i.imgur.com/fffcGDs.png
 689 # * Some newspapers ... said the 1946 spring-forward transition was on
 690 #   04-21 at 00:00.  The Kung Sheung Evening News 1946-04-20 (Chinese)
 691 #       https://i.imgur.com/ZSzent0.png
 692 #       https://mmis.hkpl.gov.hk///c/portal/cover?c=QF757YsWv5%2FH7zGe%2FKF%2BFLYsuqGhRBfe p.4
 693 #   The Kung Sheung Daily News 1946-04-21 (Chinese)
 694 #       https://i.imgur.com/7ecmRlcm.png
 695 #       https://mmis.hkpl.gov.hk///c/portal/cover?c=QF757YsWv5%2BQBGt1%2BwUj5qG2GqtwR3Wh p.4
 696 # * According to the Summer Time Ordinance (1946), the fallback
 697 #   transitions between 1946 and 1952 were at 03:30 Standard Time (+08)
 698 #       http://oelawhk.lib.hku.hk/archive/files/bb74b06a74d5294620a15de560ab33c6.pdf
 699 # * Some other laws and regulations related to DST from 1953 to 1979
 700 #   Summer Time Ordinance 1953
 701 #       https://i.imgur.com/IOlJMav.jpg
 702 #   Summer Time (Amendment) Ordinance 1965
 703 #       https://i.imgur.com/8rofeLa.jpg
 704 #   Interpretation and General Clauses Ordinance (1966)
 705 #       https://i.imgur.com/joy3msj.jpg
 706 #   Emergency (Summer Time) Regulation 1973 <https://i.imgur.com/OpRWrKz.jpg>
 707 #   Interpretation and General Clauses (Amendment) Ordinance 1977
 708 #       https://i.imgur.com/RaNqnc4.jpg
 709 #   Resolution of the Legislative Council passed on 9 May 1979
 710 #       https://www.legco.gov.hk/yr78-79/english/lc_sitg/hansard/h790509.pdf#page=39
 711 
 712 # From Paul Eggert (2019-05-31):
 713 # Here are the dates given at
 714 # https://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
 715 # as of 2014-06-19:
 716 # Year        Period
 717 # 1941        15 Jun to 30 Sep
 718 # 1942        Whole year
 719 # 1943        Whole year
 720 # 1944        Whole year
 721 # 1945        Whole year
 722 # 1946        20 Apr to 1 Dec
 723 # 1947        13 Apr to 30 Nov
 724 # 1948        2 May to 31 Oct
 725 # 1949        3 Apr to 30 Oct
 726 # 1950        2 Apr to 29 Oct
 727 # 1951        1 Apr to 28 Oct
 728 # 1952        6 Apr to 2 Nov
 729 # 1953        5 Apr to 1 Nov
 730 # 1954        21 Mar to 31 Oct
 731 # 1955        20 Mar to 6 Nov
 732 # 1956        18 Mar to 4 Nov
 733 # 1957        24 Mar to 3 Nov
 734 # 1958        23 Mar to 2 Nov
 735 # 1959        22 Mar to 1 Nov
 736 # 1960        20 Mar to 6 Nov
 737 # 1961        19 Mar to 5 Nov
 738 # 1962        18 Mar to 4 Nov
 739 # 1963        24 Mar to 3 Nov
 740 # 1964        22 Mar to 1 Nov
 741 # 1965        18 Apr to 17 Oct
 742 # 1966        17 Apr to 16 Oct
 743 # 1967        16 Apr to 22 Oct
 744 # 1968        21 Apr to 20 Oct
 745 # 1969        20 Apr to 19 Oct
 746 # 1970        19 Apr to 18 Oct
 747 # 1971        18 Apr to 17 Oct
 748 # 1972        16 Apr to 22 Oct
 749 # 1973        22 Apr to 21 Oct
 750 # 1973/74     30 Dec 73 to 20 Oct 74
 751 # 1975        20 Apr to 19 Oct
 752 # 1976        18 Apr to 17 Oct
 753 # 1977        Nil
 754 # 1978        Nil
 755 # 1979        13 May to 21 Oct
 756 # 1980 to Now Nil
 757 # The page does not give times of day for transitions,
 758 # or dates for the 1942 and 1945 transitions.
 759 # The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began 1941-12-25.
 760 
 761 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 762 Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Apr     21      0:00    1:00    S
 763 Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Dec     1       3:30s   0       -
 764 Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Apr     13      3:30s   1:00    S
 765 Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Nov     30      3:30s   0       -
 766 Rule    HK      1948    only    -       May     2       3:30s   1:00    S
 767 Rule    HK      1948    1952    -       Oct     Sun>=28      3:30s   0       -
 768 Rule    HK      1949    1953    -       Apr     Sun>=1       3:30    1:00    S
 769 Rule    HK      1953    1964    -       Oct     Sun>=31      3:30    0       -
 770 Rule    HK      1954    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=18      3:30    1:00    S
 771 Rule    HK      1965    1976    -       Apr     Sun>=16      3:30    1:00    S
 772 Rule    HK      1965    1976    -       Oct     Sun>=16      3:30    0       -
 773 Rule    HK      1973    only    -       Dec     30      3:30    1:00    S
 774 Rule    HK      1979    only    -       May     13      3:30    1:00    S
 775 Rule    HK      1979    only    -       Oct     21      3:30    0       -
 776 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 777 Zone    Asia/Hong_Kong  7:36:42 -       LMT     1904 Oct 30  0:36:42
 778                         8:00    -       HKT     1941 Jun 15  3:00
 779                         8:00    1:00    HKST    1941 Oct  1  4:00
 780                         8:30    -       HKT     1941 Dec 25
 781                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Nov 18  2:00
 782                         8:00    HK      HK%sT
 783 
 784 ###############################################################################
 785 
 786 # Taiwan
 787 
 788 # From smallufo (2010-04-03):
 789 # According to Taiwan's CWB [Central Weather Bureau],
 790 # http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm
 791 # Taipei has DST in 1979 between July 1st and Sep 30.
 792 
 793 # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
 794 # On Dec 28, 1895, the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of
 795 # Meiji Year 28 "The clause about standard time", mentioned that
 796 # Taiwan and Penghu Islands, as well as Yaeyama and Miyako Islands
 797 # (both in Okinawa) adopt the Western Standard Time which is based on
 798 # 120E. The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896. The original text can be
 799 # found on Wikisource:
 800 # https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
 801 # ... This could be the first adoption of time zone in Taiwan, because
 802 # during the Qing Dynasty, it seems that there was no time zone
 803 # declared officially.
 804 #
 805 # Later, in the beginning of World War II, on Sep 25, 1937, the Showa
 806 # Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 "The clause of
 807 # revision in the ordinance No. 167 of Meiji year 28 about standard
 808 # time", in which abolished the adoption of Western Standard Time in
 809 # western islands (listed above), which means the whole Japan
 810 # territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan Central Time
 811 # (UT+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937. The original text can
 812 # be found on Wikisource:
 813 # https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件
 814 #
 815 # That is, the time zone of Taipei switched to UT+9 on Oct 1, 1937.
 816 
 817 # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-02):
 818 # I've found more evidence about when the time zone was switched from UT+9
 819 # back to UT+8 after WW2.  I believe it was on Sep 21, 1945.  In a document
 820 # during Japanese era [1] in which the officer told the staff to change time
 821 # zone back to Western Standard Time (UT+8) on Sep 21.  And in another
 822 # history page of National Cheng Kung University [2], on Sep 21 there is a
 823 # note "from today, switch back to Western Standard Time".  From these two
 824 # materials, I believe that the time zone change happened on Sep 21.  And
 825 # today I have found another monthly journal called "The Astronomical Herald"
 826 # from The Astronomical Society of Japan [3] in which it mentioned the fact
 827 # that:
 828 #
 829 # 1. Standard Time of the Country (Japan) was adopted on Jan 1, 1888, using
 830 # the time at 135E (GMT+9)
 831 #
 832 # 2. Standard Time of the Country was renamed to Central Standard Time, on Jan
 833 # 1, 1898, and on the same day, the new territories Taiwan and Penghu islands,
 834 # as well as Yaeyama and Miyako islands, adopted a new time zone called
 835 # Western Standard Time, which is in GMT+8.
 836 #
 837 # 3. Western Standard Time was deprecated on Sep 30, 1937. From then all the
 838 # territories of Japan adopted the same time zone, which is Central Standard
 839 # Time.
 840 #
 841 # [1] Academica Historica, Taiwan:
 842 # http://163.29.208.22:8080/govsaleShowImage/connect_img.php?s=00101738900090036&e=00101738900090037
 843 # [2] Nat'l Cheng Kung University 70th Anniversary Special Site:
 844 # http://www.ncku.edu.tw/~ncku70/menu/001/01_01.htm
 845 # [3] Yukio Niimi, The Standard Time in Japan (1997), p.475:
 846 # http://www.asj.or.jp/geppou/archive_open/1997/pdf/19971001c.pdf
 847 
 848 # Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-03):
 849 # I finally have found the real official gazette about changing back to
 850 # Western Standard Time on Sep 21 in Taiwan.  It's Taiwan Governor-General
 851 # Bulletin No. 386 in Showa 20 years (1945), published on Sep 19, 1945. [1] ...
 852 # [It] abolishes Bulletin No. 207 in Showa 12 years (1937), which is a local
 853 # bulletin in Taiwan for that Ordinance No. 529. It also mentioned that 1am on
 854 # Sep 21, 1945 will be 12am on Sep 21.  I think this bulletin is much more
 855 # official than the one I mentioned in my first mail, because it's from the
 856 # top-level government in Taiwan. If you're going to quote any resource, this
 857 # would be a good one.
 858 # [1] Taiwan Governor-General Gazette, No. 1018, Sep 19, 1945:
 859 # http://db2.th.gov.tw/db2/view/viewImg.php?imgcode=0072031018a&num=19&bgn=019&end=019&otherImg=&type=gener
 860 
 861 # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2014-07-02):
 862 # In 1946, DST in Taiwan was from May 15 and ended on Sep 30. The info from
 863 # Central Weather Bureau website was not correct.
 864 #
 865 # Original Bulletin:
 866 # http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=03502F0AKM1AF
 867 # http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=0350300AKM1B0 (cont.)
 868 #
 869 # In 1947, DST in Taiwan was expanded to Oct 31. There is a backup of that
 870 # telegram announcement from Taiwan Province Government:
 871 #
 872 # http://subtpg.tpg.gov.tw/og/image2.asp?f=0360310AKZ431
 873 #
 874 # Here is a brief translation:
 875 #
 876 #   The Summer Time this year is adopted from midnight Apr 15 until Sep 20
 877 #   midnight. To save (energy?) consumption, we're expanding Summer Time
 878 #   adoption till Oct 31 midnight.
 879 #
 880 # The Central Weather Bureau website didn't mention that, however it can
 881 # be found from historical government announcement database.
 882 
 883 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-03):
 884 # As per Yu-Cheng Chuang, say that Taiwan was at UT +09 from 1937-10-01
 885 # until 1945-09-21 at 01:00, overriding Shanks & Pottenger.
 886 # Likewise, use Yu-Cheng Chuang's data for DST in Taiwan.
 887 
 888 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 889 Rule    Taiwan  1946    only    -       May     15      0:00    1:00    D
 890 Rule    Taiwan  1946    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 891 Rule    Taiwan  1947    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    D
 892 Rule    Taiwan  1947    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       S
 893 Rule    Taiwan  1948    1951    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    D
 894 Rule    Taiwan  1948    1951    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 895 Rule    Taiwan  1952    only    -       Mar     1       0:00    1:00    D
 896 Rule    Taiwan  1952    1954    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       S
 897 Rule    Taiwan  1953    1959    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    D
 898 Rule    Taiwan  1955    1961    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 899 Rule    Taiwan  1960    1961    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    D
 900 Rule    Taiwan  1974    1975    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    D
 901 Rule    Taiwan  1974    1975    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 902 Rule    Taiwan  1979    only    -       Jul     1       0:00    1:00    D
 903 Rule    Taiwan  1979    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 904 
 905 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 906 # Taipei or Taibei or T'ai-pei
 907 Zone    Asia/Taipei     8:06:00 -       LMT     1896 Jan  1
 908                         8:00    -       CST     1937 Oct  1
 909                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 21  1:00
 910                         8:00    Taiwan  C%sT
 911 
 912 # Macau (Macao, Aomen)
 913 #
 914 # From P Chan (2018-05-10):
 915 # * LegisMac
 916 #   http://legismac.safp.gov.mo/legismac/descqry/Descqry.jsf?lang=pt
 917 #   A database for searching titles of legal documents of Macau in
 918 #   Chinese and Portuguese.  The term "HORÁRIO DE VERÃO" can be used for
 919 #   searching decrees about summer time.
 920 # * Archives of Macao
 921 #   http://www.archives.gov.mo/en/bo/
 922 #   It contains images of old official gazettes.
 923 # * The Macao Meteorological and Geophysical Bureau have a page listing the
 924 #   summer time history.  But it is not complete and has some mistakes.
 925 #   http://www.smg.gov.mo/smg/geophysics/e_t_Summer%20Time.htm
 926 # Macau adopted GMT+8 on 30 Oct 1904 to follow Hong Kong.  Clocks were
 927 # advanced by 25 minutes and 50 seconds.  Which means the LMT used was
 928 # +7:34:10.  As stated in the "Portaria No. 204" dated 21 October 1904
 929 # and published in the Official Gazette on 29 October 1904.
 930 # http://igallery.icm.gov.mo/Images/Archives/BO/MO_AH_PUB_BO_1904_10/MO_AH_PUB_BO_1904_10_00025_Grey.JPG
 931 #
 932 # Therefore the 1911 decree of Portugal did not change time in Macau.
 933 #
 934 # From LegisMac, here is a list of decrees that changed the time ...
 935 # [Decree Gazette-no. date; titles omitted in this quotation]
 936 #       DIL 732 BOCM 51 1941.12.20
 937 #       DIL 764 BOCM 9S 1942.04.30
 938 #       DIL 781 BOCM 21 1942.10.10
 939 #       PT 3434 BOCM 8S 1943.04.17
 940 #       PT 3504 BOCM 20 1943.09.25
 941 #       PT 3843 BOCM 39 1945.09.29
 942 #       PT 3961 BOCM 17 1946.04.27
 943 #       PT 4026 BOCM 39 1946.09.28
 944 #       PT 4153 BOCM 16 1947.04.10
 945 #       PT 4271 BOCM 48 1947.11.29
 946 #       PT 4374 BOCM 18 1948.05.01
 947 #       PT 4465 BOCM 44 1948.10.30
 948 #       PT 4590 BOCM 14 1949.04.02
 949 #       PT 4666 BOCM 44 1949.10.29
 950 #       PT 4771 BOCM 12 1950.03.25
 951 #       PT 4838 BOCM 43 1950.10.28
 952 #       PT 4946 BOCM 12 1951.03.24
 953 #       PT 5025 BO 43 1951.10.27
 954 #       PT 5149 BO 14 1952.04.05
 955 #       PT 5251 BO 43 1952.10.25
 956 #       PT 5366 BO 13 1953.03.28
 957 #       PT 5444 BO 44 1953.10.31
 958 #       PT 5540 BO 12 1954.03.20
 959 #       PT 5589 BO 44 1954.10.30
 960 #       PT 5676 BO 12 1955.03.19
 961 #       PT 5739 BO 45 1955.11.05
 962 #       PT 5823 BO 11 1956.03.17
 963 #       PT 5891 BO 44 1956.11.03
 964 #       PT 5981 BO 12 1957.03.23
 965 #       PT 6064 BO 43 1957.10.26
 966 #       PT 6172 BO 12 1958.03.22
 967 #       PT 6243 BO 43 1958.10.25
 968 #       PT 6341 BO 12 1959.03.21
 969 #       PT 6411 BO 43 1959.10.24
 970 #       PT 6514 BO 11 1960.03.12
 971 #       PT 6584 BO 44 1960.10.29
 972 #       PT 6721 BO 10 1961.03.11
 973 #       PT 6815 BO 43 1961.10.28
 974 #       PT 6947 BO 10 1962.03.10
 975 #       PT 7080 BO 43 1962.10.27
 976 #       PT 7218 BO 12 1963.03.23
 977 #       PT 7340 BO 43 1963.10.26
 978 #       PT 7491 BO 11 1964.03.14
 979 #       PT 7664 BO 43 1964.10.24
 980 #       PT 7846 BO 15 1965.04.10
 981 #       PT 7979 BO 42 1965.10.16
 982 #       PT 8146 BO 15 1966.04.09
 983 #       PT 8252 BO 41 1966.10.08
 984 #       PT 8429 BO 15 1967.04.15
 985 #       PT 8540 BO 41 1967.10.14
 986 #       PT 8735 BO 15 1968.04.13
 987 #       PT 8860 BO 41 1968.10.12
 988 #       PT 9035 BO 16 1969.04.19
 989 #       PT 9156 BO 42 1969.10.18
 990 #       PT 9328 BO 15 1970.04.11
 991 #       PT 9418 BO 41 1970.10.10
 992 #       PT 9587 BO 14 1971.04.03
 993 #       PT 9702 BO 41 1971.10.09
 994 #       PT 38-A/72 BO 14 1972.04.01
 995 #       PT 126-A/72 BO 41 1972.10.07
 996 #       PT 61/73 BO 14 1973.04.07
 997 #       PT 182/73 BO 40 1973.10.06
 998 #       PT 282/73 BO 51 1973.12.22
 999 #       PT 177/74 BO 41 1974.10.12
1000 #       PT 51/75 BO 15 1975.04.12
1001 #       PT 173/75 BO 41 1975.10.11
1002 #       PT 67/76/M BO 14 1976.04.03
1003 #       PT 169/76/M BO 41 1976.10.09
1004 #       PT 78/79/M BO 19 1979.05.12
1005 #       PT 166/79/M BO 42 1979.10.20
1006 # Note that DIL 732 does not belong to "HORÁRIO DE VERÃO" according to
1007 # LegisMac.... Note that between 1942 and 1945, the time switched
1008 # between GMT+9 and GMT+10.  Also in 1965 and 1965 the DST ended at 2:30am.
1009 
1010 # From Paul Eggert (2018-05-10):
1011 # The 1904 decree says that Macau changed from the meridian of
1012 # Fortaleza do Monte, presumably the basis for the 7:34:10 for LMT.
