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  90 # Technical Support (including a page from the Official Airline Guide -
  91 # Worldwide Edition).
  92 
  93 ###############################################################################
  94 
  95 # These rules are stolen from the 'europe' file.
  96 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  97 Rule    EUAsia  1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  1:00    S
  98 Rule    EUAsia  1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
  99 Rule    EUAsia  1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 100 Rule E-EurAsia  1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  0:00   1:00    -
 101 Rule E-EurAsia  1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 102 Rule E-EurAsia  1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 103 Rule RussiaAsia 1981    1984    -       Apr     1        0:00   1:00    -
 104 Rule RussiaAsia 1981    1983    -       Oct     1        0:00   0       -
 105 Rule RussiaAsia 1984    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 106 Rule RussiaAsia 1985    2010    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    -
 107 Rule RussiaAsia 1996    2010    -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 108 
 109 # Afghanistan
 110 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 111 Zone    Asia/Kabul      4:36:48 -       LMT     1890
 112                         4:00    -       +04     1945
 113                         4:30    -       +0430
 114 
 115 # Armenia
 116 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
 117 # Shanks & Pottenger have Yerevan switching to 3:00 (with Russian DST)
 118 # in spring 1991, then to 4:00 with no DST in fall 1995, then
 119 # readopting Russian DST in 1997.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger, even
 120 # when they disagree with others.  Edgar Der-Danieliantz
 121 # reported (1996-05-04) that Yerevan probably wouldn't use DST
 122 # in 1996, though it did use DST in 1995.  IATA SSIM (1991/1998) reports that
 123 # Armenia switched from 3:00 to 4:00 in 1998 and observed DST after 1991,
 124 # but started switching at 3:00s in 1998.
 125 
 126 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
 127 # While Russia abandoned DST in 2011, Armenia may choose to
 128 # follow Russia's "old" rules.
 129 
 130 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2012-02-10):
 131 # According to News Armenia, on Feb 9, 2012,
 132 # http://newsarmenia.ru/society/20120209/42609695.html
 133 #
 134 # The Armenia National Assembly adopted final reading of Amendments to the
 135 # Law "On procedure of calculation time on the territory of the Republic of
 136 # Armenia" according to which Armenia [is] abolishing Daylight Saving Time.
 137 # or
 138 # (brief)
 139 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_armenia03.html
 140 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 141 Rule Armenia    2011    only    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    -
 142 Rule Armenia    2011    only    -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 143 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 144 Zone    Asia/Yerevan    2:58:00 -       LMT     1924 May  2
 145                         3:00    -       +03     1957 Mar
 146                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
 147                         3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04 1995 Sep 24  2:00s
 148                         4:00    -       +04     1997
 149                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 2011
 150                         4:00    Armenia +04/+05
 151 
 152 # Azerbaijan
 153 
 154 # From Rustam Aliyev of the Azerbaijan Internet Forum (2005-10-23):
 155 # According to the resolution of Cabinet of Ministers, 1997
 156 # From Paul Eggert (2015-09-17): It was Resolution No. 21 (1997-03-17).
 157 # http://code.az/files/daylight_res.pdf
 158 
 159 # From Steffen Thorsen (2016-03-17):
 160 # ... the Azerbaijani Cabinet of Ministers has cancelled switching to
 161 # daylight saving time....
 162 # https://www.azernews.az/azerbaijan/94137.html
 163 # http://vestnikkavkaza.net/news/Azerbaijani-Cabinet-of-Ministers-cancels-daylight-saving-time.html
 164 # http://en.apa.az/xeber_azerbaijan_abolishes_daylight_savings_ti_240862.html
 165 
 166 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 167 Rule    Azer    1997    2015    -       Mar     lastSun  4:00   1:00    -
 168 Rule    Azer    1997    2015    -       Oct     lastSun  5:00   0       -
 169 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 170 Zone    Asia/Baku       3:19:24 -       LMT     1924 May  2
 171                         3:00    -       +03     1957 Mar
 172                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
 173                         3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04 1992 Sep lastSun  2:00s
 174                         4:00    -       +04     1996
 175                         4:00    EUAsia  +04/+05 1997
 176                         4:00    Azer    +04/+05
 177 
 178 # Bahrain
 179 # See Asia/Qatar.
 180 
 181 # Bangladesh
 182 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-05-13):
 183 # According to newspaper Asian Tribune (May 6, 2009) Bangladesh may introduce
 184 # Daylight Saving Time from June 16 to Sept 30
 185 #
 186 # Bangladesh to introduce daylight saving time likely from June 16
 187 # http://www.asiantribune.com/?q=node/17288
 188 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh02.html
 189 #


 237 #
 238 # Clock goes back 1-hr on Dec 31 night.
 239 # http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=119228
 240 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh05.html
 241 #
 242 # "...The government yesterday decided to put the clock back by one hour
 243 # on December 31 midnight and the new time will continue until March 31,
 244 # 2010 midnight. The decision came at a cabinet meeting at the Prime
 245 # Minister's Office last night..."
 246 
 247 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-22):
 248 # According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"
 249 # Cabinet cancels Daylight Saving Time
 250 # http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/latest_news.php?nid=22817
 251 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh06.html
 252 
 253 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 254 Rule    Dhaka   2009    only    -       Jun     19      23:00   1:00    -
 255 Rule    Dhaka   2009    only    -       Dec     31      24:00   0       -
 256 
 257 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 258 Zone    Asia/Dhaka      6:01:40 -       LMT     1890
 259                         5:53:20 -       HMT     1941 Oct    # Howrah Mean Time?