1013 
1014 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1015 Rule    Macau   1942    1943    -       Apr     30      23:00   1:00    -
1016 Rule    Macau   1942    only    -       Nov     17      23:00   0       -
1017 Rule    Macau   1943    only    -       Sep     30      23:00   0       S
1018 Rule    Macau   1946    only    -       Apr     30      23:00s  1:00    D
1019 Rule    Macau   1946    only    -       Sep     30      23:00s  0       S
1020 Rule    Macau   1947    only    -       Apr     19      23:00s  1:00    D
1021 Rule    Macau   1947    only    -       Nov     30      23:00s  0       S
1022 Rule    Macau   1948    only    -       May      2      23:00s  1:00    D
1023 Rule    Macau   1948    only    -       Oct     31      23:00s  0       S
1024 Rule    Macau   1949    1950    -       Apr     Sat>=1       23:00s  1:00    D
1025 Rule    Macau   1949    1950    -       Oct     lastSat 23:00s  0       S
1026 Rule    Macau   1951    only    -       Mar     31      23:00s  1:00    D
1027 Rule    Macau   1951    only    -       Oct     28      23:00s  0       S
1028 Rule    Macau   1952    1953    -       Apr     Sat>=1       23:00s  1:00    D
1029 Rule    Macau   1952    only    -       Nov      1      23:00s  0       S
1030 Rule    Macau   1953    1954    -       Oct     lastSat 23:00s  0       S
1031 Rule    Macau   1954    1956    -       Mar     Sat>=17      23:00s  1:00    D
1032 Rule    Macau   1955    only    -       Nov      5      23:00s  0       S
1033 Rule    Macau   1956    1964    -       Nov     Sun>=1       03:30   0       S
1034 Rule    Macau   1957    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=18      03:30   1:00    D
1035 Rule    Macau   1965    1973    -       Apr     Sun>=16      03:30   1:00    D
1036 Rule    Macau   1965    1966    -       Oct     Sun>=16      02:30   0       S
1037 Rule    Macau   1967    1976    -       Oct     Sun>=16      03:30   0       S
1038 Rule    Macau   1973    only    -       Dec     30      03:30   1:00    D
1039 Rule    Macau   1975    1976    -       Apr     Sun>=16      03:30   1:00    D
1040 Rule    Macau   1979    only    -       May     13      03:30   1:00    D
1041 Rule    Macau   1979    only    -       Oct     Sun>=16      03:30   0       S
1042 
1043 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1044 Zone    Asia/Macau      7:34:10 -       LMT     1904 Oct 30
1045                         8:00    -       CST     1941 Dec 21 23:00
1046                         9:00    Macau   +09/+10 1945 Sep 30 24:00
1047                         8:00    Macau   C%sT
1048 
1049 
1050 ###############################################################################
1051 
1052 # Cyprus
1053 
1054 # Milne says the Eastern Telegraph Company used 2:14:00.  Stick with LMT.
1055 # IATA SSIM (1998-09) has Cyprus using EU rules for the first time.
1056 
1057 # From Paul Eggert (2016-09-09):
1058 # Yesterday's Cyprus Mail reports that Northern Cyprus followed Turkey's
1059 # lead and switched from +02/+03 to +03 year-round.
1060 # http://cyprus-mail.com/2016/09/08/two-time-zones-cyprus-turkey-will-not-turn-clocks-back-next-month/
1061 #
1062 # From Even Scharning (2016-10-31):
1063 # Looks like the time zone split in Cyprus went through last night.
1064 # http://cyprus-mail.com/2016/10/30/cyprus-new-division-two-time-zones-now-reality/
1065 
1066 # From Paul Eggert (2017-10-18):
1067 # Northern Cyprus will reinstate winter time on October 29, thus
1068 # staying in sync with the rest of Cyprus.  See: Anastasiou A.
1069 # Cyprus to remain united in time.  Cyprus Mail 2017-10-17.
1070 # https://cyprus-mail.com/2017/10/17/cyprus-remain-united-time/
1071 
1072 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1073 Rule    Cyprus  1975    only    -       Apr     13      0:00    1:00    S
1074 Rule    Cyprus  1975    only    -       Oct     12      0:00    0       -
1075 Rule    Cyprus  1976    only    -       May     15      0:00    1:00    S
1076 Rule    Cyprus  1976    only    -       Oct     11      0:00    0       -
1077 Rule    Cyprus  1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    S
1078 Rule    Cyprus  1977    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    0       -
1079 Rule    Cyprus  1978    only    -       Oct     2       0:00    0       -
1080 Rule    Cyprus  1979    1997    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1081 Rule    Cyprus  1981    1998    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
1082 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1083 Zone    Asia/Nicosia    2:13:28 -       LMT     1921 Nov 14
1084                         2:00    Cyprus  EE%sT   1998 Sep
1085                         2:00    EUAsia  EE%sT
1086 Zone    Asia/Famagusta  2:15:48 -       LMT     1921 Nov 14
1087                         2:00    Cyprus  EE%sT   1998 Sep
1088                         2:00    EUAsia  EE%sT   2016 Sep  8
1089                         3:00    -       +03     2017 Oct 29 1:00u
1090                         2:00    EUAsia  EE%sT
1091 
1092 # Classically, Cyprus belongs to Asia; e.g. see Herodotus, Histories, I.72.
1093 # However, for various reasons many users expect to find it under Europe.
1094 Link    Asia/Nicosia    Europe/Nicosia
1095 
1096 # Georgia
1097 # From Paul Eggert (1994-11-19):
1098 # Today's _Economist_ (p 60) reports that Georgia moved its clocks forward
1099 # an hour recently, due to a law proposed by Zurab Murvanidze,
1100 # an MP who went on a hunger strike for 11 days to force discussion about it!
1101 # We have no details, but we'll guess they didn't move the clocks back in fall.
1102 #
1103 # From Mathew Englander, quoting AP (1996-10-23 13:05-04):
1104 # Instead of putting back clocks at the end of October, Georgia
1105 # will stay on daylight savings time this winter to save energy,
1106 # President Eduard Shevardnadze decreed Wednesday.
1107 #
1108 # From the BBC via Joseph S. Myers (2004-06-27):
1109 #
1110 # Georgia moved closer to Western Europe on Sunday...  The former Soviet
1111 # republic has changed its time zone back to that of Moscow.  As a result it
1112 # is now just four hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time, rather than five hours
1113 # ahead.  The switch was decreed by the pro-Western president of Georgia,
1114 # Mikheil Saakashvili, who said the change was partly prompted by the process
1115 # of integration into Europe.
1116 
1117 # From Teimuraz Abashidze (2005-11-07):
1118 # Government of Georgia ... decided to NOT CHANGE daylight savings time on
1119 # [Oct.] 30, as it was done before during last more than 10 years.
1120 # Currently, we are in fact GMT +4:00, as before 30 October it was GMT
1121 # +3:00.... The problem is, there is NO FORMAL LAW or governmental document
1122 # about it.  As far as I can find, I was told, that there is no document,
1123 # because we just DIDN'T ISSUE document about switching to winter time....
1124 # I don't know what can be done, especially knowing that some years ago our
1125 # DST rules where changed THREE TIMES during one month.
1126 
1127 # Milne 1899 says Tbilisi (Tiflis) time was 2:59:05.7.
1128 # Byalokoz 1919 says Georgia was 2:59:11.
1129 # Go with Byalokoz.
1130 
1131 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1132 Zone    Asia/Tbilisi    2:59:11 -       LMT     1880
1133                         2:59:11 -       TBMT    1924 May  2 # Tbilisi Mean Time
1134                         3:00    -       +03     1957 Mar
1135                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
1136                         3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04 1992
1137                         3:00 E-EurAsia  +03/+04 1994 Sep lastSun
1138                         4:00 E-EurAsia  +04/+05 1996 Oct lastSun
1139                         4:00    1:00    +05     1997 Mar lastSun
1140                         4:00 E-EurAsia  +04/+05 2004 Jun 27
1141                         3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04 2005 Mar lastSun  2:00
1142                         4:00    -       +04
1143 
1144 # East Timor
1145 
1146 # See Indonesia for the 1945 transition.
1147 
1148 # From João Carrascalão, brother of the former governor of East Timor, in
1149 # East Timor may be late for its millennium
1150 # <https://etan.org/et99c/december/26-31/30ETMAY.htm> (1999-12-26/31):
1151 # Portugal tried to change the time forward in 1974 because the sun
1152 # rises too early but the suggestion raised a lot of problems with the
1153 # Timorese and I still don't think it would work today because it
1154 # conflicts with their way of life.
1155 
1156 # From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):
1157 # We don't have any record of the above attempt.
1158 # Most likely our records are incomplete, but we have no better data.
1159 
1160 # From Manoel de Almeida e Silva, Deputy Spokesman for the UN Secretary-General
1161 # http://www.hri.org/news/world/undh/2000/00-08-16.undh.html
1162 # (2000-08-16):
1163 # The Cabinet of the East Timor Transition Administration decided
1164 # today to advance East Timor's time by one hour.  The time change,
1165 # which will be permanent, with no seasonal adjustment, will happen at
1166 # midnight on Saturday, September 16.
1167 
1168 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1169 Zone    Asia/Dili       8:22:20 -       LMT     1912 Jan  1
1170                         8:00    -       +08     1942 Feb 21 23:00
1171                         9:00    -       +09     1976 May  3
1172                         8:00    -       +08     2000 Sep 17  0:00
1173                         9:00    -       +09
1174 
1175 # India
1176 
1177 # British astronomer Henry Park Hollis disliked India Standard Time's offset:
1178 # "A new time system has been proposed for India, Further India, and Burmah.
1179 # The scheme suggested is that the times of the meridians 5½ and 6½ hours
1180 # east of Greenwich should be adopted in these territories.  No reason is
1181 # given why hourly meridians five hours and six hours east should not be
1182 # chosen; a plan which would bring the time of India into harmony with
1183 # that of almost the whole of the civilised world."
1184 # Hollis HP. Universal Time, Longitudes, and Geodesy. Mon Not R Astron Soc.
1185 # 1905-02-10;65(4):405-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/65.4.382
1186 
1187 # From Ian P. Beacock, in "A brief history of (modern) time", The Atlantic
1188 # https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/12/the-creation-of-modern-time/421419/
1189 # (2015-12-22):
1190 # In January 1906, several thousand cotton-mill workers rioted on the
1191 # outskirts of Bombay....  They were protesting the proposed abolition of
1192 # local time in favor of Indian Standard Time....  Journalists called this
1193 # dispute the "Battle of the Clocks."  It lasted nearly half a century.
1194 
1195 # From Paul Eggert (2017-04-20):
1196 # Good luck trying to nail down old timekeeping records in India.
1197 # "... in the nineteenth century ... Madras Observatory took its magnetic
1198 # measurements on Göttingen time, its meteorological measurements on Madras
1199 # (local) time, dropped its time ball on Greenwich (ocean navigator's) time,
1200 # and distributed civil (local time)." -- Bartky IR. Selling the true time:
1201 # 19th-century timekeeping in america. Stanford U Press (2000), 247 note 19.
1202 # "A more potent cause of resistance to the general adoption of the present
1203 # standard time lies in the fact that it is Madras time.  The citizen of
1204 # Bombay, proud of being 'primus in Indis' and of Calcutta, equally proud of
1205 # his city being the Capital of India, and - for a part of the year - the Seat
1206 # of the Supreme Government, alike look down on Madras, and refuse to change
1207 # the time they are using, for that of what they regard as a benighted
1208 # Presidency; while Madras, having for long given the standard time to the
1209 # rest of India, would resist the adoption of any other Indian standard in its
1210 # place." -- Oldham RD. On Time in India: a suggestion for its improvement.
1211 # Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (April 1899), 49-55.
1212 #
1213 # "In 1870 ... Madras time - 'now used by the telegraph and regulated from the
1214 # only government observatory' - was suggested as a standard railway time,
1215 # first to be adopted on the Great Indian Peninsular Railway (GIPR)....
1216 # Calcutta, Bombay, and Karachi, were to be allowed to continue with their
1217 # local time for civil purposes." - Prasad R. Tracks of Change: Railways and
1218 # Everyday Life in Colonial India. Cambridge University Press (2016), 145.
1219 #
1220 # Reed S, Low F. The Indian Year Book 1936-37. Bennett, Coleman, pp 27-8.
1221 # https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.282212
1222 # This lists +052110 as Madras local time used in railways, and says that on
1223 # 1906-01-01 railways and telegraphs in India switched to +0530.  Some
1224 # municipalities retained their former time, and the time in Calcutta
1225 # continued to depend on whether you were at the railway station or at
1226 # government offices.  Government time was at +055320 (according to Shanks) or
1227 # at +0554 (according to the Indian Year Book).  Railway time is more
1228 # appropriate for our purposes, as it was better documented, it is what we do
1229 # elsewhere (e.g., Europe/London before 1880), and after 1906 it was
1230 # consistent in the region now identified by Asia/Kolkata.  So, use railway
1231 # time for 1870-1941.  Shanks is our only (and dubious) source for the
1232 # 1941-1945 data.
1233 
1234 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1235 Zone    Asia/Kolkata    5:53:28 -       LMT     1854 Jun 28 # Kolkata
1236                         5:53:20 -       HMT     1870        # Howrah Mean Time?
1237                         5:21:10 -       MMT     1906 Jan  1 # Madras local time
1238                         5:30    -       IST     1941 Oct
1239                         5:30    1:00    +0630   1942 May 15
1240                         5:30    -       IST     1942 Sep
1241                         5:30    1:00    +0630   1945 Oct 15
1242                         5:30    -       IST
1243 # Since 1970 the following are like Asia/Kolkata:
1244 #       Andaman Is
1245 #       Lakshadweep (Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Is)
1246 #       Nicobar Is
1247 
1248 # Indonesia
1249 #
1250 # From Paul Eggert (2014-09-06):
1251 # The 1876 Report of the Secretary of the [US] Navy, p 306 says that Batavia
1252 # civil time was 7:07:12.5; round to even for Jakarta.
1253 #
1254 # From Gwillim Law (2001-05-28), overriding Shanks & Pottenger:
1255 # http://www.sumatera-inc.com/go_to_invest/about_indonesia.asp#standtime
1256 # says that Indonesia's time zones changed on 1988-01-01.  Looking at some
1257 # time zone maps, I think that must refer to Western Borneo (Kalimantan Barat
1258 # and Kalimantan Tengah) switching from UTC+8 to UTC+7.
1259 #
1260 # From Paul Eggert (2007-03-10):
1261 # Here is another correction to Shanks & Pottenger.
1262 # JohnTWB writes that Japanese forces did not surrender control in
1263 # Indonesia until 1945-09-01 00:00 at the earliest (in Jakarta) and
1264 # other formal surrender ceremonies were September 9, 11, and 13, plus
1265 # September 12 for the regional surrender to Mountbatten in Singapore.
1266 # These would be the earliest possible times for a change.
1267 # Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, by Henri Le Corre, (Éditions
1268 # Traditionnelles, 1987, Paris) says that Java and Madura switched
1269 # from UT +09 to +07:30 on 1945-09-23, and gives 1944-09-01 for Jayapura
1270 # (Hollandia).  For now, assume all Indonesian locations other than Jayapura
1271 # switched on 1945-09-23.
1272 #
1273 # From Paul Eggert (2013-08-11):
1274 # Normally the tz database uses English-language abbreviations, but in
1275 # Indonesia it's typical to use Indonesian-language abbreviations even
1276 # when writing in English.  For example, see the English-language
1277 # summary published by the Time and Frequency Laboratory of the
1278 # Research Center for Calibration, Instrumentation and Metrology,
1279 # Indonesia, <http://time.kim.lipi.go.id/time-eng.php> (2006-09-29).
1280 # The time zone abbreviations and UT offsets are:
1281 #
1282 # WIB  - +07 - Waktu Indonesia Barat (Indonesia western time)
1283 # WITA - +08 - Waktu Indonesia Tengah (Indonesia central time)
1284 # WIT  - +09 - Waktu Indonesia Timur (Indonesia eastern time)
1285 #
1286 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1287 # Java, Sumatra
1288 Zone Asia/Jakarta       7:07:12 -       LMT     1867 Aug 10
1289 # Shanks & Pottenger say the next transition was at 1924 Jan 1 0:13,
1290 # but this must be a typo.
1291                         7:07:12 -       BMT     1923 Dec 31 23:47:12 # Batavia
1292                         7:20    -       +0720   1932 Nov
1293                         7:30    -       +0730   1942 Mar 23
1294                         9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep 23
1295                         7:30    -       +0730   1948 May
1296                         8:00    -       +08     1950 May
1297                         7:30    -       +0730   1964
1298                         7:00    -       WIB
1299 # west and central Borneo
1300 Zone Asia/Pontianak     7:17:20 -       LMT     1908 May
1301                         7:17:20 -       PMT     1932 Nov    # Pontianak MT
1302                         7:30    -       +0730   1942 Jan 29
1303                         9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep 23
1304                         7:30    -       +0730   1948 May
1305                         8:00    -       +08     1950 May
1306                         7:30    -       +0730   1964
1307                         8:00    -       WITA    1988 Jan  1
1308                         7:00    -       WIB
1309 # Sulawesi, Lesser Sundas, east and south Borneo
1310 Zone Asia/Makassar      7:57:36 -       LMT     1920
1311                         7:57:36 -       MMT     1932 Nov    # Macassar MT
1312                         8:00    -       +08     1942 Feb  9
1313                         9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep 23
1314                         8:00    -       WITA
1315 # Maluku Islands, West Papua, Papua
1316 Zone Asia/Jayapura      9:22:48 -       LMT     1932 Nov
1317                         9:00    -       +09     1944 Sep  1
1318                         9:30    -       +0930   1964
1319                         9:00    -       WIT
1320 
1321 # Iran
1322 
1323 # From Roozbeh Pournader (2003-03-15):
1324 # This is an English translation of what I just found (originally in Persian).
1325 # The Gregorian dates in brackets are mine:
1326 #
1327 #       Official Newspaper No. 13548-1370/6/25 [1991-09-16]
1328 #       No. 16760/T233 H                                1370/6/10 [1991-09-01]
1329 #
1330 #       The Rule About Change of the Official Time of the Country
1331 #
1332 #       The Board of Ministers, in the meeting dated 1370/5/23 [1991-08-14],
1333 #       based on the suggestion number 2221/D dated 1370/4/22 [1991-07-13]
1334 #       of the Country's Organization for Official and Employment Affairs,
1335 #       and referring to the law for equating the working hours of workers
1336 #       and officers in the whole country dated 1359/4/23 [1980-07-14], and
1337 #       for synchronizing the official times of the country, agreed that:
1338 #
1339 #       The official time of the country will should move forward one hour
1340 #       at the 24[:00] hours of the first day of Farvardin and should return
1341 #       to its previous state at the 24[:00] hours of the 30th day of
1342 #       Shahrivar.
1343 #
1344 #       First Deputy to the President - Hassan Habibi
1345 #
1346 # From personal experience, that agrees with what has been followed
1347 # for at least the last 5 years.  Before that, for a few years, the
1348 # date used was the first Thursday night of Farvardin and the last
1349 # Thursday night of Shahrivar, but I can't give exact dates....
1350 #
1351 # From Roozbeh Pournader (2005-04-05):
1352 # The text of the Iranian law, in effect since 1925, clearly mentions
1353 # that the true solar year is the measure, and there is no arithmetic
1354 # leap year calculation involved.  There has never been any serious
1355 # plan to change that law....
1356 #
1357 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-30):
1358 # Go with Shanks & Pottenger before Sept. 1991, and with Pournader thereafter.
1359 # I used the following code in GNU Emacs 26.1 to generate the "Rule Iran"
1360 # lines from 2008 through 2087.  Emacs 26.1 uses Ed Reingold's
1361 # cal-persia implementation of Birashk's approximation, which in the
1362 # 2008-2087 range disagrees with the astronomical Persian calendar
1363 # for Persian years 1404 (Gregorian 2025) and 1437 (Gregorian 2058), so
1364 # the following code special-cases those years.  See Table 15.1, page 264, of:
1365 # Edward M. Reingold and Nachum Dershowitz, Calendrical Calculations:
1366 # The Ultimate Edition, Cambridge University Press (2018).
1367 # https://www.cambridge.org/fr/academic/subjects/computer-science/computing-general-interest/calendrical-calculations-ultimate-edition-4th-edition
1368 # Page 258, footnote 2, of this book says there is some dispute over what will
1369 # happen in 2091 (and some other years after that), so this code
1370 # stops in 2087, as 2088 and 2089 agree with the "max" rule below.
1371 # (cl-loop
1372 #  initially (require 'cal-persia)
1373 #  with first-persian-year = 1387
1374 #  with last-persian-year = 1466
1375 #  ;; Exceptional years in the above range,
1376 #  ;; from Reingold & Dershowitz Table 15.1, page 264:
1377 #  with exceptional-persian-years = '(1404 1437)
1378 #  with range-start = nil
1379 #  for persian-year from first-persian-year to last-persian-year
1380 #  do
1381 #  (let*
1382 #      ((exceptional-year-offset
1383 #        (if (member persian-year exceptional-persian-years) 1 0))
1384 #       (beg-dst-absolute
1385 #        (+ (calendar-persian-to-absolute (list 1 1 persian-year))
1386 #           exceptional-year-offset))
1387 #       (end-dst-absolute
1388 #        (+ (calendar-persian-to-absolute (list 6 30 persian-year))
1389 #           exceptional-year-offset))
1390 #       (next-year-beg-dst-absolute
1391 #        (+ (calendar-persian-to-absolute (list 1 1 (1+ persian-year)))
1392 #           (if (member (1+ persian-year) exceptional-persian-years) 1 0)))
1393 #       (beg-dst (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute beg-dst-absolute))
1394 #       (end-dst (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute end-dst-absolute))
1395 #       (next-year-beg-dst (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute
1396 #                           next-year-beg-dst-absolute))
1397 #       (year (calendar-extract-year beg-dst))
1398 #       (range-end (if range-start year "only")))
1399 #    (setq range-start (or range-start year))
1400 #    (when (or (/= (calendar-extract-day beg-dst)
1401 #                  (calendar-extract-day next-year-beg-dst))
1402 #              (= persian-year last-persian-year))
1403 #      (insert
1404 #       (format
1405 #        "Rule\tIran\t%d\t%s\t-\t%s\t%2d\t24:00\t1:00\t-\n"
1406 #        range-start range-end
1407 #        (calendar-month-name (calendar-extract-month beg-dst) t)
1408 #        (calendar-extract-day beg-dst)))
1409 #      (insert
1410 #       (format
1411 #        "Rule\tIran\t%d\t%s\t-\t%s\t%2d\t24:00\t0\t-\n"
1412 #        range-start range-end
1413 #        (calendar-month-name (calendar-extract-month end-dst) t)
1414 #        (calendar-extract-day end-dst)))
1415 #      (setq range-start nil))))
1416 #
1417 # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-03-30), writing about future
1418 # discrepancies between cal-persia and the Iranian calendar:
1419 # For 2091 solar-longitude-after yields 2091-03-20 08:40:07.7 UT for
1420 # the vernal equinox and that gets so close to 12:00 some local
1421 # Iranian time that the definition of the correct location needs to be
1422 # known exactly, amongst other factors.  2157 is even closer:
1423 # 2157-03-20 08:37:15.5 UT.  But the Gregorian year 2025 should give
1424 # no interpretation problem whatsoever.  By the way, another instant
1425 # in the near future where there will be a discrepancy between
1426 # arithmetical and astronomical Iranian calendars will be in 2058:
1427 # vernal equinox on 2058-03-20 09:03:05.9 UT.  The Java version of
1428 # Reingold's/Dershowitz' calculator gives correctly the Gregorian date
1429 # 2058-03-21 for 1 Farvardin 1437 (astronomical).
1430 #
1431 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-03-22):
1432 # Several of my users have reported that Iran will not observe DST anymore:
1433 # http://www.irna.ir/en/news/view/line-17/0603193812164948.htm
1434 #
1435 # From Reuters (2007-09-16), with a heads-up from Jesper Nørgaard Welen:
1436 # ... the Guardian Council ... approved a law on Sunday to re-introduce
1437 # daylight saving time ...
1438 # https://uk.reuters.com/article/oilRpt/idUKBLA65048420070916
1439 #
1440 # From Roozbeh Pournader (2007-11-05):
1441 # This is quoted from Official Gazette of the Islamic Republic of
1442 # Iran, Volume 63, No. 18242, dated Tuesday 1386/6/24
1443 # [2007-10-16]. I am doing the best translation I can:...
1444 # The official time of the country will be moved forward for one hour
1445 # on the 24 hours of the first day of the month of Farvardin and will
1446 # be changed back to its previous state on the 24 hours of the
1447 # thirtieth day of Shahrivar.
1448 #
1449 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1450 Rule    Iran    1978    1980    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1451 Rule    Iran    1978    only    -       Oct     20      24:00   0       -
1452 Rule    Iran    1979    only    -       Sep     18      24:00   0       -
1453 Rule    Iran    1980    only    -       Sep     22      24:00   0       -
1454 Rule    Iran    1991    only    -       May      2      24:00   1:00    -
1455 Rule    Iran    1992    1995    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1456 Rule    Iran    1991    1995    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1457 Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1458 Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1459 Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1460 Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1461 Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1462 Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1463 Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1464 Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1465 Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1466 Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1467 Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1468 Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1469 Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1470 Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1471 Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1472 Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1473 Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1474 Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1475 Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1476 Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1477 Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1478 Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1479 Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1480 Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1481 Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1482 Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1483 Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1484 Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1485 Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1486 Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1487 Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1488 Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1489 Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1490 Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1491 Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1492 Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1493 Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1494 Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1495 Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1496 Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1497 Rule    Iran    2036    2037    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1498 Rule    Iran    2036    2037    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1499 Rule    Iran    2038    2039    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1500 Rule    Iran    2038    2039    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1501 Rule    Iran    2040    2041    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1502 Rule    Iran    2040    2041    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1503 Rule    Iran    2042    2043    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1504 Rule    Iran    2042    2043    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1505 Rule    Iran    2044    2045    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1506 Rule    Iran    2044    2045    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1507 Rule    Iran    2046    2047    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1508 Rule    Iran    2046    2047    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1509 Rule    Iran    2048    2049    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1510 Rule    Iran    2048    2049    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1511 Rule    Iran    2050    2051    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1512 Rule    Iran    2050    2051    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1513 Rule    Iran    2052    2053    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1514 Rule    Iran    2052    2053    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1515 Rule    Iran    2054    2055    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1516 Rule    Iran    2054    2055    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1517 Rule    Iran    2056    2057    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1518 Rule    Iran    2056    2057    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1519 Rule    Iran    2058    2059    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1520 Rule    Iran    2058    2059    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1521 Rule    Iran    2060    2062    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1522 Rule    Iran    2060    2062    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1523 Rule    Iran    2063    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1524 Rule    Iran    2063    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1525 Rule    Iran    2064    2066    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1526 Rule    Iran    2064    2066    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1527 Rule    Iran    2067    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1528 Rule    Iran    2067    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1529 Rule    Iran    2068    2070    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1530 Rule    Iran    2068    2070    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1531 Rule    Iran    2071    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1532 Rule    Iran    2071    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1533 Rule    Iran    2072    2074    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1534 Rule    Iran    2072    2074    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1535 Rule    Iran    2075    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1536 Rule    Iran    2075    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1537 Rule    Iran    2076    2078    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1538 Rule    Iran    2076    2078    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1539 Rule    Iran    2079    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1540 Rule    Iran    2079    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1541 Rule    Iran    2080    2082    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1542 Rule    Iran    2080    2082    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1543 Rule    Iran    2083    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1544 Rule    Iran    2083    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1545 Rule    Iran    2084    2086    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1546 Rule    Iran    2084    2086    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1547 Rule    Iran    2087    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1548 Rule    Iran    2087    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1549 #
1550 # The following rules are approximations starting in the year 2088.
1551 # These are the best post-2088 approximations available, given the
1552 # restrictions of a single rule using ordinary Gregorian dates.
1553 # At some point this table will need to be extended, though quite
1554 # possibly Iran will change the rules first.
1555 Rule    Iran    2088    max     -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1556 Rule    Iran    2088    max     -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1557 
1558 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1559 Zone    Asia/Tehran     3:25:44 -       LMT     1916
1560                         3:25:44 -       TMT     1946     # Tehran Mean Time
1561                         3:30    -       +0330   1977 Nov
1562                         4:00    Iran    +04/+05 1979
1563                         3:30    Iran    +0330/+0430
1564 
1565 
1566 # Iraq
1567 #
1568 # From Jonathan Lennox (2000-06-12):
1569 # An article in this week's Economist ("Inside the Saddam-free zone", p. 50 in
1570 # the U.S. edition) on the Iraqi Kurds contains a paragraph:
1571 # "The three northern provinces ... switched their clocks this spring and
1572 # are an hour ahead of Baghdad."
1573 #
1574 # But Rives McDow (2000-06-18) quotes a contact in Iraqi-Kurdistan as follows:
1575 # In the past, some Kurdish nationalists, as a protest to the Iraqi
1576 # Government, did not adhere to daylight saving time.  They referred
1577 # to daylight saving as Saddam time.  But, as of today, the time zone
1578 # in Iraqi-Kurdistan is on standard time with Baghdad, Iraq.
1579 #
1580 # So we'll ignore the Economist's claim.
1581 
1582 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-10):
1583 # The cabinet in Iraq abolished DST last week, according to the following
1584 # news sources (in Arabic):
1585 # http://www.aljeeran.net/wesima_articles/news-20080305-98602.html
1586 # http://www.aswataliraq.info/look/article.tpl?id=2047&IdLanguage=17&IdPublication=4&NrArticle=71743&NrIssue=1&NrSection=10
1587 #
1588 # We have published a short article in English about the change:
1589 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/iraq-dumps-daylight-saving.html
1590 
1591 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1592 Rule    Iraq    1982    only    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    -
1593 Rule    Iraq    1982    1984    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
1594 Rule    Iraq    1983    only    -       Mar     31      0:00    1:00    -
1595 Rule    Iraq    1984    1985    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    -
1596 Rule    Iraq    1985    1990    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
1597 Rule    Iraq    1986    1990    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    -
1598 # IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says Apr 1 12:01am UTC; guess the ':01' is a typo.
1599 # Shanks & Pottenger say Iraq did not observe DST 1992/1997; ignore this.
1600 #
1601 Rule    Iraq    1991    2007    -       Apr      1      3:00s   1:00    -
1602 Rule    Iraq    1991    2007    -       Oct      1      3:00s   0       -
1603 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1604 Zone    Asia/Baghdad    2:57:40 -       LMT     1890
1605                         2:57:36 -       BMT     1918     # Baghdad Mean Time?
1606                         3:00    -       +03     1982 May
1607                         3:00    Iraq    +03/+04
1608 
1609 
1610 ###############################################################################
1611 
1612 # Israel
1613 
1614 # From Ephraim Silverberg (2001-01-11):
1615 #
1616 # I coined "IST/IDT" circa 1988.  Until then there were three
1617 # different abbreviations in use:
1618 #
1619 # JST  Jerusalem Standard Time [Danny Braniss, Hebrew University]
1620 # IZT  Israel Zonal (sic) Time [Prof. Haim Papo, Technion]
1621 # EEST Eastern Europe Standard Time [used by almost everyone else]
1622 #
1623 # Since timezones should be called by country and not capital cities,
1624 # I ruled out JST.  As Israel is in Asia Minor and not Eastern Europe,
1625 # EEST was equally unacceptable.  Since "zonal" was not compatible with
1626 # any other timezone abbreviation, I felt that 'IST' was the way to go
1627 # and, indeed, it has received almost universal acceptance in timezone
1628 # settings in Israeli computers.
1629 #
1630 # In any case, I am happy to share timezone abbreviations with India,
1631 # high on my favorite-country list (and not only because my wife's
1632 # family is from India).
1633 
1634 # From Shanks & Pottenger:
1635 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1636 Rule    Zion    1940    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    D
1637 Rule    Zion    1942    1944    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       S
1638 Rule    Zion    1943    only    -       Apr      1      2:00    1:00    D
1639 Rule    Zion    1944    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
1640 Rule    Zion    1945    only    -       Apr     16      0:00    1:00    D
1641 Rule    Zion    1945    only    -       Nov      1      2:00    0       S
1642 Rule    Zion    1946    only    -       Apr     16      2:00    1:00    D
1643 Rule    Zion    1946    only    -       Nov      1      0:00    0       S
1644 Rule    Zion    1948    only    -       May     23      0:00    2:00    DD
1645 Rule    Zion    1948    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    1:00    D
1646 Rule    Zion    1948    1949    -       Nov      1      2:00    0       S
1647 Rule    Zion    1949    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    D
1648 Rule    Zion    1950    only    -       Apr     16      0:00    1:00    D
1649 Rule    Zion    1950    only    -       Sep     15      3:00    0       S
1650 Rule    Zion    1951    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
1651 Rule    Zion    1951    only    -       Nov     11      3:00    0       S
1652 Rule    Zion    1952    only    -       Apr     20      2:00    1:00    D
1653 Rule    Zion    1952    only    -       Oct     19      3:00    0       S
1654 Rule    Zion    1953    only    -       Apr     12      2:00    1:00    D
1655 Rule    Zion    1953    only    -       Sep     13      3:00    0       S
1656 Rule    Zion    1954    only    -       Jun     13      0:00    1:00    D
1657 Rule    Zion    1954    only    -       Sep     12      0:00    0       S
1658 Rule    Zion    1955    only    -       Jun     11      2:00    1:00    D
1659 Rule    Zion    1955    only    -       Sep     11      0:00    0       S
1660 Rule    Zion    1956    only    -       Jun      3      0:00    1:00    D
1661 Rule    Zion    1956    only    -       Sep     30      3:00    0       S
1662 Rule    Zion    1957    only    -       Apr     29      2:00    1:00    D
1663 Rule    Zion    1957    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1664 Rule    Zion    1974    only    -       Jul      7      0:00    1:00    D
1665 Rule    Zion    1974    only    -       Oct     13      0:00    0       S
1666 Rule    Zion    1975    only    -       Apr     20      0:00    1:00    D
1667 Rule    Zion    1975    only    -       Aug     31      0:00    0       S
1668 
1669 # From Alois Treindl (2019-03-06):
1670 # http://www.moin.gov.il/Documents/שעון%20קיץ/clock-50-years-7-2014.pdf
1671 # From Isaac Starkman (2019-03-06):
1672 # Summer time was in that period in 1980 and 1984, see
1673 # https://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-3951073,00.html
1674 # You can of course read it in translation.
1675 # I checked the local newspapers for that years.
1676 # It started on midnight and end at 01.00 am.
1677 # From Paul Eggert (2019-03-06):
1678 # Also see this thread about the moin.gov.il URL:
1679 # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-November/027194.html
1680 Rule    Zion    1980    only    -       Aug      2      0:00    1:00    D
1681 Rule    Zion    1980    only    -       Sep     13      1:00    0       S
1682 Rule    Zion    1984    only    -       May      5      0:00    1:00    D
1683 Rule    Zion    1984    only    -       Aug     25      1:00    0       S
1684 
1685 # From Shanks & Pottenger:
1686 Rule    Zion    1985    only    -       Apr     14      0:00    1:00    D
1687 Rule    Zion    1985    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S
1688 Rule    Zion    1986    only    -       May     18      0:00    1:00    D
1689 Rule    Zion    1986    only    -       Sep      7      0:00    0       S
1690 Rule    Zion    1987    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    D
1691 Rule    Zion    1987    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S
1692 
1693 # From Avigdor Finkelstein (2014-03-05):
1694 # I check the Parliament (Knesset) records and there it's stated that the
1695 # [1988] transition should take place on Saturday night, when the Sabbath
1696 # ends and changes to Sunday.
1697 Rule    Zion    1988    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    D
1698 Rule    Zion    1988    only    -       Sep      4      0:00    0       S
1699 
1700 # From Ephraim Silverberg
1701 # (1997-03-04, 1998-03-16, 1998-12-28, 2000-01-17, 2000-07-25, 2004-12-22,
1702 # and 2005-02-17):
1703 
1704 # According to the Office of the Secretary General of the Ministry of
1705 # Interior, there is NO set rule for Daylight-Savings/Standard time changes.
1706 # One thing is entrenched in law, however: that there must be at least 150
1707 # days of daylight savings time annually.  From 1993-1998, the change to
1708 # daylight savings time was on a Friday morning from midnight IST to
1709 # 1 a.m IDT; up until 1998, the change back to standard time was on a
1710 # Saturday night from midnight daylight savings time to 11 p.m. standard
1711 # time.  1996 is an exception to this rule where the change back to standard
1712 # time took place on Sunday night instead of Saturday night to avoid
1713 # conflicts with the Jewish New Year.  In 1999, the change to
1714 # daylight savings time was still on a Friday morning but from
1715 # 2 a.m. IST to 3 a.m. IDT; furthermore, the change back to standard time
1716 # was also on a Friday morning from 2 a.m. IDT to 1 a.m. IST for
1717 # 1999 only.  In the year 2000, the change to daylight savings time was
1718 # similar to 1999, but although the change back will be on a Friday, it
1719 # will take place from 1 a.m. IDT to midnight IST.  Starting in 2001, all
1720 # changes to/from will take place at 1 a.m. old time, but now there is no
1721 # rule as to what day of the week it will take place in as the start date
1722 # (except in 2003) is the night after the Passover Seder (i.e. the eve
1723 # of the 16th of Nisan in the lunar Hebrew calendar) and the end date
1724 # (except in 2002) is three nights before Yom Kippur [Day of Atonement]
1725 # (the eve of the 7th of Tishrei in the lunar Hebrew calendar).
1726 
1727 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1728 Rule    Zion    1989    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    D
1729 Rule    Zion    1989    only    -       Sep      3      0:00    0       S
1730 Rule    Zion    1990    only    -       Mar     25      0:00    1:00    D
1731 Rule    Zion    1990    only    -       Aug     26      0:00    0       S
1732 Rule    Zion    1991    only    -       Mar     24      0:00    1:00    D
1733 Rule    Zion    1991    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    0       S
1734 Rule    Zion    1992    only    -       Mar     29      0:00    1:00    D
1735 Rule    Zion    1992    only    -       Sep      6      0:00    0       S
1736 Rule    Zion    1993    only    -       Apr      2      0:00    1:00    D
1737 Rule    Zion    1993    only    -       Sep      5      0:00    0       S
1738 
1739 # The dates for 1994-1995 were obtained from Office of the Spokeswoman for the
1740 # Ministry of Interior, Jerusalem, Israel.  The spokeswoman can be reached by
1741 # calling the office directly at 972-2-6701447 or 972-2-6701448.
1742 
1743 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1744 Rule    Zion    1994    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
1745 Rule    Zion    1994    only    -       Aug     28      0:00    0       S
1746 Rule    Zion    1995    only    -       Mar     31      0:00    1:00    D
1747 Rule    Zion    1995    only    -       Sep      3      0:00    0       S
1748 
1749 # The dates for 1996 were determined by the Minister of Interior of the
1750 # time, Haim Ramon.  The official announcement regarding 1996-1998
1751 # (with the dates for 1997-1998 no longer being relevant) can be viewed at:
1752 #
1753 #   ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/1996-1998.ramon.ps.gz
1754 #
1755 # The dates for 1997-1998 were altered by his successor, Rabbi Eli Suissa.
1756 #
1757 # The official announcements for the years 1997-1999 can be viewed at:
1758 #
1759 #   ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/YYYY.ps.gz
1760 #
1761 #       where YYYY is the relevant year.