 260                         6:30    -       +0630   1942 May 15
 261                         5:30    -       +0530   1942 Sep
 262                         6:30    -       +0630   1951 Sep 30
 263                         6:00    -       +06     2009
 264                         6:00    Dhaka   +06/+07
 265 
 266 # Bhutan
 267 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 268 Zone    Asia/Thimphu    5:58:36 -       LMT     1947 Aug 15 # or Thimbu
 269                         5:30    -       +0530   1987 Oct
 270                         6:00    -       +06
 271 
 272 # British Indian Ocean Territory
 273 # Whitman and the 1995 CIA time zone map say 5:00, but the
 274 # 1997 and later maps say 6:00.  Assume the switch occurred in 1996.
 275 # We have no information as to when standard time was introduced;
 276 # assume it occurred in 1907, the same year as Mauritius (which
 277 # then contained the Chagos Archipelago).
 278 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 279 Zone    Indian/Chagos   4:49:40 -       LMT     1907
 280                         5:00    -       +05     1996
 281                         6:00    -       +06
 282 
 283 # Brunei
 284 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 285 Zone    Asia/Brunei     7:39:40 -       LMT     1926 Mar # Bandar Seri Begawan
 286                         7:30    -       +0730   1933
 287                         8:00    -       +08
 288 
 289 # Burma / Myanmar
 290 
 291 # Milne says 6:24:40 was the meridian of the time ball observatory at Rangoon.
 292 
 293 # From Paul Eggert (2017-04-20):
 294 # Page 27 of Reed & Low (cited for Asia/Kolkata) says "Rangoon local time is
 295 # used upon the railways and telegraphs of Burma, and is 6h. 24m. 47s. ahead
 296 # of Greenwich."  This refers to the period before Burma's transition to +0630,
 297 # a transition for which Shanks is the only source.
 298 
 299 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 300 Zone    Asia/Yangon     6:24:47 -       LMT     1880        # or Rangoon
 301                         6:24:47 -       RMT     1920        # Rangoon local time
 302                         6:30    -       +0630   1942 May
 303                         9:00    -       +09     1945 May  3
 304                         6:30    -       +0630
 305 
 306 # Cambodia
 307 # See Asia/Bangkok.
 308 
 309 
 310 # China
 311 
 312 # From Paul Eggert (2018-10-02):
 313 # The following comes from Table 1 of:
 314 # Li Yu. Research on the daylight saving movement in 1940s Shanghai.
 315 # Nanjing Journal of Social Sciences. 2014;(2):144-50.
 316 # http://oversea.cnki.net/kns55/detail.aspx?dbname=CJFD2014&filename=NJSH201402020
 317 # The table lists dates only; I am guessing 00:00 and 24:00 transition times.
 318 # Also, the table lists the planned end of DST in 1949, but the corresponding
 319 # zone line cuts this off on May 28, when the Communists took power.


 567 # Memories of life in Lhasa under Chinese Rule, Columbia U Press, ISBN
 568 # 978-0231142861 (2008), translator's introduction by Matthew Akester, p x.
 569 # As this is before our 1970 cutoff, Tibet doesn't need a separate zone.
 570 #
 571 # Xinjiang Time is well-documented as being officially recognized.  E.g., see
 572 # "The Working-Calendar for The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Government"
 573 # <http://www.sinkiang.gov.cn/service/ourworking/> (2014-04-22).
 574 # Unfortunately, we have no good records of time in Xinjiang before 1986.
 575 # During the 20th century parts of Xinjiang were ruled by the Qing dynasty,
 576 # the Republic of China, various warlords, the First and Second East Turkestan
 577 # Republics, the Soviet Union, the Kuomintang, and the People's Republic of
 578 # China, and tracking down all these organizations' timekeeping rules would be
 579 # quite a trick.  Approximate this lost history by a transition from LMT to
 580 # UT +06 at the start of 1928, the year of accession of the warlord Jin Shuren,
 581 # which happens to be the date given by Shanks & Pottenger (no doubt as a
 582 # guess) as the transition from LMT.  Ignore the usage of +08 before
 583 # 1986-02-01 under the theory that the transition date to +08 is unknown and
 584 # that the sort of users who prefer Asia/Urumqi now typically ignored the
 585 # +08 mandate back then.
 586 
 587 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 588 # Beijing time, used throughout China; represented by Shanghai.
 589 Zone    Asia/Shanghai   8:05:43 -       LMT     1901
 590                         8:00    Shang   C%sT    1949 May 28
 591                         8:00    PRC     C%sT
 592 # Xinjiang time, used by many in western China; represented by Ürümqi / Ürümchi
 593 # / Wulumuqi.  (Please use Asia/Shanghai if you prefer Beijing time.)
 594 Zone    Asia/Urumqi     5:50:20 -       LMT     1928
 595                         6:00    -       +06
 596 
 597 
 598 # Hong Kong (Xianggang)
 599 
 600 # Milne gives 7:36:41.7; round this.
 601 
 602 # From Lee Yiu Chung (2009-10-24):
 603 # I found there are some mistakes for the...DST rule for Hong
 604 # Kong. [According] to the DST record from Hong Kong Observatory (actually,
 605 # it is not [an] observatory, but the official meteorological agency of HK,
 606 # and also serves as the official timing agency), there are some missing
 607 # and incorrect rules. Although the exact switch over time is missing, I
 608 # think 3:30 is correct. The official DST record for Hong Kong can be
 609 # obtained from
 610 # http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
 611 
 612 # From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
 613 # According to Singaporean newspaper
 614 # http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepresswk19041102-1.2.37
 615 # the day that Hong Kong start using GMT+8 should be Oct 30, 1904.
 616 #
 617 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-17):
 618 # Hong Kong had a time ball near the Marine Police Station, Tsim Sha Tsui.
 619 # "The ball was raised manually each day and dropped at exactly 1pm
 620 # (except on Sundays and Government holidays)."