1762 
1763 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1764 Rule    Zion    1996    only    -       Mar     15      0:00    1:00    D
1765 Rule    Zion    1996    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       S
1766 Rule    Zion    1997    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    D
1767 Rule    Zion    1997    only    -       Sep     14      0:00    0       S
1768 Rule    Zion    1998    only    -       Mar     20      0:00    1:00    D
1769 Rule    Zion    1998    only    -       Sep      6      0:00    0       S
1770 Rule    Zion    1999    only    -       Apr      2      2:00    1:00    D
1771 Rule    Zion    1999    only    -       Sep      3      2:00    0       S
1772 
1773 # The Knesset Interior Committee has changed the dates for 2000 for
1774 # the third time in just over a year and have set new dates for the
1775 # years 2001-2004 as well.
1776 #
1777 # The official announcement for the start date of 2000 can be viewed at:
1778 #
1779 #       ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2000-start.ps.gz
1780 #
1781 # The official announcement for the end date of 2000 and the dates
1782 # for the years 2001-2004 can be viewed at:
1783 #
1784 #       ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2000-2004.ps.gz
1785 
1786 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1787 Rule    Zion    2000    only    -       Apr     14      2:00    1:00    D
1788 Rule    Zion    2000    only    -       Oct      6      1:00    0       S
1789 Rule    Zion    2001    only    -       Apr      9      1:00    1:00    D
1790 Rule    Zion    2001    only    -       Sep     24      1:00    0       S
1791 Rule    Zion    2002    only    -       Mar     29      1:00    1:00    D
1792 Rule    Zion    2002    only    -       Oct      7      1:00    0       S
1793 Rule    Zion    2003    only    -       Mar     28      1:00    1:00    D
1794 Rule    Zion    2003    only    -       Oct      3      1:00    0       S
1795 Rule    Zion    2004    only    -       Apr      7      1:00    1:00    D
1796 Rule    Zion    2004    only    -       Sep     22      1:00    0       S
1797 
1798 # The proposed law agreed upon by the Knesset Interior Committee on
1799 # 2005-02-14 is that, for 2005 and beyond, DST starts at 02:00 the
1800 # last Friday before April 2nd (i.e. the last Friday in March or April
1801 # 1st itself if it falls on a Friday) and ends at 02:00 on the Saturday
1802 # night _before_ the fast of Yom Kippur.
1803 #
1804 # Those who can read Hebrew can view the announcement at:
1805 #
1806 #       ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2005+beyond.ps
1807 
1808 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1809 Rule    Zion    2005    2012    -       Apr     Fri<=1       2:00    1:00    D
1810 Rule    Zion    2005    only    -       Oct      9      2:00    0       S
1811 Rule    Zion    2006    only    -       Oct      1      2:00    0       S
1812 Rule    Zion    2007    only    -       Sep     16      2:00    0       S
1813 Rule    Zion    2008    only    -       Oct      5      2:00    0       S
1814 Rule    Zion    2009    only    -       Sep     27      2:00    0       S
1815 Rule    Zion    2010    only    -       Sep     12      2:00    0       S
1816 Rule    Zion    2011    only    -       Oct      2      2:00    0       S
1817 Rule    Zion    2012    only    -       Sep     23      2:00    0       S
1818 
1819 # From Ephraim Silverberg (2013-06-27):
1820 # On June 23, 2013, the Israeli government approved changes to the
1821 # Time Decree Law.  The next day, the changes passed the First Reading
1822 # in the Knesset.  The law is expected to pass the Second and Third
1823 # (final) Readings by the beginning of September 2013.
1824 #
1825 # As of 2013, DST starts at 02:00 on the Friday before the last Sunday
1826 # in March.  DST ends at 02:00 on the last Sunday of October.
1827 
1828 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1829 Rule    Zion    2013    max     -       Mar     Fri>=23      2:00    1:00    D
1830 Rule    Zion    2013    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1831 
1832 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1833 Zone    Asia/Jerusalem  2:20:54 -       LMT     1880
1834                         2:20:40 -       JMT     1918 # Jerusalem Mean Time?
1835                         2:00    Zion    I%sT
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 ###############################################################################
1840 
1841 # Japan
1842 
1843 # '9:00' and 'JST' is from Guy Harris.
1844 
1845 # From Paul Eggert (1995-03-06):
1846 # Today's _Asahi Evening News_ (page 4) reports that Japan had
1847 # daylight saving between 1948 and 1951, but "the system was discontinued
1848 # because the public believed it would lead to longer working hours."
1849 
1850 # From Mayumi Negishi in the 2005-08-10 Japan Times:
1851 # http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?nn20050810f2.htm
1852 # Occupation authorities imposed daylight-saving time on Japan on
1853 # [1948-05-01]....  But lack of prior debate and the execution of
1854 # daylight-saving time just three days after the bill was passed generated
1855 # deep hatred of the concept....  The Diet unceremoniously passed a bill to
1856 # dump the unpopular system in October 1951, less than a month after the San
1857 # Francisco Peace Treaty was signed.  (A government poll in 1951 showed 53%
1858 # of the Japanese wanted to scrap daylight-saving time, as opposed to 30% who
1859 # wanted to keep it.)
1860 
1861 # From Takayuki Nikai (2018-01-19):
1862 # The source of information is Japanese law.
1863 # http://www.shugiin.go.jp/internet/itdb_housei.nsf/html/houritsu/00219480428029.htm
1864 # http://www.shugiin.go.jp/internet/itdb_housei.nsf/html/houritsu/00719500331039.htm
1865 # ... In summary, it is written as follows.  From 24:00 on the first Saturday
1866 # in May, until 0:00 on the day after the second Saturday in September.
1867 
1868 # From Phake Nick (2018-09-27):
1869 # [T]he webpage authored by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
1870 # https://eco.mtk.nao.ac.jp/koyomi/wiki/BBFEB9EF2FB2C6BBFEB9EF.html
1871 # ... mentioned that using Showa 23 (year 1948) as example, 13pm of September
1872 # 11 in summer time will equal to 0am of September 12 in standard time.
1873 # It cited a document issued by the Liaison Office which briefly existed
1874 # during the postwar period of Japan, where the detail on implementation
1875 # of the summer time is described in the document.
1876 # https://eco.mtk.nao.ac.jp/koyomi/wiki/BBFEB9EF2FB2C6BBFEB9EFB2C6BBFEB9EFA4CEBCC2BBDCA4CBA4C4A4A4A4C6.pdf
1877 # The text in the document do instruct a fall back to occur at
1878 # September 11, 13pm in summer time, while ordinary citizens can
1879 # change the clock before they sleep.
1880 #
1881 # From Paul Eggert (2018-09-27):
1882 # This instruction is equivalent to "Sat>=8 25:00", so use that.  zic treats
1883 # it like "Sun>=9 01:00", which is not quite the same but is the best we can
1884 # do in any POSIX or C platform.  The "25:00" assumes zic from 2007 or later,
1885 # which should be safe now.
1886 
1887 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1888 Rule    Japan   1948    only    -       May     Sat>=1       24:00   1:00    D
1889 Rule    Japan   1948    1951    -       Sep     Sat>=8       25:00   0       S
1890 Rule    Japan   1949    only    -       Apr     Sat>=1       24:00   1:00    D
1891 Rule    Japan   1950    1951    -       May     Sat>=1       24:00   1:00    D
1892 
1893 # From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-09):
1894 # 'Tokyo' usually stands for the former location of Tokyo Astronomical
1895 # Observatory: 139° 44' 40.90" E (9h 18m 58.727s), 35° 39' 16.0" N.
1896 # This data is from 'Rika Nenpyou (Chronological Scientific Tables) 1996'
1897 # edited by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan....
1898 # JST (Japan Standard Time) has been used since 1888-01-01 00:00 (JST).
1899 # The law is enacted on 1886-07-07.
1900 
1901 # From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-16):
1902 # The ordinance No. 51 (1886) established "standard time" in Japan,
1903 # which stands for the time on 135° E.
1904 # In the ordinance No. 167 (1895), "standard time" was renamed to "central
1905 # standard time".  And the same ordinance also established "western standard
1906 # time", which stands for the time on 120° E....  But "western standard
1907 # time" was abolished in the ordinance No. 529 (1937).  In the ordinance No.
1908 # 167, there is no mention regarding for what place western standard time is
1909 # standard....
1910 #
1911 # I wrote "ordinance" above, but I don't know how to translate.
1912 # In Japanese it's "chokurei", which means ordinance from emperor.
1913 
1914 # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
1915 # ...the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of Meiji Year 28 "The clause
1916 # about standard time" ... The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896.
1917 # https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
1918 #
1919 # ...the Showa Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 ... which
1920 # means the whole Japan territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan
1921 # Central Time (UT+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937.
1922 # https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件
1923 
1924 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1925 Zone    Asia/Tokyo      9:18:59 -       LMT     1887 Dec 31 15:00u
1926                         9:00    Japan   J%sT
1927 # Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo,
1928 # except that Truk (Chuuk), Ponape (Pohnpei), and Jaluit (Kosrae) did not
1929 # switch from +10 to +09 until 1941-04-01; see the 'australasia' file.
1930 
1931 # Jordan
1932 #
1933 # From <http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html>
1934 # Jordan Week (1999-07-01) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
1935 # Clocks in Jordan were forwarded one hour on Wednesday at midnight,
1936 # in accordance with the government's decision to implement summer time
1937 # all year round.
1938 #
1939 # From <http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html>
1940 # Jordan Week (1999-09-30) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-11-09):
1941 # Winter time starts today Thursday, 30 September. Clocks will be turned back
1942 # by one hour.  This is the latest government decision and it's final!
1943 # The decision was taken because of the increase in working hours in
1944 # government's departments from six to seven hours.
1945 #
1946 # From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22):
1947 # Starting 2003 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com.
1948 #
1949 # From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23):
1950 # For Jordan I have received multiple independent user reports every year
1951 # about DST end dates, as the end-rule is different every year.
1952 #
1953 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-10-01), after a heads-up from Hilal Malawi:
1954 # http://www.petranews.gov.jo/nepras/2006/Sep/05/4000.htm
1955 # "Jordan will switch to winter time on Friday, October 27".
1956 #
1957 
1958 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-04-02):
1959 # This single one might be good enough, (2009-03-24, Arabic):
1960 # http://petra.gov.jo/Artical.aspx?Lng=2&Section=8&Artical=95279
1961 #
1962 # Google's translation:
1963 #
1964 # > The Council of Ministers decided in 2002 to adopt the principle of timely
1965 # > submission of the summer at 60 minutes as of midnight on the last Thursday
1966 # > of the month of March of each year.
1967 #
1968 # So - this means the midnight between Thursday and Friday since 2002.
1969 
1970 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-04-06):
1971 # We still have Jordan switching to DST on Thursdays in 2000 and 2001.
1972 
1973 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-10-25):
1974 # Yesterday the government in Jordan announced that they will not
1975 # switch back to standard time this winter, so the will stay on DST
1976 # until about the same time next year (at least).
1977 # http://www.petra.gov.jo/Public_News/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?NewsID=88950
1978 
1979 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-12-11):
1980 # Jordan Times and other sources say that Jordan is going back to
1981 # UTC+2 on 2013-12-19 at midnight:
1982 # http://jordantimes.com/govt-decides-to-switch-back-to-wintertime
1983 # Official, in Arabic:
1984 # http://www.petra.gov.jo/public_news/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?Menu_ID=&Site_Id=2&lang=1&NewsID=133230&CatID=14
1985 # ... Our background/permalink about it
1986 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/jordan-reverses-dst-decision.html
1987 # ...
1988 # http://www.petra.gov.jo/Public_News/Nws_NewsDetails.aspx?lang=2&site_id=1&NewsID=133313&Type=P
1989 # ... says midnight for the coming one and 1:00 for the ones in the future
1990 # (and they will use DST again next year, using the normal schedule).
1991 
1992 # From Paul Eggert (2013-12-11):
1993 # As Steffen suggested, consider the past 21-month experiment to be DST.
1994 
1995 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1996 Rule    Jordan  1973    only    -       Jun     6       0:00    1:00    S
1997 Rule    Jordan  1973    1975    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
1998 Rule    Jordan  1974    1977    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
1999 Rule    Jordan  1976    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       -
2000 Rule    Jordan  1977    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
2001 Rule    Jordan  1978    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    S
2002 Rule    Jordan  1978    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
2003 Rule    Jordan  1985    only    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    S
2004 Rule    Jordan  1985    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
2005 Rule    Jordan  1986    1988    -       Apr     Fri>=1       0:00    1:00    S
2006 Rule    Jordan  1986    1990    -       Oct     Fri>=1       0:00    0       -
2007 Rule    Jordan  1989    only    -       May     8       0:00    1:00    S
2008 Rule    Jordan  1990    only    -       Apr     27      0:00    1:00    S
2009 Rule    Jordan  1991    only    -       Apr     17      0:00    1:00    S
2010 Rule    Jordan  1991    only    -       Sep     27      0:00    0       -
2011 Rule    Jordan  1992    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    S
2012 Rule    Jordan  1992    1993    -       Oct     Fri>=1       0:00    0       -
2013 Rule    Jordan  1993    1998    -       Apr     Fri>=1       0:00    1:00    S
2014 Rule    Jordan  1994    only    -       Sep     Fri>=15      0:00    0       -
2015 Rule    Jordan  1995    1998    -       Sep     Fri>=15      0:00s   0       -
2016 Rule    Jordan  1999    only    -       Jul      1      0:00s   1:00    S
2017 Rule    Jordan  1999    2002    -       Sep     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
2018 Rule    Jordan  2000    2001    -       Mar     lastThu 0:00s   1:00    S
2019 Rule    Jordan  2002    2012    -       Mar     lastThu 24:00   1:00    S
2020 Rule    Jordan  2003    only    -       Oct     24      0:00s   0       -
2021 Rule    Jordan  2004    only    -       Oct     15      0:00s   0       -
2022 Rule    Jordan  2005    only    -       Sep     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
2023 Rule    Jordan  2006    2011    -       Oct     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
2024 Rule    Jordan  2013    only    -       Dec     20      0:00    0       -
2025 Rule    Jordan  2014    max     -       Mar     lastThu 24:00   1:00    S
2026 Rule    Jordan  2014    max     -       Oct     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
2027 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2028 Zone    Asia/Amman      2:23:44 -       LMT     1931
2029                         2:00    Jordan  EE%sT
2030 
2031 
2032 # Kazakhstan
2033 
2034 # From Kazakhstan Embassy's News Bulletin No. 11
2035 # <http://www.kazsociety.org.uk/news/2005/03/30.htm> (2005-03-21):
2036 # The Government of Kazakhstan passed a resolution March 15 abolishing
2037 # daylight saving time citing lack of economic benefits and health
2038 # complications coupled with a decrease in productivity.
2039 #
2040 # From Branislav Kojic (in Astana) via Gwillim Law (2005-06-28):
2041 # ... what happened was that the former Kazakhstan Eastern time zone
2042 # was "blended" with the Central zone.  Therefore, Kazakhstan now has
2043 # two time zones, and difference between them is one hour.  The zone
2044 # closer to UTC is the former Western zone (probably still called the
2045 # same), encompassing four provinces in the west: Aqtöbe, Atyraū,
2046 # Mangghystaū, and West Kazakhstan.  The other zone encompasses
2047 # everything else....  I guess that would make Kazakhstan time zones
2048 # de jure UTC+5 and UTC+6 respectively.
2049 
2050 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-27):
2051 # Review of the linked documents from http://adilet.zan.kz/
2052 # produced the following data for post-1991 Kazakhstan:
2053 #
2054 # 0. Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the USSR
2055 # from 1991-02-04 No. 20
2056 # http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102010545
2057 # removed the extra hour ("decree time") on the territory of the USSR
2058 # starting with the last Sunday of March 1991.
2059 # It also allowed (but not mandated) Kazakh SSR, Kirghiz SSR, Tajik SSR,
2060 # Turkmen SSR and Uzbek SSR to not have "summer" time.
2061 #
2062 # The 1992-01-13 act also refers to the act of the Cabinet of Ministers
2063 # of the Kazakh SSR from 1991-03-20 No. 170 "About the act of the Cabinet
2064 # of Ministers of the USSR from 1991-02-04 No. 20" but I didn't found its
2065 # text.
2066 #
2067 # According to Izvestia newspaper No. 68 (23334) from 1991-03-20
2068 # -- page 6; available at http://libinfo.org/newsr/newsr2574.djvu via
2069 # http://libinfo.org/index.php?id=58564 -- on 1991-03-31 at 2:00 during
2070 # transition to "summer" time:
2071 # Republic of Georgia, Latvian SSR, Lithuanian SSR, SSR Moldova,
2072 # Estonian SSR; Komi ASSR; Kaliningrad oblast; Nenets autonomous okrug
2073 # were to move clocks 1 hour forward.
2074 # Kazakh SSR (excluding Uralsk oblast); Republic of Kyrgyzstan, Tajik
2075 # SSR; Andijan, Jizzakh, Namangan, Sirdarya, Tashkent, Fergana oblasts
2076 # of the Uzbek SSR were to move clocks 1 hour backwards.
2077 # Other territories were to not move clocks.
2078 # When the "summer" time would end on 1991-09-29, clocks were to be
2079 # moved 1 hour backwards on the territory of the USSR excluding
2080 # Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenia, Tajikistan.
2081 #
2082 # Apparently there were last minute changes. Apparently Kazakh act No. 170
2083 # was one of such changes.
2084 #
2085 # https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Декретное_время
2086 # claims that Sovetskaya Rossiya newspaper on 1991-03-29 published that
2087 # Nenets autonomous okrug, Komi and Kazakhstan (excluding Uralsk oblast)
2088 # were to not move clocks and Uralsk oblast was to move clocks
2089 # forward; on 1991-09-29 Kazakhstan was to move clocks backwards.
2090 # (Probably there were changes even after that publication. There is an
2091 # article claiming that Kaliningrad oblast decided on 1991-03-29 to not
2092 # move clocks.)
2093 #
2094 # This implies that on 1991-03-31 Asia/Oral remained on +04/+05 while
2095 # the rest of Kazakhstan switched from +06/+07 to +05/06 or from +05/06
2096 # to +04/+05. It's unclear how Qyzylorda oblast moved into the fifth
2097 # time belt. (By switching from +04/+05 to +05/+06 on 1991-09-29?) ...
2098 #
2099 # 1. Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Kazakhstan
2100 # from 1992-01-13 No. 28
2101 # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P920000028_
2102 # (text includes modification from the 1996 act)
2103 # introduced new rules for calculation of time, mirroring Russian
2104 # 1992-01-08 act.  It specified that time would be calculated
2105 # according to time belts plus extra hour ("decree time"), moved clocks
2106 # on the whole territory of Kazakhstan 1 hour forward on 1992-01-19 at
2107 # 2:00, specified DST rules.  It acknowledged that Kazakhstan was
2108 # located in the fourth and the fifth time belts and specified the
2109 # border between them to be located east of Qostanay and Aktyubinsk
2110 # oblasts (notably including Turgai and Qyzylorda oblasts into the fifth
2111 # time belt).
2112 #
2113 # This means switch on 1992-01-19 at 2:00 from +04/+05 to +05/+06 for
2114 # Asia/Aqtau, Asia/Aqtobe, Asia/Oral, Atyraū and Qostanay oblasts; from
2115 # +05/+06 to +06/+07 for Asia/Almaty and Asia/Qyzylorda (and Arkalyk)....
2116 #
2117 # 2. Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Kazakhstan
2118 # from 1992-03-27 No. 284
2119 # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P920000284_
2120 # cancels extra hour ("decree time") for Uralsk and Qyzylorda oblasts
2121 # since the last Sunday of March 1992, while keeping them in the fourth
2122 # and the fifth time belts respectively.
2123 #
2124 # 3. Order of the Prime Minister of the Republic of Kazakhstan
2125 # from 1994-09-23 No. 384
2126 # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/R940000384_
2127 # cancels the extra hour ("decree time") on the territory of Mangghystaū
2128 # oblast since the last Sunday of September 1994 (saying that time on
2129 # the territory would correspond to the third time belt as a
2130 # result)....
2131 #
2132 # 4. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
2133 # from 1996-05-08 No. 575
2134 # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P960000575_
2135 # amends the 1992-01-13 act to end summer time in October instead
2136 # of September, mirroring identical Russian change from 1996-04-23 act.
2137 #
2138 # 5. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
2139 # from 1999-03-26 No. 305
2140 # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P990000305_
2141 # cancels the extra hour ("decree time") for Atyraū oblast since the
2142 # last Sunday of March 1999 while retaining the oblast in the fourth
2143 # time belt.
2144 #
2145 # This means change from +05/+06 to +04/+05....
2146 #
2147 # 6. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
2148 # from 2000-11-23 No. 1749
2149 # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/archive/docs/P000001749_/23.11.2000
2150 # replaces the previous five documents.
2151 #
2152 # The only changes I noticed are in definition of the border between the
2153 # fourth and the fifth time belts.  They account for changes in spelling
2154 # and administrative division (splitting of Turgai oblast in 1997
2155 # probably changed time in territories incorporated into Qostanay oblast
2156 # (including Arkalyk) from +06/+07 to +05/+06) and move Qyzylorda oblast
2157 # from being in the fifth time belt and not using decree time into the
2158 # fourth time belt (no change in practice).
2159 #
2160 # 7. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
2161 # from 2003-12-29 No. 1342
2162 # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P030001342_
2163 # modified the 2000-11-23 act.  No relevant changes, apparently.
2164 #
2165 # 8. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
2166 # from 2004-07-20 No. 775
2167 # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/archive/docs/P040000775_/20.07.2004
2168 # modified the 2000-11-23 act to move Qostanay and Qyzylorda oblasts into
2169 # the fifth time belt and add Aktobe oblast to the list of regions not
2170 # using extra hour ("decree time"), leaving Kazakhstan with only 2 time
2171 # zones (+04/+05 and +06/+07).  The changes were to be implemented
2172 # during DST transitions in 2004 and 2005 but the acts got radically
2173 # amended before implementation happened.
2174 #
2175 # 9. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
2176 # from 2004-09-15 No. 1059
2177 # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P040001059_
2178 # modified the 2000-11-23 act to remove exceptions from the "decree time"
2179 # (leaving Kazakhstan in +05/+06 and +06/+07 zones), amended the
2180 # 2004-07-20 act to implement changes for Atyraū, West Kazakhstan,
2181 # Qostanay, Qyzylorda and Mangghystaū oblasts by not moving clocks
2182 # during the 2004 transition to "winter" time.
2183 #
2184 # This means transition from +04/+05 to +05/+06 for Atyraū oblast (no
2185 # zone currently), Asia/Oral, Asia/Aqtau and transition from +05/+06 to
2186 # +06/+07 for Qostanay oblast (Qostanay and Arkalyk, no zones currently)
2187 # and Asia/Qyzylorda on 2004-10-31 at 3:00....
2188 #
2189 # 10. Act of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
2190 # from 2005-03-15 No. 231
2191 # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P050000231_
2192 # removes DST provisions from the 2000-11-23 act, removes most of the
2193 # (already implemented) provisions from the 2004-07-20 and 2004-09-15
2194 # acts, comes into effect 10 days after official publication.
2195 # The only practical effect seems to be the abolition of the summer
2196 # time.
2197 #
2198 # Unamended version of the act of the Government of the Russian Federation
2199 # No. 23 from 1992-01-08 [See 'europe' file for details].
2200 # Kazakh 1992-01-13 act appears to provide the same rules and 1992-03-27
2201 # act was to be enacted on the last Sunday of March 1992.
2202 
2203 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-11-08):
2204 # Turgai reorganization should affect only southern part of Qostanay
2205 # oblast.  Which should probably be separated into Asia/Arkalyk zone.
2206 # (There were also 1970, 1988 and 1990 Turgai oblast reorganizations
2207 # according to wikipedia.)
2208 #
2209 # [For Qostanay] http://www.ng.kz/gazeta/195/hranit/
2210 # suggests that clocks were to be moved 40 minutes backwards on
2211 # 1920-01-01 to the fourth time belt.  But I do not understand
2212 # how that could happen....
2213 #
2214 # [For Atyrau and Oral] 1919 decree
2215 # (http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-1919-02-08.html
2216 # and in Byalokoz) lists Ural river (plus 10 versts on its left bank) in
2217 # the third time belt (before 1930 this means +03).
2218 
2219 # From Alexander Konzurovski (2018-12-20):
2220 # Qyzyolrda Region (Asia/Qyzylorda) is changing its time zone from
2221 # UTC+6 to UTC+5 effective December 21st, 2018. The legal document is
2222 # located here: http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P1800000817 (russian language).
2223 
2224 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2225 #
2226 # Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata), representing most locations in Kazakhstan
2227 # This includes KZ-AKM, KZ-ALA, KZ-ALM, KZ-AST, KZ-BAY, KZ-VOS, KZ-ZHA,
2228 # KZ-KAR, KZ-SEV, KZ-PAV, and KZ-YUZ.
2229 Zone    Asia/Almaty     5:07:48 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Alma-Ata
2230                         5:00    -       +05     1930 Jun 21
2231                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2232                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2233                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2234                         6:00    -       +06
2235 # Qyzylorda (aka Kyzylorda, Kizilorda, Kzyl-Orda, etc.) (KZ-KZY)
2236 Zone    Asia/Qyzylorda  4:21:52 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2237                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
2238                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
2239                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
2240                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
2241                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2242                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Sep 29  2:00s
2243                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2244                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2245                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2246                         6:00    -       +06     2018 Dec 21  0:00
2247                         5:00    -       +05
2248 #
2249 # Qostanay (aka Kostanay, Kustanay) (KZ-KUS)
2250 # The 1991/2 rules are unclear partly because of the 1997 Turgai
2251 # reorganization.
2252 Zone    Asia/Qostanay   4:14:28 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2253                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
2254                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
2255                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
2256                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
2257                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2258                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2259                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2260                         6:00    -       +06
2261 
2262 # Aqtöbe (aka Aktobe, formerly Aktyubinsk) (KZ-AKT)
2263 Zone    Asia/Aqtobe     3:48:40 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2264                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
2265                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
2266                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
2267                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
2268                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2269                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2270                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2271                         5:00    -       +05
2272 # Mangghystaū (KZ-MAN)
2273 # Aqtau was not founded until 1963, but it represents an inhabited region,
2274 # so include timestamps before 1963.
2275 Zone    Asia/Aqtau      3:21:04 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2276                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
2277                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Oct  1
2278                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
2279                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2280                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2281                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1994 Sep 25  2:00s
2282                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2283                         5:00    -       +05
2284 # Atyraū (KZ-ATY) is like Mangghystaū except it switched from
2285 # +04/+05 to +05/+06 in spring 1999, not fall 1994.
2286 Zone    Asia/Atyrau     3:27:44 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2287                         3:00    -       +03     1930 Jun 21
2288                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Oct  1
2289                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
2290                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2291                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2292                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1999 Mar 28  2:00s
2293                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2294                         5:00    -       +05
2295 # West Kazakhstan (KZ-ZAP)
2296 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
2297 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
2298 Zone    Asia/Oral       3:25:24 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Ural'sk
2299                         3:00    -       +03     1930 Jun 21
2300                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
2301                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
2302                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
2303                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
2304                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2305                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2306                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2307                         5:00    -       +05
2308 
2309 # Kyrgyzstan (Kirgizstan)
2310 # Transitions through 1991 are from Shanks & Pottenger.
2311 
2312 # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-15):
2313 # According to an article dated today in the Kyrgyzstan Development Gateway
2314 # http://eng.gateway.kg/cgi-bin/page.pl?id=1&story_name=doc9979.shtml
2315 # Kyrgyzstan is canceling the daylight saving time system.  I take the article
2316 # to mean that they will leave their clocks at 6 hours ahead of UTC.
2317 # From Malik Abdugaliev (2005-09-21):
2318 # Our government cancels daylight saving time 6th of August 2005.
2319 # From 2005-08-12 our GMT-offset is +6, w/o any daylight saving.
2320 
2321 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2322 Rule    Kyrgyz  1992    1996    -       Apr     Sun>=7       0:00s   1:00    -
2323 Rule    Kyrgyz  1992    1996    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
2324 Rule    Kyrgyz  1997    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:30    1:00    -
2325 Rule    Kyrgyz  1997    2004    -       Oct     lastSun 2:30    0       -
2326 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2327 Zone    Asia/Bishkek    4:58:24 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2328                         5:00    -       +05     1930 Jun 21
2329                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2330                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Aug 31  2:00
2331                         5:00    Kyrgyz  +05/+06 2005 Aug 12
2332                         6:00    -       +06
2333 
2334 ###############################################################################
2335 
2336 # Korea (North and South)
2337 
2338 # From Annie I. Bang (2006-07-10):
2339 # http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=200607100012
2340 # Korea ran a daylight saving program from 1949-61 but stopped it
2341 # during the 1950-53 Korean War.  The system was temporarily enforced
2342 # between 1987 and 1988 ...
2343 
2344 # From Sanghyuk Jung (2014-10-29):
2345 # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-October/021830.html
2346 # According to the Korean Wikipedia
2347 # https://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/한국_표준시
2348 # [oldid=12896437 2014-09-04 08:03 UTC]
2349 # DST in Republic of Korea was as follows....  And I checked old
2350 # newspapers in Korean, all articles correspond with data in Wikipedia.
2351 # For example, the article in 1948 (Korean Language) proved that DST
2352 # started at June 1 in that year.  For another example, the article in
2353 # 1988 said that DST started at 2:00 AM in that year.
2354 
2355 # From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
2356 # 1. According to official announcement from Korean government, the DST end
2357 # date in South Korea should be
2358 # 1955-09-08 without specifying time
2359 # http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027977557
2360 # 1956-09-29 without specifying time
2361 # http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027978341
2362 # 1957-09-21 24 o'clock
2363 # http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027979690#3
2364 # 1958-09-20 24 o'clock
2365 # http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027981189
2366 # 1959-09-19 24 o'clock
2367 # http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027982974#2
2368 # 1960-09-17 24 o'clock
2369 # http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0028044104
2370 # ...
2371 # 2.... https://namu.wiki/w/대한민국%20표준시 ... [says]
2372 # when Korea was using GMT+8:30 as standard time, the international
2373 # aviation/marine/meteorological industry in the country refused to
2374 # follow and continued to use GMT+9:00 for interoperability.
2375 
2376 
2377 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2378 Rule    ROK     1948    only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    D
2379 Rule    ROK     1948    only    -       Sep     12      24:00   0       S
2380 Rule    ROK     1949    only    -       Apr      3       0:00   1:00    D
2381 Rule    ROK     1949    1951    -       Sep     Sat>=7       24:00   0       S
2382 Rule    ROK     1950    only    -       Apr      1       0:00   1:00    D
2383 Rule    ROK     1951    only    -       May      6       0:00   1:00    D
2384 Rule    ROK     1955    only    -       May      5       0:00   1:00    D
2385 Rule    ROK     1955    only    -       Sep      8      24:00   0       S
2386 Rule    ROK     1956    only    -       May     20       0:00   1:00    D
2387 Rule    ROK     1956    only    -       Sep     29      24:00   0       S
2388 Rule    ROK     1957    1960    -       May     Sun>=1        0:00   1:00    D
2389 Rule    ROK     1957    1960    -       Sep     Sat>=17      24:00   0       S
2390 Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=8        2:00   1:00    D
2391 Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       Oct     Sun>=8        3:00   0       S
2392 
2393 # From Paul Eggert (2016-08-23):
2394 # The Korean Wikipedia entry gives the following sources for UT offsets:
2395 #
2396 # 1908: Official Journal Article No. 3994 (decree No. 5)
2397 # 1912: Governor-General of Korea Official Gazette Issue No. 367
2398 #       (Announcement No. 338)
2399 # 1954: Presidential Decree No. 876 (1954-03-17)
2400 # 1961: Law No. 676 (1961-08-07)
2401 #
2402 # (Another source "1987: Law No. 3919 (1986-12-31)" was in the 2014-10-30
2403 # edition of the Korean Wikipedia entry.)
2404 #
2405 # I guessed that time zone abbreviations through 1945 followed the same
2406 # rules as discussed under Taiwan, with nominal switches from JST to KST
2407 # when the respective cities were taken over by the Allies after WWII.
2408 #
2409 # For Pyongyang, guess no changes from World War II until 2015, as we
2410 # have no information otherwise.
2411 
2412 # From Steffen Thorsen (2015-08-07):
2413 # According to many news sources, North Korea is going to change to
2414 # the 8:30 time zone on August 15, one example:
2415 # http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-33815049
2416 #
2417 # From Paul Eggert (2015-08-15):
2418 # Bells rang out midnight (00:00) Friday as part of the celebrations.  See:
2419 # Talmadge E. North Korea celebrates new time zone, 'Pyongyang Time'
2420 # http://news.yahoo.com/north-korea-celebrates-time-zone-pyongyang-time-164038128.html
2421 # There is no common English-language abbreviation for this time zone.
2422 # Use KST, as that's what we already use for 1954-1961 in ROK.
2423 
2424 # From Kang Seonghoon (2018-04-29):
2425 # North Korea will revert its time zone from UTC+8:30 (PYT; Pyongyang
2426 # Time) back to UTC+9 (KST; Korea Standard Time).
2427 #
2428 # From Seo Sanghyeon (2018-04-30):
2429 # Rodong Sinmun 2018-04-30 announced Pyongyang Time transition plan.
2430 # https://www.nknews.org/kcna/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2018/04/rodong-2018-04-30.pdf
2431 # ... the transition date is 2018-05-05 ...  Citation should be Decree
2432 # No. 2232 of April 30, 2018, of the Presidium of the Supreme People's
2433 # Assembly, as published in Rodong Sinmun.
2434 # From Tim Parenti (2018-04-29):
2435 # It appears to be the front page story at the top in the right-most column.
2436 #
2437 # From Paul Eggert (2018-05-04):
2438 # The BBC reported that the transition was from 23:30 to 24:00 today.
2439 # https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-44010705
2440 
2441 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2442 Zone    Asia/Seoul      8:27:52 -       LMT     1908 Apr  1
2443                         8:30    -       KST     1912 Jan  1
2444                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep  8
2445                         9:00    -       KST     1954 Mar 21
2446                         8:30    ROK     K%sT    1961 Aug 10
2447                         9:00    ROK     K%sT
2448 Zone    Asia/Pyongyang  8:23:00 -       LMT     1908 Apr  1
2449                         8:30    -       KST     1912 Jan  1
2450                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Aug 24
2451                         9:00    -       KST     2015 Aug 15 00:00
2452                         8:30    -       KST     2018 May  4 23:30
2453                         9:00    -       KST
2454 
2455 ###############################################################################
2456 
2457 # Kuwait
2458 # See Asia/Riyadh.
2459 
2460 # Laos
2461 # See Asia/Bangkok.
2462 
2463 
2464 # Lebanon
2465 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2466 Rule    Lebanon 1920    only    -       Mar     28      0:00    1:00    S
2467 Rule    Lebanon 1920    only    -       Oct     25      0:00    0       -
2468 Rule    Lebanon 1921    only    -       Apr     3       0:00    1:00    S
2469 Rule    Lebanon 1921    only    -       Oct     3       0:00    0       -
2470 Rule    Lebanon 1922    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S
2471 Rule    Lebanon 1922    only    -       Oct     8       0:00    0       -
2472 Rule    Lebanon 1923    only    -       Apr     22      0:00    1:00    S
2473 Rule    Lebanon 1923    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       -
2474 Rule    Lebanon 1957    1961    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
2475 Rule    Lebanon 1957    1961    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
2476 Rule    Lebanon 1972    only    -       Jun     22      0:00    1:00    S
2477 Rule    Lebanon 1972    1977    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
2478 Rule    Lebanon 1973    1977    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
2479 Rule    Lebanon 1978    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    S
2480 Rule    Lebanon 1978    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
2481 Rule    Lebanon 1984    1987    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
2482 Rule    Lebanon 1984    1991    -       Oct     16      0:00    0       -
2483 Rule    Lebanon 1988    only    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    S
2484 Rule    Lebanon 1989    only    -       May     10      0:00    1:00    S
2485 Rule    Lebanon 1990    1992    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
2486 Rule    Lebanon 1992    only    -       Oct     4       0:00    0       -
2487 Rule    Lebanon 1993    max     -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
2488 Rule    Lebanon 1993    1998    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
2489 Rule    Lebanon 1999    max     -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       -
2490 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2491 Zone    Asia/Beirut     2:22:00 -       LMT     1880
2492                         2:00    Lebanon EE%sT
2493 
2494 # Malaysia
2495 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2496 Rule    NBorneo 1935    1941    -       Sep     14      0:00    0:20    -
2497 Rule    NBorneo 1935    1941    -       Dec     14      0:00    0       -
2498 #
2499 # peninsular Malaysia
2500 # taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
2501 # http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html
2502 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2503 Zone Asia/Kuala_Lumpur  6:46:46 -       LMT     1901 Jan  1
2504                         6:55:25 -       SMT     1905 Jun  1 # Singapore M.T.
2505                         7:00    -       +07     1933 Jan  1
2506                         7:00    0:20    +0720   1936 Jan  1
2507                         7:20    -       +0720   1941 Sep  1
2508                         7:30    -       +0730   1942 Feb 16
2509                         9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep 12
2510                         7:30    -       +0730   1982 Jan  1
2511                         8:00    -       +08
2512 # Sabah & Sarawak
2513 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-12):
2514 # The data entries here are mostly from Shanks & Pottenger, but the 1942, 1945
2515 # and 1982 transition dates are from Mok Ly Yng.
2516 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2517 Zone Asia/Kuching       7:21:20 -       LMT     1926 Mar
2518                         7:30    -       +0730   1933
2519                         8:00 NBorneo  +08/+0820 1942 Feb 16
2520                         9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep 12
2521                         8:00    -       +08
2522 
2523 # Maldives
2524 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2525 Zone    Indian/Maldives 4:54:00 -       LMT     1880 # Malé
2526                         4:54:00 -       MMT     1960 # Malé Mean Time
2527                         5:00    -       +05
2528 
2529 # Mongolia
2530 
2531 # Shanks & Pottenger say that Mongolia has three time zones, but
2532 # The USNO (1995-12-21) and the CIA map Standard Time Zones of the World
2533 # (2005-03) both say that it has just one.
2534 
2535 # From Oscar van Vlijmen (1999-12-11):
2536 # General Information Mongolia
2537 # <http://www.mongoliatourism.gov.mn/general.htm> (1999-09)
2538 # "Time: Mongolia has two time zones. Three westernmost provinces of
2539 # Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, and Hovd are one hour earlier than the capital city, and
2540 # the rest of the country follows the Ulaanbaatar time, which is UTC/GMT plus
2541 # eight hours."