 621 # Dyson AD. From Time Ball to Atomic Clock. Hong Kong Government. 1983.
 622 # <https://www.hko.gov.hk/publica/gen_pub/timeball_atomic_clock.pdf>
 623 # "From 1904 October 30 the time-ball at Hong Kong has been dropped by order
 624 # of the Governor of the Colony at 17h 0m 0s G.M.T., which is 23m 18s.14 in
 625 # advance of 1h 0m 0s of Hong Kong mean time."
 626 # Hollis HP. Universal Time, Longitudes, and Geodesy. Mon Not R Astron Soc.
 627 # 1905-02-10;65(4):405-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/65.4.382
 628 #
 629 # From Joseph Myers (2018-11-18):
 630 # An astronomer before 1925 referring to GMT would have been using the old
 631 # astronomical convention where the day started at noon, not midnight.
 632 #
 633 # From Steve Allen (2018-11-17):
 634 # Meteorological Observations made at the Hongkong Observatory in the year 1904
 635 # page 4 <https://books.google.com/books?id=kgw5AQAAMAAJ&pg=RA4-PA4>
 636 # ... the log of drop times in Table II shows that on Sunday 1904-10-30 the
 637 # ball was dropped.  So that looks like a special case drop for the sake
 638 # of broadcasting the new local time.
 639 #
 640 # From Phake Nick (2018-11-18):
 641 # According to The Hong Kong Weekly Press, 1904-10-29, p.324, the
 642 # governor of Hong Kong at the time stated that "We are further desired to
 643 # make it known that the change will be effected by firing the gun and by the
 644 # dropping of the Ball at 23min. 18sec. before one."
 645 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
 646 # See <https://mmis.hkpl.gov.hk> for this; unfortunately Flash is required.
 647 
 648 # From Phake Nick (2018-10-26):
 649 # I went to check microfilm records stored at Hong Kong Public Library....
 650 # on September 30 1941, according to Ta Kung Pao (Hong Kong edition), it was
 651 # stated that fallback would occur on the next day (the 1st)'s "03:00 am (Hong
 652 # Kong Time 04:00 am)" and the clock will fall back for a half hour. (03:00
 653 # probably refer to the time commonly used in mainland China at the time given
 654 # the paper's background) ... the sunrise/sunset time given by South China
 655 # Morning Post for October 1st was indeed moved by half an hour compares to
 656 # before.  After that, in December, the battle to capture Hong Kong started and
 657 # the library doesn't seems to have any record stored about press during that
 658 # period of time.  Some media resumed publication soon after that within the
 659 # same month, but there were not much information about time there.  Later they
 660 # started including a radio program guide when they restored radio service,
 661 # explicitly mentioning it use Tokyo standard time, and later added a note
 662 # saying it's half an hour ahead of the old Hong Kong standard time, and it
 663 # also seems to indicate that Hong Kong was not using GMT+8 when it was
 664 # captured by Japan.
 665 #
 666 # Image of related sections on newspaper:
 667 # * 1941-09-30, Ta Kung Pao (Hong Kong), "Winter Time start tomorrow".
 668 #   https://i.imgur.com/6waY51Z.jpg (Chinese)
 669 # * 1941-09-29, South China Morning Post, Information on sunrise/sunset
 670 #   time and other things for September 30 and October 1.
 671 #   https://i.imgur.com/kCiUR78.jpg
 672 # * 1942-02-05. The Hong Kong News, Radio Program Guide.
 673 #   https://i.imgur.com/eVvDMzS.jpg
 674 # * 1941-06-14. Hong Kong Daily Press, Daylight Saving from 3am Tomorrow.
 675 #   https://i.imgur.com/05KkvtC.png
 676 # * 1941-09-30, Hong Kong Daily Press, Winter Time Warning.
 677 #   https://i.imgur.com/dge4kFJ.png
 678 
 679 # From P Chan (2018-12-31):
 680 # * According to the Hong Kong Daylight-Saving Regulations, 1941, the
 681 #   1941 spring-forward transition was at 03:00.
 682 #       http://sunzi.lib.hku.hk/hkgro/view/g1941/304271.pdf
 683 #       http://sunzi.lib.hku.hk/hkgro/view/g1941/305516.pdf
 684 # * According to some articles from South China Morning Post, +08 was
 685 #   resumed on 1945-11-18 at 02:00.
 686 #       https://i.imgur.com/M2IsZ3c.png
 687 #       https://i.imgur.com/iOPqrVo.png
 688 #       https://i.imgur.com/fffcGDs.png
 689 # * Some newspapers ... said the 1946 spring-forward transition was on
 690 #   04-21 at 00:00.  The Kung Sheung Evening News 1946-04-20 (Chinese)
 691 #       https://i.imgur.com/ZSzent0.png
 692 #       https://mmis.hkpl.gov.hk///c/portal/cover?c=QF757YsWv5%2FH7zGe%2FKF%2BFLYsuqGhRBfe p.4
 693 #   The Kung Sheung Daily News 1946-04-21 (Chinese)
 694 #       https://i.imgur.com/7ecmRlcm.png
 695 #       https://mmis.hkpl.gov.hk///c/portal/cover?c=QF757YsWv5%2BQBGt1%2BwUj5qG2GqtwR3Wh p.4
 696 # * According to the Summer Time Ordinance (1946), the fallback
 697 #   transitions between 1946 and 1952 were at 03:30 Standard Time (+08)
 698 #       http://oelawhk.lib.hku.hk/archive/files/bb74b06a74d5294620a15de560ab33c6.pdf
 699 # * Some other laws and regulations related to DST from 1953 to 1979
 700 #   Summer Time Ordinance 1953
 701 #       https://i.imgur.com/IOlJMav.jpg
 702 #   Summer Time (Amendment) Ordinance 1965
 703 #       https://i.imgur.com/8rofeLa.jpg
 704 #   Interpretation and General Clauses Ordinance (1966)
 705 #       https://i.imgur.com/joy3msj.jpg
 706 #   Emergency (Summer Time) Regulation 1973 <https://i.imgur.com/OpRWrKz.jpg>
 707 #   Interpretation and General Clauses (Amendment) Ordinance 1977
 708 #       https://i.imgur.com/RaNqnc4.jpg
 709 #   Resolution of the Legislative Council passed on 9 May 1979
 710 #       https://www.legco.gov.hk/yr78-79/english/lc_sitg/hansard/h790509.pdf#page=39
 711 
 712 # From Paul Eggert (2019-05-31):
 713 # Here are the dates given at
 714 # https://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
 715 # as of 2014-06-19:
 716 # Year        Period
 717 # 1941        15 Jun to 30 Sep
 718 # 1942        Whole year
 719 # 1943        Whole year
 720 # 1944        Whole year
 721 # 1945        Whole year
 722 # 1946        20 Apr to 1 Dec
 723 # 1947        13 Apr to 30 Nov
 724 # 1948        2 May to 31 Oct
 725 # 1949        3 Apr to 30 Oct
 726 # 1950        2 Apr to 29 Oct
 727 # 1951        1 Apr to 28 Oct
 728 # 1952        6 Apr to 2 Nov
 729 # 1953        5 Apr to 1 Nov
 730 # 1954        21 Mar to 31 Oct
 731 # 1955        20 Mar to 6 Nov
 732 # 1956        18 Mar to 4 Nov
 733 # 1957        24 Mar to 3 Nov
 734 # 1958        23 Mar to 2 Nov
 735 # 1959        22 Mar to 1 Nov
 736 # 1960        20 Mar to 6 Nov
 737 # 1961        19 Mar to 5 Nov
 738 # 1962        18 Mar to 4 Nov
 739 # 1963        24 Mar to 3 Nov
 740 # 1964        22 Mar to 1 Nov
 741 # 1965        18 Apr to 17 Oct
 742 # 1966        17 Apr to 16 Oct
 743 # 1967        16 Apr to 22 Oct
 744 # 1968        21 Apr to 20 Oct
 745 # 1969        20 Apr to 19 Oct
 746 # 1970        19 Apr to 18 Oct
 747 # 1971        18 Apr to 17 Oct
 748 # 1972        16 Apr to 22 Oct
 749 # 1973        22 Apr to 21 Oct
 750 # 1973/74     30 Dec 73 to 20 Oct 74
 751 # 1975        20 Apr to 19 Oct
 752 # 1976        18 Apr to 17 Oct
 753 # 1977        Nil
 754 # 1978        Nil
 755 # 1979        13 May to 21 Oct
 756 # 1980 to Now Nil
 757 # The page does not give times of day for transitions,
 758 # or dates for the 1942 and 1945 transitions.
 759 # The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began 1941-12-25.
 760 
 761 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 762 Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Apr     21      0:00    1:00    S
 763 Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Dec     1       3:30s   0       -
 764 Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Apr     13      3:30s   1:00    S
 765 Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Nov     30      3:30s   0       -
 766 Rule    HK      1948    only    -       May     2       3:30s   1:00    S
 767 Rule    HK      1948    1952    -       Oct     Sun>=28      3:30s   0       -






 768 Rule    HK      1949    1953    -       Apr     Sun>=1       3:30    1:00    S
 769 Rule    HK      1953    1964    -       Oct     Sun>=31      3:30    0       -
 770 Rule    HK      1954    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=18      3:30    1:00    S


 771 Rule    HK      1965    1976    -       Apr     Sun>=16      3:30    1:00    S
 772 Rule    HK      1965    1976    -       Oct     Sun>=16      3:30    0       -
 773 Rule    HK      1973    only    -       Dec     30      3:30    1:00    S
 774 Rule    HK      1979    only    -       May     13      3:30    1:00    S
 775 Rule    HK      1979    only    -       Oct     21      3:30    0       -
 776 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 777 Zone    Asia/Hong_Kong  7:36:42 -       LMT     1904 Oct 30  0:36:42
 778                         8:00    -       HKT     1941 Jun 15  3:00
 779                         8:00    1:00    HKST    1941 Oct  1  4:00
 780                         8:30    -       HKT     1941 Dec 25
 781                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Nov 18  2:00
 782                         8:00    HK      HK%sT
 783 
 784 ###############################################################################
 785 
 786 # Taiwan
 787 
 788 # From smallufo (2010-04-03):
 789 # According to Taiwan's CWB [Central Weather Bureau],
 790 # http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm
 791 # Taipei has DST in 1979 between July 1st and Sep 30.
 792 
 793 # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
 794 # On Dec 28, 1895, the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of
 795 # Meiji Year 28 "The clause about standard time", mentioned that
 796 # Taiwan and Penghu Islands, as well as Yaeyama and Miyako Islands
 797 # (both in Okinawa) adopt the Western Standard Time which is based on
 798 # 120E. The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896. The original text can be
 799 # found on Wikisource:
 800 # https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
 801 # ... This could be the first adoption of time zone in Taiwan, because


 885 # until 1945-09-21 at 01:00, overriding Shanks & Pottenger.
 886 # Likewise, use Yu-Cheng Chuang's data for DST in Taiwan.