2542 
2543 # From Rives McDow (1999-12-13):
2544 # Mongolia discontinued the use of daylight savings time in 1999; 1998
2545 # being the last year it was implemented.  The dates of implementation I am
2546 # unsure of, but most probably it was similar to Russia, except for the time
2547 # of implementation may have been different....
2548 # Some maps in the past have indicated that there was an additional time
2549 # zone in the eastern part of Mongolia, including the provinces of Dornod,
2550 # Sükhbaatar, and possibly Khentii.
2551 
2552 # From Paul Eggert (1999-12-15):
2553 # Naming and spelling is tricky in Mongolia.
2554 # We'll use Hovd (also spelled Chovd and Khovd) to represent the west zone;
2555 # the capital of the Hovd province is sometimes called Hovd, sometimes Dund-Us,
2556 # and sometimes Jirgalanta (with variant spellings), but the name Hovd
2557 # is good enough for our purposes.
2558 
2559 # From Rives McDow (2001-05-13):
2560 # In addition to Mongolia starting daylight savings as reported earlier
2561 # (adopted DST on 2001-04-27 02:00 local time, ending 2001-09-28),
2562 # there are three time zones.
2563 #
2564 # Provinces [at 7:00]: Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, Khovd, Zavkhan, Govi-Altai
2565 # Provinces [at 8:00]: Khövsgöl, Bulgan, Arkhangai, Khentii, Töv,
2566 #       Bayankhongor, Övörkhangai, Dundgovi, Dornogovi, Ömnögovi
2567 # Provinces [at 9:00]: Dornod, Sükhbaatar
2568 #
2569 # [The province of Selenge is omitted from the above lists.]
2570 
2571 # From Ganbold Ts., Ulaanbaatar (2004-04-17):
2572 # Daylight saving occurs at 02:00 local time last Saturday of March.
2573 # It will change back to normal at 02:00 local time last Saturday of
2574 # September.... As I remember this rule was changed in 2001.
2575 #
2576 # From Paul Eggert (2004-04-17):
2577 # For now, assume Rives McDow's informant got confused about Friday vs
2578 # Saturday, and that his 2001 dates should have 1 added to them.
2579 
2580 # From Paul Eggert (2005-07-26):
2581 # We have wildly conflicting information about Mongolia's time zones.
2582 # Bill Bonnet (2005-05-19) reports that the US Embassy in Ulaanbaatar says
2583 # there is only one time zone and that DST is observed, citing Microsoft
2584 # Windows XP as the source.  Risto Nykänen (2005-05-16) reports that
2585 # travelmongolia.org says there are two time zones (UT +07, +08) with no DST.
2586 # Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-05-20) reports that the Mongolian Embassy in
2587 # Washington, DC says there are two time zones, with DST observed.
2588 # He also found
2589 # http://ubpost.mongolnews.mn/index.php?subaction=showcomments&id=1111634894&archive=&start_from=&ucat=1&
2590 # which also says that there is DST, and which has a comment by "Toddius"
2591 # (2005-03-31 06:05 +0700) saying "Mongolia actually has 3.5 time zones.
2592 # The West (OLGII) is +7 GMT, most of the country is ULAT is +8 GMT
2593 # and some Eastern provinces are +9 GMT but Sükhbaatar Aimag is SUHK +8.5 GMT.
2594 # The SUKH timezone is new this year, it is one of the few things the
2595 # parliament passed during the tumultuous winter session."
2596 # For now, let's ignore this information, until we have more confirmation.
2597 
2598 # From Ganbold Ts. (2007-02-26):
2599 # Parliament of Mongolia has just changed the daylight-saving rule in February.
2600 # They decided not to adopt daylight-saving time....
2601 # http://www.mongolnews.mn/index.php?module=unuudur&sec=view&id=15742
2602 
2603 # From Deborah Goldsmith (2008-03-30):
2604 # We received a bug report claiming that the tz database UTC offset for
2605 # Asia/Choibalsan (GMT+09:00) is incorrect, and that it should be GMT
2606 # +08:00 instead. Different sources appear to disagree with the tz
2607 # database on this, e.g.:
2608 #
2609 # https://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/city.html?n=1026
2610 # http://www.worldtimeserver.com/current_time_in_MN.aspx
2611 #
2612 # both say GMT+08:00.
2613 
2614 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-03-31):
2615 # eznis airways, which operates several domestic flights, has a flight
2616 # schedule here:
2617 # http://www.eznis.com/Container.jsp?id=112
2618 # (click the English flag for English)
2619 #
2620 # There it appears that flights between Choibalsan and Ulaanbaatar arrive
2621 # about 1:35 - 1:50 hours later in local clock time, no matter the
2622 # direction, while Ulaanbaatar-Khovd takes 2 hours in the Eastern
2623 # direction and 3:35 back, which indicates that Ulaanbaatar and Khovd are
2624 # in different time zones (like we know about), while Choibalsan and
2625 # Ulaanbaatar are in the same time zone (correction needed).
2626 
2627 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):
2628 # Assume that Choibalsan is indeed offset by 8:00.
2629 # XXX--in the absence of better information, assume that transition
2630 # was at the start of 2008-03-31 (the day of Steffen Thorsen's report);
2631 # this is almost surely wrong.
2632 
2633 # From Ganbold Tsagaankhuu (2015-03-10):
2634 # It seems like yesterday Mongolian Government meeting has concluded to use
2635 # daylight saving time in Mongolia....  Starting at 2:00AM of last Saturday of
2636 # March 2015, daylight saving time starts.  And 00:00AM of last Saturday of
2637 # September daylight saving time ends.  Source:
2638 # http://zasag.mn/news/view/8969
2639 
2640 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2641 Rule    Mongol  1983    1984    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    -
2642 Rule    Mongol  1983    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
2643 # Shanks & Pottenger and IATA SSIM say 1990s switches occurred at 00:00,
2644 # but McDow says the 2001 switches occurred at 02:00.  Also, IATA SSIM
2645 # (1996-09) says 1996-10-25.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger through 1998.
2646 #
2647 # Shanks & Pottenger say that the Sept. 1984 through Sept. 1990 switches
2648 # in Choibalsan (more precisely, in Dornod and Sükhbaatar) took place
2649 # at 02:00 standard time, not at 00:00 local time as in the rest of
2650 # the country.  That would be odd, and possibly is a result of their
2651 # correction of 02:00 (in the previous edition) not being done correctly
2652 # in the latest edition; so ignore it for now.
2653 
2654 # From Ganbold Tsagaankhuu (2017-02-09):
2655 # Mongolian Government meeting has concluded today to cancel daylight
2656 # saving time adoption in Mongolia.  Source: http://zasag.mn/news/view/16192
2657 
2658 Rule    Mongol  1985    1998    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    -
2659 Rule    Mongol  1984    1998    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
2660 # IATA SSIM (1999-09) says Mongolia no longer observes DST.
2661 Rule    Mongol  2001    only    -       Apr     lastSat 2:00    1:00    -
2662 Rule    Mongol  2001    2006    -       Sep     lastSat 2:00    0       -
2663 Rule    Mongol  2002    2006    -       Mar     lastSat 2:00    1:00    -
2664 Rule    Mongol  2015    2016    -       Mar     lastSat 2:00    1:00    -
2665 Rule    Mongol  2015    2016    -       Sep     lastSat 0:00    0       -
2666 
2667 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2668 # Hovd, a.k.a. Chovd, Dund-Us, Dzhargalant, Khovd, Jirgalanta
2669 Zone    Asia/Hovd       6:06:36 -       LMT     1905 Aug
2670                         6:00    -       +06     1978
2671                         7:00    Mongol  +07/+08
2672 # Ulaanbaatar, a.k.a. Ulan Bataar, Ulan Bator, Urga
2673 Zone    Asia/Ulaanbaatar 7:07:32 -      LMT     1905 Aug
2674                         7:00    -       +07     1978
2675                         8:00    Mongol  +08/+09
2676 # Choibalsan, a.k.a. Bajan Tümen, Bajan Tumen, Chojbalsan,
2677 # Choybalsan, Sanbejse, Tchoibalsan
2678 Zone    Asia/Choibalsan 7:38:00 -       LMT     1905 Aug
2679                         7:00    -       +07     1978
2680                         8:00    -       +08     1983 Apr
2681                         9:00    Mongol  +09/+10 2008 Mar 31
2682                         8:00    Mongol  +08/+09
2683 
2684 # Nepal
2685 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2686 Zone    Asia/Kathmandu  5:41:16 -       LMT     1920
2687                         5:30    -       +0530   1986
2688                         5:45    -       +0545
2689 
2690 # Oman
2691 # See Asia/Dubai.
2692 
2693 # Pakistan
2694 
2695 # From Rives McDow (2002-03-13):
2696 # I have been advised that Pakistan has decided to adopt dst on a
2697 # TRIAL basis for one year, starting 00:01 local time on April 7, 2002
2698 # and ending at 00:01 local time October 6, 2002.  This is what I was
2699 # told, but I believe that the actual time of change may be 00:00; the
2700 # 00:01 was to make it clear which day it was on.
2701 
2702 # From Paul Eggert (2002-03-15):
2703 # Jesper Nørgaard found this URL:
2704 # http://www.pak.gov.pk/public/news/app/app06_dec.htm
2705 # (dated 2001-12-06) which says that the Cabinet adopted a scheme "to
2706 # advance the clocks by one hour on the night between the first
2707 # Saturday and Sunday of April and revert to the original position on
2708 # 15th October each year".  This agrees with McDow's 04-07 at 00:00,
2709 # but disagrees about the October transition, and makes it sound like
2710 # it's not on a trial basis.  Also, the "between the first Saturday
2711 # and Sunday of April" phrase, if taken literally, means that the
2712 # transition takes place at 00:00 on the first Sunday on or after 04-02.
2713 
2714 # From Paul Eggert (2003-02-09):
2715 # DAWN <http://www.dawn.com/2002/10/06/top13.htm> reported on 2002-10-05
2716 # that 2002 DST ended that day at midnight.  Go with McDow for now.
2717 
2718 # From Steffen Thorsen (2003-03-14):
2719 # According to http://www.dawn.com/2003/03/07/top15.htm
2720 # there will be no DST in Pakistan this year:
2721 #
2722 # ISLAMABAD, March 6: Information and Media Development Minister Sheikh
2723 # Rashid Ahmed on Thursday said the cabinet had reversed a previous
2724 # decision to advance clocks by one hour in summer and put them back by
2725 # one hour in winter with the aim of saving light hours and energy.
2726 #
2727 # The minister told a news conference that the experiment had rather
2728 # shown 8 per cent higher consumption of electricity.
2729 
2730 # From Alex Krivenyshev (2008-05-15):
2731 #
2732 # Here is an article that Pakistan plan to introduce Daylight Saving Time
2733 # on June 1, 2008 for 3 months.
2734 #
2735 # "... The federal cabinet on Wednesday announced a new conservation plan to
2736 # help reduce load shedding by approving the closure of commercial centres at
2737 # 9pm and moving clocks forward by one hour for the next three months. ...."
2738 #
2739 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan01.html
2740 # http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2008%5C05%5C15%5Cstory_15-5-2008_pg1_4
2741 
2742 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-05-19):
2743 # XXX--midnight transitions is a guess; 2008 only is a guess.
2744 
2745 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28):
2746 # Pakistan government has decided to keep the watches one-hour advanced
2747 # for another 2 months - plan to return to Standard Time on October 31
2748 # instead of August 31.
2749 #
2750 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan02.html
2751 # http://dailymailnews.com/200808/28/news/dmbrn03.html
2752 
2753 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-04-08):
2754 # Based on previous media reports that "... proposed plan to
2755 # advance clocks by one hour from May 1 will cause disturbance
2756 # to the working schedules rather than bringing discipline in
2757 # official working."
2758 # http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=171280
2759 #
2760 # recent news that instead of May 2009 - Pakistan plan to
2761 # introduce DST from April 15, 2009
2762 #
2763 # FYI: Associated Press Of Pakistan
2764 # April 08, 2009
2765 # Cabinet okays proposal to advance clocks by one hour from April 15
2766 # http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=73043&Itemid=1
2767 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan05.html
2768 #
2769 # ....
2770 # The Federal Cabinet on Wednesday approved the proposal to
2771 # advance clocks in the country by one hour from April 15 to
2772 # conserve energy"
2773 
2774 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-17):
2775 # "The News International," Pakistan reports that: "The Federal
2776 # Government has decided to restore the previous time by moving the
2777 # clocks backward by one hour from October 1. A formal announcement to
2778 # this effect will be made after the Prime Minister grants approval in
2779 # this regard."
2780 # http://www.thenews.com.pk/updates.asp?id=87168
2781 
2782 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-28):
2783 # According to Associated Press Of Pakistan, it is confirmed that
2784 # Pakistan clocks across the country would be turned back by an hour from
2785 # October 1, 2009.
2786 #
2787 # "Clocks to go back one hour from 1 Oct"
2788 # http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=86715&Itemid=2
2789 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_pakistan07.htm
2790 #
2791 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-09-29):
2792 # Now they seem to have changed their mind, November 1 is the new date:
2793 # http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=24742
2794 # "The country's clocks will be reversed by one hour on November 1.
2795 # Officials of Federal Ministry for Interior told this to Geo News on
2796 # Monday."
2797 #
2798 # And more importantly, it seems that these dates will be kept every year:
2799 # "It has now been decided that clocks will be wound forward by one hour
2800 # on April 15 and reversed by an hour on November 1 every year without
2801 # obtaining prior approval, the officials added."
2802 #
2803 # We have confirmed this year's end date with both with the Ministry of
2804 # Water and Power and the Pakistan Electric Power Company:
2805 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/pakistan-ends-dst09.html
2806 
2807 # From Christoph Göhre (2009-10-01):
2808 # [T]he German Consulate General in Karachi reported me today that Pakistan
2809 # will go back to standard time on 1st of November.
2810 
2811 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-26):
2812 # Steffen Thorsen wrote:
2813 # > On Thursday (2010-03-25) it was announced that DST would start in
2814 # > Pakistan on 2010-04-01.
2815 # >
2816 # > Then today, the president said that they might have to revert the
2817 # > decision if it is not supported by the parliament. So at the time
2818 # > being, it seems unclear if DST will be actually observed or not - but
2819 # > April 1 could be a more likely date than April 15.
2820 # Now, it seems that the decision to not observe DST in final:
2821 #
2822 # "Govt Withdraws Plan To Advance Clocks"
2823 # http://www.apakistannews.com/govt-withdraws-plan-to-advance-clocks-172041
2824 #
2825 # "People laud PM's announcement to end DST"
2826 # http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99374&Itemid=2
2827 
2828 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2829 Rule Pakistan   2002    only    -       Apr     Sun>=2       0:00    1:00    S
2830 Rule Pakistan   2002    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2       0:00    0       -
2831 Rule Pakistan   2008    only    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    S
2832 Rule Pakistan   2008    2009    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       -
2833 Rule Pakistan   2009    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    S
2834 
2835 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2836 Zone    Asia/Karachi    4:28:12 -       LMT     1907
2837                         5:30    -       +0530   1942 Sep
2838                         5:30    1:00    +0630   1945 Oct 15
2839                         5:30    -       +0530   1951 Sep 30
2840                         5:00    -       +05     1971 Mar 26
2841                         5:00 Pakistan   PK%sT   # Pakistan Time
2842 
2843 # Palestine
2844 
2845 # From Amos Shapir (1998-02-15):
2846 #
2847 # From 1917 until 1948-05-15, all of Palestine, including the parts now
2848 # known as the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, was under British rule.
2849 # Therefore the rules given for Israel for that period, apply there too...
2850 #
2851 # The Gaza Strip was under Egyptian rule between 1948-05-15 until 1967-06-05
2852 # (except a short occupation by Israel from 1956-11 till 1957-03, but no
2853 # time zone was affected then).  It was never formally annexed to Egypt,
2854 # though.
2855 #
2856 # The rest of Palestine was under Jordanian rule at that time, formally
2857 # annexed in 1950 as the West Bank (and the word "Trans" was dropped from
2858 # the country's previous name of "the Hashemite Kingdom of the
2859 # Trans-Jordan").  So the rules for Jordan for that time apply.  Major
2860 # towns in that area are Nablus (Shchem), El-Halil (Hebron), Ramallah, and
2861 # East Jerusalem.
2862 #
2863 # Both areas were occupied by Israel in June 1967, but not annexed (except
2864 # for East Jerusalem).  They were on Israel time since then; there might
2865 # have been a Military Governor's order about time zones, but I'm not aware
2866 # of any (such orders may have been issued semi-annually whenever summer
2867 # time was in effect, but maybe the legal aspect of time was just neglected).
2868 #
2869 # The Palestinian Authority was established in 1993, and got hold of most
2870 # towns in the West Bank and Gaza by 1995.  I know that in order to
2871 # demonstrate...independence, they have been switching to
2872 # summer time and back on a different schedule than Israel's, but I don't
2873 # know when this was started, or what algorithm is used (most likely the
2874 # Jordanian one).
2875 #
2876 # To summarize, the table should probably look something like that:
2877 #
2878 # Area \ when | 1918-1947 | 1948-1967 | 1967-1995 | 1996-
2879 # ------------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------
2880 # Israel      | Zion      | Zion      | Zion      | Zion
2881 # West bank   | Zion      | Jordan    | Zion      | Jordan
2882 # Gaza        | Zion      | Egypt     | Zion      | Jordan
2883 #
2884 # I guess more info may be available from the PA's web page (if/when they
2885 # have one).
2886 
2887 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
2888 # Shanks & Pottenger write that Gaza did not observe DST until 1957, but go
2889 # with Shapir and assume that it observed DST from 1940 through 1947,
2890 # and that it used Jordanian rules starting in 1996.
2891 # We don't yet need a separate entry for the West Bank, since
2892 # the only differences between it and Gaza that we know about
2893 # occurred before our cutoff date of 1970.
2894 # However, as we get more information, we may need to add entries
2895 # for parts of the West Bank as they transitioned from Israel's rules
2896 # to Palestine's rules.
2897 
2898 # From IINS News Service - Israel - 1998-03-23 10:38:07 Israel time,
2899 # forwarded by Ephraim Silverberg:
2900 #
2901 # Despite the fact that Israel changed over to daylight savings time
2902 # last week, the PLO Authority (PA) has decided not to turn its clocks
2903 # one-hour forward at this time.  As a sign of independence from Israeli rule,
2904 # the PA has decided to implement DST in April.
2905 
2906 # From Paul Eggert (1999-09-20):
2907 # Daoud Kuttab writes in Holiday havoc
2908 # http://www.jpost.com/com/Archive/22.Apr.1999/Opinion/Article-2.html
2909 # (Jerusalem Post, 1999-04-22) that
2910 # the Palestinian National Authority changed to DST on 1999-04-15.
2911 # I vaguely recall that they switch back in October (sorry, forgot the source).
2912 # For now, let's assume that the spring switch was at 24:00,
2913 # and that they switch at 0:00 on the 3rd Fridays of April and October.
2914 
2915 # From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22):
2916 # Starting 2004 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com.
2917 
2918 # From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23):
2919 # A user from Gaza reported that Gaza made the change early because of
2920 # the Ramadan.  Next year Ramadan will be even earlier, so I think
2921 # there is a good chance next year's end date will be around two weeks
2922 # earlier - the same goes for Jordan.