 887 
 888 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 889 Rule    Taiwan  1946    only    -       May     15      0:00    1:00    D
 890 Rule    Taiwan  1946    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 891 Rule    Taiwan  1947    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    D
 892 Rule    Taiwan  1947    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       S
 893 Rule    Taiwan  1948    1951    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    D
 894 Rule    Taiwan  1948    1951    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 895 Rule    Taiwan  1952    only    -       Mar     1       0:00    1:00    D
 896 Rule    Taiwan  1952    1954    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       S
 897 Rule    Taiwan  1953    1959    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    D
 898 Rule    Taiwan  1955    1961    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 899 Rule    Taiwan  1960    1961    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    D
 900 Rule    Taiwan  1974    1975    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    D
 901 Rule    Taiwan  1974    1975    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 902 Rule    Taiwan  1979    only    -       Jul     1       0:00    1:00    D
 903 Rule    Taiwan  1979    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 904 
 905 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 906 # Taipei or Taibei or T'ai-pei
 907 Zone    Asia/Taipei     8:06:00 -       LMT     1896 Jan  1
 908                         8:00    -       CST     1937 Oct  1
 909                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 21  1:00
 910                         8:00    Taiwan  C%sT
 911 
 912 # Macau (Macao, Aomen)
 913 #
 914 # From P Chan (2018-05-10):
 915 # * LegisMac
 916 #   http://legismac.safp.gov.mo/legismac/descqry/Descqry.jsf?lang=pt
 917 #   A database for searching titles of legal documents of Macau in
 918 #   Chinese and Portuguese.  The term "HORÁRIO DE VERÃO" can be used for
 919 #   searching decrees about summer time.
 920 # * Archives of Macao
 921 #   http://www.archives.gov.mo/en/bo/
 922 #   It contains images of old official gazettes.
 923 # * The Macao Meteorological and Geophysical Bureau have a page listing the
 924 #   summer time history.  But it is not complete and has some mistakes.
 925 #   http://www.smg.gov.mo/smg/geophysics/e_t_Summer%20Time.htm


1023 Rule    Macau   1948    only    -       Oct     31      23:00s  0       S
1024 Rule    Macau   1949    1950    -       Apr     Sat>=1       23:00s  1:00    D
1025 Rule    Macau   1949    1950    -       Oct     lastSat 23:00s  0       S
1026 Rule    Macau   1951    only    -       Mar     31      23:00s  1:00    D
1027 Rule    Macau   1951    only    -       Oct     28      23:00s  0       S
1028 Rule    Macau   1952    1953    -       Apr     Sat>=1       23:00s  1:00    D
1029 Rule    Macau   1952    only    -       Nov      1      23:00s  0       S
1030 Rule    Macau   1953    1954    -       Oct     lastSat 23:00s  0       S
1031 Rule    Macau   1954    1956    -       Mar     Sat>=17      23:00s  1:00    D
1032 Rule    Macau   1955    only    -       Nov      5      23:00s  0       S
1033 Rule    Macau   1956    1964    -       Nov     Sun>=1       03:30   0       S
1034 Rule    Macau   1957    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=18      03:30   1:00    D
1035 Rule    Macau   1965    1973    -       Apr     Sun>=16      03:30   1:00    D
1036 Rule    Macau   1965    1966    -       Oct     Sun>=16      02:30   0       S
1037 Rule    Macau   1967    1976    -       Oct     Sun>=16      03:30   0       S
1038 Rule    Macau   1973    only    -       Dec     30      03:30   1:00    D
1039 Rule    Macau   1975    1976    -       Apr     Sun>=16      03:30   1:00    D
1040 Rule    Macau   1979    only    -       May     13      03:30   1:00    D
1041 Rule    Macau   1979    only    -       Oct     Sun>=16      03:30   0       S
1042 
1043 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1044 Zone    Asia/Macau      7:34:10 -       LMT     1904 Oct 30
1045                         8:00    -       CST     1941 Dec 21 23:00
1046                         9:00    Macau   +09/+10 1945 Sep 30 24:00
1047                         8:00    Macau   C%sT
1048 
1049 
1050 ###############################################################################
1051 
1052 # Cyprus
1053 
1054 # Milne says the Eastern Telegraph Company used 2:14:00.  Stick with LMT.
1055 # IATA SSIM (1998-09) has Cyprus using EU rules for the first time.
1056 
1057 # From Paul Eggert (2016-09-09):
1058 # Yesterday's Cyprus Mail reports that Northern Cyprus followed Turkey's
1059 # lead and switched from +02/+03 to +03 year-round.
1060 # http://cyprus-mail.com/2016/09/08/two-time-zones-cyprus-turkey-will-not-turn-clocks-back-next-month/
1061 #
1062 # From Even Scharning (2016-10-31):
1063 # Looks like the time zone split in Cyprus went through last night.
1064 # http://cyprus-mail.com/2016/10/30/cyprus-new-division-two-time-zones-now-reality/
1065 
1066 # From Paul Eggert (2017-10-18):
1067 # Northern Cyprus will reinstate winter time on October 29, thus
1068 # staying in sync with the rest of Cyprus.  See: Anastasiou A.
1069 # Cyprus to remain united in time.  Cyprus Mail 2017-10-17.
1070 # https://cyprus-mail.com/2017/10/17/cyprus-remain-united-time/
1071 
1072 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1073 Rule    Cyprus  1975    only    -       Apr     13      0:00    1:00    S
1074 Rule    Cyprus  1975    only    -       Oct     12      0:00    0       -
1075 Rule    Cyprus  1976    only    -       May     15      0:00    1:00    S
1076 Rule    Cyprus  1976    only    -       Oct     11      0:00    0       -
1077 Rule    Cyprus  1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    S
1078 Rule    Cyprus  1977    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    0       -
1079 Rule    Cyprus  1978    only    -       Oct     2       0:00    0       -
1080 Rule    Cyprus  1979    1997    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
1081 Rule    Cyprus  1981    1998    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
1082 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1083 Zone    Asia/Nicosia    2:13:28 -       LMT     1921 Nov 14
1084                         2:00    Cyprus  EE%sT   1998 Sep
1085                         2:00    EUAsia  EE%sT
1086 Zone    Asia/Famagusta  2:15:48 -       LMT     1921 Nov 14
1087                         2:00    Cyprus  EE%sT   1998 Sep
1088                         2:00    EUAsia  EE%sT   2016 Sep  8
1089                         3:00    -       +03     2017 Oct 29 1:00u
1090                         2:00    EUAsia  EE%sT
1091 
1092 # Classically, Cyprus belongs to Asia; e.g. see Herodotus, Histories, I.72.
1093 # However, for various reasons many users expect to find it under Europe.
1094 Link    Asia/Nicosia    Europe/Nicosia
1095 
1096 # Georgia
1097 # From Paul Eggert (1994-11-19):
1098 # Today's _Economist_ (p 60) reports that Georgia moved its clocks forward
1099 # an hour recently, due to a law proposed by Zurab Murvanidze,
1100 # an MP who went on a hunger strike for 11 days to force discussion about it!
1101 # We have no details, but we'll guess they didn't move the clocks back in fall.
1102 #


1111 # republic has changed its time zone back to that of Moscow.  As a result it
1112 # is now just four hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time, rather than five hours
1113 # ahead.  The switch was decreed by the pro-Western president of Georgia,
1114 # Mikheil Saakashvili, who said the change was partly prompted by the process
1115 # of integration into Europe.
1116 
1117 # From Teimuraz Abashidze (2005-11-07):
1118 # Government of Georgia ... decided to NOT CHANGE daylight savings time on
1119 # [Oct.] 30, as it was done before during last more than 10 years.
1120 # Currently, we are in fact GMT +4:00, as before 30 October it was GMT
1121 # +3:00.... The problem is, there is NO FORMAL LAW or governmental document
1122 # about it.  As far as I can find, I was told, that there is no document,
1123 # because we just DIDN'T ISSUE document about switching to winter time....
1124 # I don't know what can be done, especially knowing that some years ago our
1125 # DST rules where changed THREE TIMES during one month.
1126 
1127 # Milne 1899 says Tbilisi (Tiflis) time was 2:59:05.7.
1128 # Byalokoz 1919 says Georgia was 2:59:11.
1129 # Go with Byalokoz.
1130 
1131 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1132 Zone    Asia/Tbilisi    2:59:11 -       LMT     1880
1133                         2:59:11 -       TBMT    1924 May  2 # Tbilisi Mean Time
1134                         3:00    -       +03     1957 Mar
1135                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
1136                         3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04 1992
1137                         3:00 E-EurAsia  +03/+04 1994 Sep lastSun
1138                         4:00 E-EurAsia  +04/+05 1996 Oct lastSun
1139                         4:00    1:00    +05     1997 Mar lastSun
1140                         4:00 E-EurAsia  +04/+05 2004 Jun 27
1141                         3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04 2005 Mar lastSun  2:00
1142                         4:00    -       +04
1143 
1144 # East Timor
1145 
1146 # See Indonesia for the 1945 transition.
1147 
1148 # From João Carrascalão, brother of the former governor of East Timor, in
1149 # East Timor may be late for its millennium
1150 # <https://etan.org/et99c/december/26-31/30ETMAY.htm> (1999-12-26/31):
1151 # Portugal tried to change the time forward in 1974 because the sun
1152 # rises too early but the suggestion raised a lot of problems with the
1153 # Timorese and I still don't think it would work today because it
1154 # conflicts with their way of life.
1155 
1156 # From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):
1157 # We don't have any record of the above attempt.
1158 # Most likely our records are incomplete, but we have no better data.
1159 
1160 # From Manoel de Almeida e Silva, Deputy Spokesman for the UN Secretary-General
1161 # http://www.hri.org/news/world/undh/2000/00-08-16.undh.html
1162 # (2000-08-16):
1163 # The Cabinet of the East Timor Transition Administration decided
1164 # today to advance East Timor's time by one hour.  The time change,
1165 # which will be permanent, with no seasonal adjustment, will happen at
1166 # midnight on Saturday, September 16.
1167 
1168 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1169 Zone    Asia/Dili       8:22:20 -       LMT     1912 Jan  1
1170                         8:00    -       +08     1942 Feb 21 23:00
1171                         9:00    -       +09     1976 May  3
1172                         8:00    -       +08     2000 Sep 17  0:00
1173                         9:00    -       +09
1174 
1175 # India
1176 
1177 # British astronomer Henry Park Hollis disliked India Standard Time's offset:
1178 # "A new time system has been proposed for India, Further India, and Burmah.
1179 # The scheme suggested is that the times of the meridians 5½ and 6½ hours
1180 # east of Greenwich should be adopted in these territories.  No reason is
1181 # given why hourly meridians five hours and six hours east should not be
1182 # chosen; a plan which would bring the time of India into harmony with
1183 # that of almost the whole of the civilised world."
1184 # Hollis HP. Universal Time, Longitudes, and Geodesy. Mon Not R Astron Soc.
1185 # 1905-02-10;65(4):405-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/65.4.382
1186 
1187 # From Ian P. Beacock, in "A brief history of (modern) time", The Atlantic
1188 # https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/12/the-creation-of-modern-time/421419/
1189 # (2015-12-22):
1190 # In January 1906, several thousand cotton-mill workers rioted on the
1191 # outskirts of Bombay....  They were protesting the proposed abolition of
1192 # local time in favor of Indian Standard Time....  Journalists called this
1193 # dispute the "Battle of the Clocks."  It lasted nearly half a century.
1194 
1195 # From Paul Eggert (2017-04-20):
1196 # Good luck trying to nail down old timekeeping records in India.