2923 
2924 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-08-17):
2925 # I was informed by a user in Bethlehem that in Bethlehem it started the
2926 # same day as Israel, and after checking with other users in the area, I
2927 # was informed that they started DST one day after Israel.  I was not
2928 # able to find any authoritative sources at the time, nor details if
2929 # Gaza changed as well, but presumed Gaza to follow the same rules as
2930 # the West Bank.
2931 
2932 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-09-26):
2933 # according to the Palestine News Network (2006-09-19):
2934 # http://english.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=596&Itemid=5
2935 # > The Council of Ministers announced that this year its winter schedule
2936 # > will begin early, as of midnight Thursday.  It is also time to turn
2937 # > back the clocks for winter.  Friday will begin an hour late this week.
2938 # I guess it is likely that next year's date will be moved as well,
2939 # because of the Ramadan.
2940 
2941 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2007-09-18):
2942 # According to Steffen Thorsen's web site the Gaza Strip and the rest of the
2943 # Palestinian territories left DST early on 13.th. of September at 2:00.
2944 
2945 # From Paul Eggert (2007-09-20):
2946 # My understanding is that Gaza and the West Bank disagree even over when
2947 # the weekend is (Thursday+Friday versus Friday+Saturday), so I'd be a bit
2948 # surprised if they agreed about DST.  But for now, assume they agree.
2949 # For lack of better information, predict that future changes will be
2950 # the 2nd Thursday of September at 02:00.
2951 
2952 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2008-08-28):
2953 # Here is an article, that Mideast running on different clocks at Ramadan.
2954 #
2955 # Gaza Strip (as Egypt) ended DST at midnight Thursday (Aug 28, 2008), while
2956 # the West Bank will end Daylight Saving Time at midnight Sunday (Aug 31, 2008).
2957 #
2958 # http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/7759001
2959 # http://www.abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=5676087
2960 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip01.html
2961 
2962 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-03-26):
2963 # According to the Palestine News Network (arabic.pnn.ps), Palestinian
2964 # government decided to start Daylight Time on Thursday night March
2965 # 26 and continue until the night of 27 September 2009.
2966 #
2967 # (in Arabic)
2968 # http://arabic.pnn.ps/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=50850
2969 #
2970 # (English translation)
2971 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank01.html
2972 
2973 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-08-31):
2974 # Palestine's Council of Ministers announced that they will revert back to
2975 # winter time on Friday, 2009-09-04.
2976 #
2977 # One news source:
2978 # http://www.safa.ps/ara/?action=showdetail&seid=4158
2979 # (Palestinian press agency, Arabic),
2980 # Google translate: "Decided that the Palestinian government in Ramallah
2981 # headed by Salam Fayyad, the start of work in time for the winter of
2982 # 2009, starting on Friday approved the fourth delay Sept. clock sixty
2983 # minutes per hour as of Friday morning."
2984 #
2985 # We are not sure if Gaza will do the same, last year they had a different
2986 # end date, we will keep this page updated:
2987 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-dst-2009.html
2988 
2989 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-09-02):
2990 # Seems that Gaza Strip will go back to Winter Time same date as West Bank.
2991 #
2992 # According to Palestinian Ministry Of Interior, West Bank and Gaza Strip plan
2993 # to change time back to Standard time on September 4, 2009.
2994 #
2995 # "Winter time unite the West Bank and Gaza"
2996 # (from Palestinian National Authority):
2997 # http://www.moi.gov.ps/en/?page=633167343250594025&nid=11505
2998 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip02.html
2999 
3000 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-19):
3001 # According to Voice of Palestine DST will last for 191 days, from March
3002 # 26, 2010 till "the last Sunday before the tenth day of Tishri
3003 # (October), each year" (October 03, 2010?)
3004 #
3005 # http://palvoice.org/forums/showthread.php?t=245697
3006 # (in Arabic)
3007 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_westbank03.html
3008 
3009 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-24):
3010 # ...Ma'an News Agency reports that Hamas cabinet has decided it will
3011 # start one day later, at 12:01am. Not sure if they really mean 12:01am or
3012 # noon though:
3013 #
3014 # http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=271178
3015 # (Ma'an News Agency)
3016 # "At 12:01am Friday, clocks in Israel and the West Bank will change to
3017 # 1:01am, while Gaza clocks will change at 12:01am Saturday morning."
3018 
3019 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-08-11):
3020 # According to several sources, including
3021 # http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=306795
3022 # the clocks were set back one hour at 2010-08-11 00:00:00 local time in
3023 # Gaza and the West Bank.
3024 # Some more background info:
3025 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/westbank-gaza-end-dst-2010.html
3026 
3027 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-08-26):
3028 # Gaza and the West Bank did go back to standard time in the beginning of
3029 # August, and will now enter daylight saving time again on 2011-08-30
3030 # 00:00 (so two periods of DST in 2011). The pause was because of
3031 # Ramadan.
3032 #
3033 # http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=416217
3034 # Additional info:
3035 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/palestine-dst-2011.html
3036 
3037 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-08-27):
3038 # According to the article in The Jerusalem Post:
3039 # "...Earlier this month, the Palestinian government in the West Bank decided to
3040 # move to standard time for 30 days, during Ramadan. The Palestinians in the
3041 # Gaza Strip accepted the change and also moved their clocks one hour back.
3042 # The Hamas government said on Saturday that it won't observe summertime after
3043 # the Muslim feast of Id al-Fitr, which begins on Tuesday..."
3044 # ...
3045 # https://www.jpost.com/MiddleEast/Article.aspx?id=235650
3046 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_gazastrip05.html
3047 # The rules for Egypt are stolen from the 'africa' file.
3048 
3049 # From Steffen Thorsen (2011-09-30):
3050 # West Bank did end Daylight Saving Time this morning/midnight (2011-09-30
3051 # 00:00).
3052 # So West Bank and Gaza now have the same time again.
3053 #
3054 # Many sources, including:
3055 # http://www.maannews.net/eng/ViewDetails.aspx?ID=424808
3056 
3057 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):
3058 # Palestinian news sources tell that both Gaza and West Bank will start DST
3059 # on Friday (Thursday midnight, 2012-03-29 24:00).
3060 # Some of many sources in Arabic:
3061 # http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=122638
3062 #
3063 # http://safa.ps/details/news/74352/%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B6%D9%81%D8%A9-%D9%88%D8%BA%D8%B2%D8%A9-%D9%84%D9%8A%D9%84%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%A9.html
3064 #
3065 # Our brief summary:
3066 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/gaza-west-bank-dst-2012.html
3067 
3068 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-03-26):
3069 # The following news sources tells that Palestine will "start daylight saving
3070 # time from midnight on Friday, March 29, 2013" (translated).
3071 # [These are in Arabic and are for Gaza and for Ramallah, respectively.]
3072 # http://www.samanews.com/index.php?act=Show&id=154120
3073 # http://safa.ps/details/news/99844/%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%85-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%84%D9%87-%D8%A8%D8%AF%D8%A1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D9%88%D9%82%D9%8A%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B5%D9%8A%D9%81%D9%8A-29-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%8A.html
3074 
3075 # From Steffen Thorsen (2013-09-24):
3076 # The Gaza and West Bank are ending DST Thursday at midnight
3077 # (2013-09-27 00:00:00) (one hour earlier than last year...).
3078 # This source in English, says "that winter time will go into effect
3079 # at midnight on Thursday in the West Bank and Gaza Strip":
3080 # http://english.wafa.ps/index.php?action=detail&id=23246
3081 # official source...:
3082 # http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/ar/Views/ViewDetails.aspx?pid=1252
3083 
3084 # From Steffen Thorsen (2015-03-03):
3085 # Sources such as http://www.alquds.com/news/article/view/id/548257
3086 # and https://www.raya.ps/ar/news/890705.html say Palestine areas will
3087 # start DST on 2015-03-28 00:00 which is one day later than expected.
3088 #
3089 # From Paul Eggert (2015-03-03):
3090 # https://www.timeanddate.com/time/change/west-bank/ramallah?year=2014
3091 # says that the fall 2014 transition was Oct 23 at 24:00.
3092 
3093 # From Hannah Kreitem (2016-03-09):
3094 # http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/WebSite/ar/ViewDetails?ID=31728
3095 # [Google translation]: "The Council also decided to start daylight
3096 # saving in Palestine as of one o'clock on Saturday morning,
3097 # 2016-03-26, to provide the clock 60 minutes ahead."
3098 
3099 # From Sharef Mustafa (2016-10-19):
3100 # [T]he Palestinian cabinet decision (Mar 8th 2016) published on
3101 # http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/WebSite/Upload/Decree/GOV_17/16032016134830.pdf
3102 # states that summer time will end on Oct 29th at 01:00.
3103 #
3104 # From Tim Parenti (2016-10-19):
3105 # Predict fall transitions on October's last Saturday at 01:00 from now on.
3106 # This is consistent with the 2016 transition as well as our spring
3107 # predictions.
3108 #
3109 # From Paul Eggert (2016-10-19):
3110 # It's also consistent with predictions in the following URLs today:
3111 # https://www.timeanddate.com/time/change/gaza-strip/gaza
3112 # https://www.timeanddate.com/time/change/west-bank/hebron
3113 
3114 # From Sharef Mustafa (2018-03-16):
3115 # Palestine summer time will start on Mar 24th 2018 by advancing the
3116 # clock by 60 minutes as per Palestinian cabinet decision published on
3117 # the official website, though the decree did not specify the exact
3118 # time of the time shift.
3119 # http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/Website/AR/NDecrees/ViewFile.ashx?ID=e7a42ab7-ee23-435a-b9c8-a4f7e81f3817
3120 
3121 # From Even Scharning (2019-03-23):
3122 # http://pnn.ps/news/401130
3123 # http://palweather.ps/ar/node/50136.html
3124 #
3125 # From Sharif Mustafa (2019-03-26):
3126 # The Palestinian cabinet announced today that the switch to DST will
3127 # be on Fri Mar 29th 2019 by advancing the clock by 60 minutes.
3128 # The decree signing date is Mar 12th but it was not published till today.
3129 # The decree does not specify the exact time of switch.
3130 # http://palestinecabinet.gov.ps/Website/AR/NDecrees/ViewFile.ashx?ID=e54e9ea1-50ee-4137-84df-0d6c78da259b
3131 #
3132 # From Even Scharning (2019-04-10):
3133 # Our source in Palestine said it happened Friday 29 at 00:00 local time....
3134 #
3135 # From Paul Eggert (2019-04-10):
3136 # For now, guess spring-ahead transitions are March's last Friday at 00:00.
3137 
3138 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3139 Rule EgyptAsia  1957    only    -       May     10      0:00    1:00    S
3140 Rule EgyptAsia  1957    1958    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
3141 Rule EgyptAsia  1958    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
3142 Rule EgyptAsia  1959    1967    -       May      1      1:00    1:00    S
3143 Rule EgyptAsia  1959    1965    -       Sep     30      3:00    0       -
3144 Rule EgyptAsia  1966    only    -       Oct      1      3:00    0       -
3145 
3146 Rule Palestine  1999    2005    -       Apr     Fri>=15      0:00    1:00    S
3147 Rule Palestine  1999    2003    -       Oct     Fri>=15      0:00    0       -
3148 Rule Palestine  2004    only    -       Oct      1      1:00    0       -
3149 Rule Palestine  2005    only    -       Oct      4      2:00    0       -
3150 Rule Palestine  2006    2007    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
3151 Rule Palestine  2006    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
3152 Rule Palestine  2007    only    -       Sep     Thu>=8       2:00    0       -
3153 Rule Palestine  2008    2009    -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
3154 Rule Palestine  2008    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    0       -
3155 Rule Palestine  2009    only    -       Sep     Fri>=1       1:00    0       -
3156 Rule Palestine  2010    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S
3157 Rule Palestine  2010    only    -       Aug     11      0:00    0       -
3158 Rule Palestine  2011    only    -       Apr      1      0:01    1:00    S
3159 Rule Palestine  2011    only    -       Aug      1      0:00    0       -
3160 Rule Palestine  2011    only    -       Aug     30      0:00    1:00    S
3161 Rule Palestine  2011    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
3162 Rule Palestine  2012    2014    -       Mar     lastThu 24:00   1:00    S
3163 Rule Palestine  2012    only    -       Sep     21      1:00    0       -
3164 Rule Palestine  2013    only    -       Sep     Fri>=21      0:00    0       -
3165 Rule Palestine  2014    2015    -       Oct     Fri>=21      0:00    0       -
3166 Rule Palestine  2015    only    -       Mar     lastFri 24:00   1:00    S
3167 Rule Palestine  2016    2018    -       Mar     Sat>=24      1:00    1:00    S
3168 Rule Palestine  2016    max     -       Oct     lastSat 1:00    0       -
3169 Rule Palestine  2019    max     -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
3170 
3171 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3172 Zone    Asia/Gaza       2:17:52 -       LMT     1900 Oct
3173                         2:00    Zion    EET/EEST 1948 May 15
3174                         2:00 EgyptAsia  EE%sT   1967 Jun  5
3175                         2:00    Zion    I%sT    1996
3176                         2:00    Jordan  EE%sT   1999
3177                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2008 Aug 29  0:00
3178                         2:00    -       EET     2008 Sep
3179                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2010
3180                         2:00    -       EET     2010 Mar 27  0:01
3181                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2011 Aug  1
3182                         2:00    -       EET     2012
3183                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT
3184 
3185 Zone    Asia/Hebron     2:20:23 -       LMT     1900 Oct
3186                         2:00    Zion    EET/EEST 1948 May 15
3187                         2:00 EgyptAsia  EE%sT   1967 Jun  5
3188                         2:00    Zion    I%sT    1996
3189                         2:00    Jordan  EE%sT   1999
3190                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT
3191 
3192 # Paracel Is
3193 # no information
3194 
3195 # Philippines
3196 
3197 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
3198 # The Spanish initially used American (west-of-Greenwich) time.
3199 # It is unknown what time Manila kept when the British occupied it from
3200 # 1762-10-06 through 1764-04; for now assume it kept American time.
3201 # On 1844-08-16, Narciso Clavería, governor-general of the
3202 # Philippines, issued a proclamation announcing that 1844-12-30 was to
3203 # be immediately followed by 1845-01-01; see R.H. van Gent's
3204 # History of the International Date Line
3205 # https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/idl/idl_philippines.htm
3206 # The rest of the data entries are from Shanks & Pottenger.
3207 
3208 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-26):
3209 # ... claims that Philippines had DST last time in 1990:
3210 # http://story.philippinetimes.com/p.x/ct/9/id/145be20cc6b121c0/cid/3e5bbccc730d258c/
3211 # [a story dated 2006-04-25 by Cris Larano of Dow Jones Newswires,
3212 # but no details]
3213 
3214 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-14):
3215 # The following source says DST may be instituted November-January and again
3216 # March-June, but this is not definite.  It also says DST was last proclaimed
3217 # during the Ramos administration (1992-1998); but again, no details.
3218 # Carcamo D. PNoy urged to declare use of daylight saving time.
3219 # Philippine Star 2014-08-05
3220 # http://www.philstar.com/headlines/2014/08/05/1354152/pnoy-urged-declare-use-daylight-saving-time
3221 
3222 # From Paul Goyette (2018-06-15):
3223 # In the Philippines, there is a national law, Republic Act No. 10535
3224 # which declares the official time here as "Philippine Standard Time".
3225 # The act [1] even specifies use of PST as the abbreviation, although
3226 # the FAQ provided by PAGASA [2] uses the "acronym PhST to distinguish
3227 # it from the Pacific Standard Time (PST)."
3228 # [1] http://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2013/05/15/republic-act-no-10535/
3229 # [2] https://www1.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/index.php/astronomy/philippine-standard-time#republic-act-10535
3230 #
3231 # From Paul Eggert (2018-06-19):
3232 # I surveyed recent news reports, and my impression is that "PST" is
3233 # more popular among reliable English-language news sources.  This is
3234 # not just a measure of Google hit counts: it's also the sizes and
3235 # influence of the sources.  There is no current abbreviation for DST,
3236 # so use "PDT", the usual American style.
3237 
3238 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3239 Rule    Phil    1936    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    1:00    D
3240 Rule    Phil    1937    only    -       Feb     1       0:00    0       S
3241 Rule    Phil    1954    only    -       Apr     12      0:00    1:00    D
3242 Rule    Phil    1954    only    -       Jul     1       0:00    0       S
3243 Rule    Phil    1978    only    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
3244 Rule    Phil    1978    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
3245 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3246 Zone    Asia/Manila     -15:56:00 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
3247                         8:04:00 -       LMT     1899 May 11
3248                         8:00    Phil    P%sT    1942 May
3249                         9:00    -       JST     1944 Nov
3250                         8:00    Phil    P%sT
3251 
3252 # Qatar
3253 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3254 Zone    Asia/Qatar      3:26:08 -       LMT     1920     # Al Dawhah / Doha
3255                         4:00    -       +04     1972 Jun
3256                         3:00    -       +03
3257 Link Asia/Qatar Asia/Bahrain
3258 
3259 # Saudi Arabia
3260 #
3261 # From Paul Eggert (2018-08-29):
3262 # Time in Saudi Arabia and other countries in the Arabian peninsula was not
3263 # standardized until 1968 or so; we don't know exactly when, and possibly it
3264 # has never been made official.  Richard P Hunt, in "Islam city yielding to
3265 # modern times", New York Times (1961-04-09), p 20, wrote that only airlines
3266 # observed standard time, and that people in Jeddah mostly observed quasi-solar
3267 # time, doing so by setting their watches at sunrise to 6 o'clock (or to 12
3268 # o'clock for "Arab" time).
3269 #
3270 # Timekeeping differed depending on who you were and which part of Saudi
3271 # Arabia you were in.  In 1969, Elias Antar wrote that although a common
3272 # practice had been to set one's watch to 12:00 (i.e., midnight) at sunset -
3273 # which meant that the time on one side of a mountain could differ greatly from
3274 # the time on the other side - many foreigners set their watches to 6pm
3275 # instead, while airlines instead used UTC +03 (except in Dhahran, where they
3276 # used UTC +04), Aramco used UTC +03 with DST, and the Trans-Arabian Pipe Line
3277 # Company used Aramco time in eastern Saudi Arabia and airline time in western.
3278 # (The American Military Aid Advisory Group used plain UTC.)  Antar writes,
3279 # "A man named Higgins, so the story goes, used to run a local power
3280 # station. One day, the whole thing became too much for Higgins and he
3281 # assembled his staff and laid down the law. 'I've had enough of this,' he
3282 # shrieked. 'It is now 12 o'clock Higgins Time, and from now on this station is
3283 # going to run on Higgins Time.' And so, until last year, it did."  See:
3284 # Antar E. Dinner at When? Saudi Aramco World, 1969 March/April. 2-3.
3285 # http://archive.aramcoworld.com/issue/196902/dinner.at.when.htm
3286 # Also see: Antar EN. Arabian flying is confusing.
3287 # Port Angeles (WA) Evening News. 1965-03-10. page 3.
3288 #
3289 # The TZ database cannot represent quasi-solar time; airline time is the best
3290 # we can do.  The 1946 foreign air news digest of the U.S. Civil Aeronautics
3291 # Board (OCLC 42299995) reported that the "... Arabian Government, inaugurated
3292 # a weekly Dhahran-Cairo service, via the Saudi Arabian cities of Riyadh and
3293 # Jidda, on March 14, 1947".  Shanks & Pottenger guessed 1950; go with the
3294 # earlier date.