1197 # "... in the nineteenth century ... Madras Observatory took its magnetic
1198 # measurements on Göttingen time, its meteorological measurements on Madras
1199 # (local) time, dropped its time ball on Greenwich (ocean navigator's) time,
1200 # and distributed civil (local time)." -- Bartky IR. Selling the true time:
1201 # 19th-century timekeeping in america. Stanford U Press (2000), 247 note 19.
1202 # "A more potent cause of resistance to the general adoption of the present
1203 # standard time lies in the fact that it is Madras time.  The citizen of
1204 # Bombay, proud of being 'primus in Indis' and of Calcutta, equally proud of
1205 # his city being the Capital of India, and - for a part of the year - the Seat
1206 # of the Supreme Government, alike look down on Madras, and refuse to change


1214 # only government observatory' - was suggested as a standard railway time,
1215 # first to be adopted on the Great Indian Peninsular Railway (GIPR)....
1216 # Calcutta, Bombay, and Karachi, were to be allowed to continue with their
1217 # local time for civil purposes." - Prasad R. Tracks of Change: Railways and
1218 # Everyday Life in Colonial India. Cambridge University Press (2016), 145.
1219 #
1220 # Reed S, Low F. The Indian Year Book 1936-37. Bennett, Coleman, pp 27-8.
1221 # https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.282212
1222 # This lists +052110 as Madras local time used in railways, and says that on
1223 # 1906-01-01 railways and telegraphs in India switched to +0530.  Some
1224 # municipalities retained their former time, and the time in Calcutta
1225 # continued to depend on whether you were at the railway station or at
1226 # government offices.  Government time was at +055320 (according to Shanks) or
1227 # at +0554 (according to the Indian Year Book).  Railway time is more
1228 # appropriate for our purposes, as it was better documented, it is what we do
1229 # elsewhere (e.g., Europe/London before 1880), and after 1906 it was
1230 # consistent in the region now identified by Asia/Kolkata.  So, use railway
1231 # time for 1870-1941.  Shanks is our only (and dubious) source for the
1232 # 1941-1945 data.
1233 
1234 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1235 Zone    Asia/Kolkata    5:53:28 -       LMT     1854 Jun 28 # Kolkata
1236                         5:53:20 -       HMT     1870        # Howrah Mean Time?
1237                         5:21:10 -       MMT     1906 Jan  1 # Madras local time
1238                         5:30    -       IST     1941 Oct
1239                         5:30    1:00    +0630   1942 May 15
1240                         5:30    -       IST     1942 Sep
1241                         5:30    1:00    +0630   1945 Oct 15
1242                         5:30    -       IST
1243 # Since 1970 the following are like Asia/Kolkata:
1244 #       Andaman Is
1245 #       Lakshadweep (Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Is)
1246 #       Nicobar Is
1247 
1248 # Indonesia
1249 #
1250 # From Paul Eggert (2014-09-06):
1251 # The 1876 Report of the Secretary of the [US] Navy, p 306 says that Batavia
1252 # civil time was 7:07:12.5; round to even for Jakarta.
1253 #
1254 # From Gwillim Law (2001-05-28), overriding Shanks & Pottenger:


1266 # These would be the earliest possible times for a change.
1267 # Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, by Henri Le Corre, (Éditions
1268 # Traditionnelles, 1987, Paris) says that Java and Madura switched
1269 # from UT +09 to +07:30 on 1945-09-23, and gives 1944-09-01 for Jayapura
1270 # (Hollandia).  For now, assume all Indonesian locations other than Jayapura
1271 # switched on 1945-09-23.
1272 #
1273 # From Paul Eggert (2013-08-11):
1274 # Normally the tz database uses English-language abbreviations, but in
1275 # Indonesia it's typical to use Indonesian-language abbreviations even
1276 # when writing in English.  For example, see the English-language
1277 # summary published by the Time and Frequency Laboratory of the
1278 # Research Center for Calibration, Instrumentation and Metrology,
1279 # Indonesia, <http://time.kim.lipi.go.id/time-eng.php> (2006-09-29).
1280 # The time zone abbreviations and UT offsets are:
1281 #
1282 # WIB  - +07 - Waktu Indonesia Barat (Indonesia western time)
1283 # WITA - +08 - Waktu Indonesia Tengah (Indonesia central time)
1284 # WIT  - +09 - Waktu Indonesia Timur (Indonesia eastern time)
1285 #
1286 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1287 # Java, Sumatra
1288 Zone Asia/Jakarta       7:07:12 -       LMT     1867 Aug 10
1289 # Shanks & Pottenger say the next transition was at 1924 Jan 1 0:13,
1290 # but this must be a typo.
1291                         7:07:12 -       BMT     1923 Dec 31 23:47:12 # Batavia
1292                         7:20    -       +0720   1932 Nov
1293                         7:30    -       +0730   1942 Mar 23
1294                         9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep 23
1295                         7:30    -       +0730   1948 May
1296                         8:00    -       +08     1950 May
1297                         7:30    -       +0730   1964
1298                         7:00    -       WIB
1299 # west and central Borneo
1300 Zone Asia/Pontianak     7:17:20 -       LMT     1908 May
1301                         7:17:20 -       PMT     1932 Nov    # Pontianak MT
1302                         7:30    -       +0730   1942 Jan 29
1303                         9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep 23
1304                         7:30    -       +0730   1948 May
1305                         8:00    -       +08     1950 May
1306                         7:30    -       +0730   1964


1337 #       for synchronizing the official times of the country, agreed that:
1338 #
1339 #       The official time of the country will should move forward one hour
1340 #       at the 24[:00] hours of the first day of Farvardin and should return
1341 #       to its previous state at the 24[:00] hours of the 30th day of
1342 #       Shahrivar.