3295 #
3296 # Shanks & Pottenger also state that until 1968-05-01 Saudi Arabia had two
3297 # time zones; the other zone, at UT +04, was in the far eastern part of
3298 # the country.  Presumably this is documenting airline time.  Ignore this,
3299 # as it's before our 1970 cutoff.
3300 #
3301 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3302 Zone    Asia/Riyadh     3:06:52 -       LMT     1947 Mar 14
3303                         3:00    -       +03
3304 Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Aden      # Yemen
3305 Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Kuwait
3306 
3307 # Singapore
3308 # taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
3309 # http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html
3310 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3311 Zone    Asia/Singapore  6:55:25 -       LMT     1901 Jan  1
3312                         6:55:25 -       SMT     1905 Jun  1 # Singapore M.T.
3313                         7:00    -       +07     1933 Jan  1
3314                         7:00    0:20    +0720   1936 Jan  1
3315                         7:20    -       +0720   1941 Sep  1
3316                         7:30    -       +0730   1942 Feb 16
3317                         9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep 12
3318                         7:30    -       +0730   1982 Jan  1
3319                         8:00    -       +08
3320 
3321 # Spratly Is
3322 # no information
3323 
3324 # Sri Lanka
3325 
3326 # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
3327 # Milne says "Madras mean time use from May 1, 1898.  Prior to this Colombo
3328 # mean time, 5h. 4m. 21.9s. F., was used."  But 5:04:21.9 differs considerably
3329 # from Colombo's meridian 5:19:24, so for now ignore Milne and stick with
3330 # Shanks and Pottenger.
3331 
3332 # From Paul Eggert (1996-09-03):
3333 # "Sri Lanka advances clock by an hour to avoid blackout"
3334 # (<http://www.virtual-pc.com/lankaweb/news/items/240596-2.html>, 1996-05-24,
3335 # no longer available as of 1999-08-17)
3336 # reported "the country's standard time will be put forward by one hour at
3337 # midnight Friday (1830 GMT) 'in the light of the present power crisis'."
3338 #
3339 # From Dharmasiri Senanayake, Sri Lanka Media Minister (1996-10-24), as quoted
3340 # by Shamindra in Daily News - Hot News Section
3341 # <news:54rka5$m5h@mtinsc01-mgt.ops.worldnet.att.net> (1996-10-26):
3342 # With effect from 12.30 a.m. on 26th October 1996
3343 # Sri Lanka will be six (06) hours ahead of GMT.
3344 
3345 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-14), quoting Sri Lanka News Online
3346 # <http://news.sinhalaya.com/wmview.php?ArtID=11002> (2006-04-13):
3347 # 0030 hrs on April 15, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006 +30 minutes)
3348 # at present, become 2400 hours of April 14, 2006 (midnight of April 14, 2006).
3349 
3350 # From Peter Apps and Ranga Sirila of Reuters (2006-04-12) in:
3351 # http://today.reuters.co.uk/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=scienceNews&storyID=2006-04-12T172228Z_01_COL295762_RTRIDST_0_SCIENCE-SRILANKA-TIME-DC.XML
3352 # [The Tamil Tigers] never accepted the original 1996 time change and simply
3353 # kept their clocks set five and a half hours ahead of Greenwich Mean
3354 # Time (GMT), in line with neighbor India.
3355 # From Paul Eggert (2006-04-18):
3356 # People who live in regions under Tamil control can use [TZ='Asia/Kolkata'],
3357 # as that zone has agreed with the Tamil areas since our cutoff date of 1970.
3358 
3359 # From Sadika Sumanapala (2016-10-19):
3360 # According to http://www.sltime.org (maintained by Measurement Units,
3361 # Standards & Services Department, Sri Lanka) abbreviation for Sri Lanka
3362 # standard time is SLST.
3363 #
3364 # From Paul Eggert (2016-10-18):
3365 # "SLST" seems to be reasonably recent and rarely-used outside time
3366 # zone nerd sources.  I searched Google News and found three uses of
3367 # it in the International Business Times of India in February and
3368 # March of this year when discussing cricket match times, but nothing
3369 # since then (though there has been a lot of cricket) and nothing in
3370 # other English-language news sources.  Our old abbreviation "LKT" is
3371 # even worse.  For now, let's use a numeric abbreviation; we can
3372 # switch to "SLST" if it catches on.
3373 
3374 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3375 Zone    Asia/Colombo    5:19:24 -       LMT     1880
3376                         5:19:32 -       MMT     1906        # Moratuwa Mean Time
3377                         5:30    -       +0530   1942 Jan  5
3378                         5:30    0:30    +06     1942 Sep
3379                         5:30    1:00    +0630   1945 Oct 16  2:00
3380                         5:30    -       +0530   1996 May 25  0:00
3381                         6:30    -       +0630   1996 Oct 26  0:30
3382                         6:00    -       +06     2006 Apr 15  0:30
3383                         5:30    -       +0530
3384 
3385 # Syria
3386 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3387 Rule    Syria   1920    1923    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00    1:00    S
3388 Rule    Syria   1920    1923    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00    0       -
3389 Rule    Syria   1962    only    -       Apr     29      2:00    1:00    S
3390 Rule    Syria   1962    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       -
3391 Rule    Syria   1963    1965    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    S
3392 Rule    Syria   1963    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       -
3393 Rule    Syria   1964    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       -
3394 Rule    Syria   1965    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       -
3395 Rule    Syria   1966    only    -       Apr     24      2:00    1:00    S
3396 Rule    Syria   1966    1976    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       -
3397 Rule    Syria   1967    1978    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    S
3398 Rule    Syria   1977    1978    -       Sep     1       2:00    0       -
3399 Rule    Syria   1983    1984    -       Apr     9       2:00    1:00    S
3400 Rule    Syria   1983    1984    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       -
3401 Rule    Syria   1986    only    -       Feb     16      2:00    1:00    S
3402 Rule    Syria   1986    only    -       Oct     9       2:00    0       -
3403 Rule    Syria   1987    only    -       Mar     1       2:00    1:00    S
3404 Rule    Syria   1987    1988    -       Oct     31      2:00    0       -
3405 Rule    Syria   1988    only    -       Mar     15      2:00    1:00    S
3406 Rule    Syria   1989    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S
3407 Rule    Syria   1989    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       -
3408 Rule    Syria   1990    only    -       Apr     1       2:00    1:00    S
3409 Rule    Syria   1990    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       -
3410 Rule    Syria   1991    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
3411 Rule    Syria   1991    1992    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
3412 Rule    Syria   1992    only    -       Apr      8      0:00    1:00    S
3413 Rule    Syria   1993    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S
3414 Rule    Syria   1993    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    0       -
3415 # IATA SSIM (1998-02) says 1998-04-02;
3416 # (1998-09) says 1999-03-29 and 1999-09-29; (1999-02) says 1999-04-02,
3417 # 2000-04-02, and 2001-04-02; (1999-09) says 2000-03-31 and 2001-03-31;
3418 # (2006) says 2006-03-31 and 2006-09-22;
3419 # for now ignore all these claims and go with Shanks & Pottenger,
3420 # except for the 2006-09-22 claim (which seems right for Ramadan).
3421 Rule    Syria   1994    1996    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
3422 Rule    Syria   1994    2005    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
3423 Rule    Syria   1997    1998    -       Mar     lastMon 0:00    1:00    S
3424 Rule    Syria   1999    2006    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
3425 # From Stephen Colebourne (2006-09-18):
3426 # According to IATA data, Syria will change DST on 21st September [21:00 UTC]
3427 # this year [only]....  This is probably related to Ramadan, like Egypt.
3428 Rule    Syria   2006    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
3429 # From Paul Eggert (2007-03-29):
3430 # Today the AP reported "Syria will switch to summertime at midnight Thursday."
3431 # http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/03/29/africa/ME-GEN-Syria-Time-Change.php
3432 Rule    Syria   2007    only    -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
3433 # From Jesper Nørgaard (2007-10-27):
3434 # The sister center ICARDA of my work CIMMYT is confirming that Syria DST will
3435 # not take place 1st November at 0:00 o'clock but 1st November at 24:00 or
3436 # rather Midnight between Thursday and Friday. This does make more sense than
3437 # having it between Wednesday and Thursday (two workdays in Syria) since the
3438 # weekend in Syria is not Saturday and Sunday, but Friday and Saturday. So now
3439 # it is implemented at midnight of the last workday before weekend...
3440 #
3441 # From Steffen Thorsen (2007-10-27):
3442 # Jesper Nørgaard Welen wrote:
3443 #
3444 # > "Winter local time in Syria will be observed at midnight of Thursday 1
3445 # > November 2007, and the clock will be put back 1 hour."
3446 #
3447 # I found confirmation on this in this gov.sy-article (Arabic):
3448 # http://wehda.alwehda.gov.sy/_print_veiw.asp?FileName=12521710520070926111247
3449 #
3450 # which using Google's translate tools says:
3451 # Council of Ministers also approved the commencement of work on
3452 # identifying the winter time as of Friday, 2/11/2007 where the 60th
3453 # minute delay at midnight Thursday 1/11/2007.
3454 Rule    Syria   2007    only    -       Nov      Fri>=1      0:00    0       -
3455 
3456 # From Stephen Colebourne (2008-03-17):
3457 # For everyone's info, I saw an IATA time zone change for [Syria] for
3458 # this month (March 2008) in the last day or so....
3459 # Country     Time Standard   --- DST Start ---   --- DST End ---  DST
3460 # Name        Zone Variation   Time    Date        Time    Date
3461 # Variation
3462 # Syrian Arab
3463 # Republic    SY    +0200      2200  03APR08       2100  30SEP08   +0300
3464 #                              2200  02APR09       2100  30SEP09   +0300
3465 #                              2200  01APR10       2100  30SEP10   +0300
3466 
3467 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-17):
3468 # Here's a link to English-language coverage by the Syrian Arab News
3469 # Agency (SANA)...
3470 # http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2008/03/11/165173.htm
3471 # ...which reads (in part) "The Cabinet approved the suggestion of the
3472 # Ministry of Electricity to begin daylight savings time on Friday April
3473 # 4th, advancing clocks one hour ahead on midnight of Thursday April 3rd."
3474 # Since Syria is two hours east of UTC, the 2200 and 2100 transition times
3475 # shown above match up with midnight in Syria.
3476 
3477 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18):
3478 # My best guess at a Syrian rule is "the Friday nearest April 1";
3479 # coding that involves either using a "Mar Fri>=29" construct that old time zone
3480 # compilers can't handle  or having multiple Rules (a la Israel).
3481 # For now, use "Apr Fri>=1", and go with IATA on a uniform Sep 30 end.
3482 
3483 # From Steffen Thorsen (2008-10-07):
3484 # Syria has now officially decided to end DST on 2008-11-01 this year,
3485 # according to the following article in the Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA).
3486 #
3487 # The article is in Arabic, and seems to tell that they will go back to
3488 # winter time on 2008-11-01 at 00:00 local daylight time (delaying/setting
3489 # clocks back 60 minutes).
3490 #
3491 # http://sana.sy/ara/2/2008/10/07/195459.htm
3492 
3493 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-03-19):
3494 # Syria will start DST on 2009-03-27 00:00 this year according to many sources,
3495 # two examples:
3496 #
3497 # http://www.sana.sy/eng/21/2009/03/17/217563.htm
3498 # (English, Syrian Arab News # Agency)
3499 # http://thawra.alwehda.gov.sy/_View_news2.asp?FileName=94459258720090318012209
3500 # (Arabic, gov-site)
3501 #
3502 # We have not found any sources saying anything about when DST ends this year.
3503 #
3504 # Our summary
3505 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-starts-march-27-2009.html
3506 
3507 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-27):
3508 # The Syrian Arab News Network on 2009-09-29 reported that Syria will
3509 # revert back to winter (standard) time on midnight between Thursday
3510 # 2009-10-29 and Friday 2009-10-30:
3511 # http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2009/09/29/247012.htm (Arabic)
3512 
3513 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):
3514 # We'll see if future DST switching times turn out to be end of the last
3515 # Thursday of the month or the start of the last Friday of the month or
3516 # something else. For now, use the start of the last Friday.
3517 
3518 # From Steffen Thorsen (2010-03-17):
3519 # The "Syrian News Station" reported on 2010-03-16 that the Council of
3520 # Ministers has decided that Syria will start DST on midnight Thursday
3521 # 2010-04-01: (midnight between Thursday and Friday):
3522 # http://sns.sy/sns/?path=news/read/11421 (Arabic)
3523 
3524 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):
3525 # Today, Syria's government announced that they will start DST early on Friday
3526 # (00:00). This is a bit earlier than the past two years.
3527 #
3528 # From Syrian Arab News Agency, in Arabic:
3529 # http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2012/03/26/408215.htm
3530 #
3531 # Our brief summary:
3532 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-2012.html
3533 
3534 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-27):
3535 # Assume last Friday in March going forward XXX.
3536 
3537 Rule    Syria   2008    only    -       Apr     Fri>=1       0:00    1:00    S
3538 Rule    Syria   2008    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       -
3539 Rule    Syria   2009    only    -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
3540 Rule    Syria   2010    2011    -       Apr     Fri>=1       0:00    1:00    S
3541 Rule    Syria   2012    max     -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
3542 Rule    Syria   2009    max     -       Oct     lastFri 0:00    0       -
3543 
3544 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3545 Zone    Asia/Damascus   2:25:12 -       LMT     1920 # Dimashq
3546                         2:00    Syria   EE%sT
3547 
3548 # Tajikistan
3549 # From Shanks & Pottenger.
3550 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3551 Zone    Asia/Dushanbe   4:35:12 -       LMT     1924 May  2
3552                         5:00    -       +05     1930 Jun 21
3553                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3554                         5:00    1:00    +05/+06 1991 Sep  9  2:00s
3555                         5:00    -       +05
3556 
3557 # Thailand
3558 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3559 Zone    Asia/Bangkok    6:42:04 -       LMT     1880
3560                         6:42:04 -       BMT     1920 Apr # Bangkok Mean Time
3561                         7:00    -       +07
3562 Link Asia/Bangkok Asia/Phnom_Penh       # Cambodia
3563 Link Asia/Bangkok Asia/Vientiane        # Laos
3564 
3565 # Turkmenistan
3566 # From Shanks & Pottenger.
3567 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3568 Zone    Asia/Ashgabat   3:53:32 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Ashkhabad
3569                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
3570                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00
3571                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00
3572                         5:00    -       +05
3573 
3574 # United Arab Emirates
3575 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3576 Zone    Asia/Dubai      3:41:12 -       LMT     1920
3577                         4:00    -       +04
3578 Link Asia/Dubai Asia/Muscat     # Oman
3579 
3580 # Uzbekistan
3581 # Byalokoz 1919 says Uzbekistan was 4:27:53.
3582 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3583 Zone    Asia/Samarkand  4:27:53 -       LMT     1924 May  2
3584                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
3585                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
3586                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
3587                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
3588                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992
3589                         5:00    -       +05
3590 # Milne says Tashkent was 4:37:10.8; round to nearest.
3591 Zone    Asia/Tashkent   4:37:11 -       LMT     1924 May  2
3592                         5:00    -       +05     1930 Jun 21
3593                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00
3594                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992
3595                         5:00    -       +05
3596 
3597 # Vietnam
3598 
3599 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-04):
3600 # Milne gives 7:16:56 for the meridian of Saigon in 1899, as being
3601 # used in Lower Laos, Cambodia, and Annam.  But this is quite a ways
3602 # from Saigon's location.  For now, ignore this and stick with Shanks
3603 # and Pottenger for LMT before 1906.
3604 
3605 # From Arthur David Olson (2008-03-18):
3606 # The English-language name of Vietnam's most populous city is "Ho Chi Minh
3607 # City"; use Ho_Chi_Minh below to avoid a name of more than 14 characters.
3608 
3609 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-21) after a heads-up from Trần Ngọc Quân:
3610 # Trần Tiến Bình's authoritative book "Lịch Việt Nam: thế kỷ XX-XXI (1901-2100)"
3611 # (Nhà xuất bản Văn Hoá - Thông Tin, Hanoi, 2005), pp 49-50,
3612 # is quoted verbatim in:
3613 # http://www.thoigian.com.vn/?mPage=P80D01
3614 # is translated by Brian Inglis in:
3615 # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-October/021654.html
3616 # and is the basis for the information below.
3617 #
3618 # The 1906 transition was effective July 1 and standardized Indochina to
3619 # Phù Liễn Observatory, legally 104° 17' 17" east of Paris.
3620 # It's unclear whether this meant legal Paris Mean Time (00:09:21) or
3621 # the Paris Meridian (2° 20' 14.03" E); the former yields 07:06:30.1333...
3622 # and the latter 07:06:29.333... so either way it rounds to 07:06:30,
3623 # which is used below even though the modern-day Phù Liễn Observatory
3624 # is closer to 07:06:31.  Abbreviate Phù Liễn Mean Time as PLMT.
3625 #
3626 # The following transitions occurred in Indochina in general (before 1954)
3627 # and in South Vietnam in particular (after 1954):
3628 # To 07:00 on 1911-05-01.
3629 # To 08:00 on 1942-12-31 at 23:00.
3630 # To 09:00 in 1945-03-14 at 23:00.
3631 # To 07:00 on 1945-09-02 in Vietnam.
3632 # To 08:00 on 1947-04-01 in French-controlled Indochina.
3633 # To 07:00 on 1955-07-01 in South Vietnam.
3634 # To 08:00 on 1959-12-31 at 23:00 in South Vietnam.
3635 # To 07:00 on 1975-06-13 in South Vietnam.
3636 #
3637 # Trần cites the following sources; it's unclear which supplied the info above.
3638 #
3639 # Hoàng Xuân Hãn: "Lịch và lịch Việt Nam". Tập san Khoa học Xã hội,
3640 # No. 9, Paris, February 1982.
3641 #
3642 # Lê Thành Lân: "Lịch và niên biểu lịch sử hai mươi thế kỷ (0001-2010)",
3643 # NXB Thống kê, Hanoi, 2000.
3644 #
3645 # Lê Thành Lân: "Lịch hai thế kỷ (1802-2010) và các lịch vĩnh cửu",
3646 # NXB Thuận Hoá, Huế, 1995.
3647 
3648 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3649 Zone Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh   7:06:40 -       LMT     1906 Jul  1
3650                         7:06:30 -       PLMT    1911 May  1 # Phù Liễn MT
3651                         7:00    -       +07     1942 Dec 31 23:00
3652                         8:00    -       +08     1945 Mar 14 23:00
3653                         9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep  2
3654                         7:00    -       +07     1947 Apr  1
3655                         8:00    -       +08     1955 Jul  1
3656                         7:00    -       +07     1959 Dec 31 23:00
3657                         8:00    -       +08     1975 Jun 13
3658                         7:00    -       +07
3659 
3660 # From Paul Eggert (2019-02-19):
3661 #
3662 # The Ho Chi Minh entry suffices for most purposes as it agrees with all of
3663 # Vietnam since 1975-06-13.  Presumably clocks often changed in south Vietnam
3664 # in the early 1970s as locations changed hands during the war; however the
3665 # details are unknown and would likely be too voluminous for this database.
3666 #
3667 # For timestamps in north Vietnam back to 1970 (the tzdb cutoff),
3668 # use Asia/Bangkok; see the VN entries in the file zone1970.tab.
3669 # For timestamps before 1970, see Asia/Hanoi in the file 'backzone'.
3670 
3671 
3672 # Yemen
3673 # See Asia/Riyadh.