1343 #
1344 #       First Deputy to the President - Hassan Habibi
1345 #
1346 # From personal experience, that agrees with what has been followed
1347 # for at least the last 5 years.  Before that, for a few years, the
1348 # date used was the first Thursday night of Farvardin and the last
1349 # Thursday night of Shahrivar, but I can't give exact dates....
1350 #
1351 # From Roozbeh Pournader (2005-04-05):
1352 # The text of the Iranian law, in effect since 1925, clearly mentions
1353 # that the true solar year is the measure, and there is no arithmetic
1354 # leap year calculation involved.  There has never been any serious
1355 # plan to change that law....
1356 #
1357 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-30):
1358 # Go with Shanks & Pottenger before Sept. 1991, and with Pournader thereafter.
1359 # I used the following code in GNU Emacs 26.1 to generate the "Rule Iran"
1360 # lines from 2008 through 2087.  Emacs 26.1 uses Ed Reingold's
1361 # cal-persia implementation of Birashk's approximation, which in the
1362 # 2008-2087 range disagrees with the astronomical Persian calendar
1363 # for Persian years 1404 (Gregorian 2025) and 1437 (Gregorian 2058), so
1364 # the following code special-cases those years.  See Table 15.1, page 264, of:
1365 # Edward M. Reingold and Nachum Dershowitz, Calendrical Calculations:
1366 # The Ultimate Edition, Cambridge University Press (2018).
1367 # https://www.cambridge.org/fr/academic/subjects/computer-science/computing-general-interest/calendrical-calculations-ultimate-edition-4th-edition
1368 # Page 258, footnote 2, of this book says there is some dispute over what will
1369 # happen in 2091 (and some other years after that), so this code
1370 # stops in 2087, as 2088 and 2089 agree with the "max" rule below.
1371 # (cl-loop
1372 #  initially (require 'cal-persia)
1373 #  with first-persian-year = 1387
1374 #  with last-persian-year = 1466
1375 #  ;; Exceptional years in the above range,
1376 #  ;; from Reingold & Dershowitz Table 15.1, page 264:
1377 #  with exceptional-persian-years = '(1404 1437)
1378 #  with range-start = nil
1379 #  for persian-year from first-persian-year to last-persian-year
1380 #  do
1381 #  (let*
1382 #      ((exceptional-year-offset
1383 #        (if (member persian-year exceptional-persian-years) 1 0))
1384 #       (beg-dst-absolute
1385 #        (+ (calendar-persian-to-absolute (list 1 1 persian-year))
1386 #           exceptional-year-offset))
1387 #       (end-dst-absolute
1388 #        (+ (calendar-persian-to-absolute (list 6 30 persian-year))
1389 #           exceptional-year-offset))
1390 #       (next-year-beg-dst-absolute
1391 #        (+ (calendar-persian-to-absolute (list 1 1 (1+ persian-year)))
1392 #           (if (member (1+ persian-year) exceptional-persian-years) 1 0)))
1393 #       (beg-dst (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute beg-dst-absolute))
1394 #       (end-dst (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute end-dst-absolute))
1395 #       (next-year-beg-dst (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute
1396 #                           next-year-beg-dst-absolute))
1397 #       (year (calendar-extract-year beg-dst))
1398 #       (range-end (if range-start year "only")))
1399 #    (setq range-start (or range-start year))
1400 #    (when (or (/= (calendar-extract-day beg-dst)
1401 #                  (calendar-extract-day next-year-beg-dst))
1402 #              (= persian-year last-persian-year))
1403 #      (insert
1404 #       (format
1405 #        "Rule\tIran\t%d\t%s\t-\t%s\t%2d\t24:00\t1:00\t-\n"
1406 #        range-start range-end
1407 #        (calendar-month-name (calendar-extract-month beg-dst) t)
1408 #        (calendar-extract-day beg-dst)))
1409 #      (insert
1410 #       (format
1411 #        "Rule\tIran\t%d\t%s\t-\t%s\t%2d\t24:00\t0\t-\n"
1412 #        range-start range-end
1413 #        (calendar-month-name (calendar-extract-month end-dst) t)
1414 #        (calendar-extract-day end-dst)))
1415 #      (setq range-start nil))))
1416 #
1417 # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-03-30), writing about future
1418 # discrepancies between cal-persia and the Iranian calendar:
1419 # For 2091 solar-longitude-after yields 2091-03-20 08:40:07.7 UT for
1420 # the vernal equinox and that gets so close to 12:00 some local
1421 # Iranian time that the definition of the correct location needs to be
1422 # known exactly, amongst other factors.  2157 is even closer:
1423 # 2157-03-20 08:37:15.5 UT.  But the Gregorian year 2025 should give
1424 # no interpretation problem whatsoever.  By the way, another instant
1425 # in the near future where there will be a discrepancy between
1426 # arithmetical and astronomical Iranian calendars will be in 2058:
1427 # vernal equinox on 2058-03-20 09:03:05.9 UT.  The Java version of
1428 # Reingold's/Dershowitz' calculator gives correctly the Gregorian date
1429 # 2058-03-21 for 1 Farvardin 1437 (astronomical).
1430 #
1431 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-03-22):
1432 # Several of my users have reported that Iran will not observe DST anymore:
1433 # http://www.irna.ir/en/news/view/line-17/0603193812164948.htm
1434 #
1435 # From Reuters (2007-09-16), with a heads-up from Jesper Nørgaard Welen:
1436 # ... the Guardian Council ... approved a law on Sunday to re-introduce
1437 # daylight saving time ...
1438 # https://uk.reuters.com/article/oilRpt/idUKBLA65048420070916
1439 #
1440 # From Roozbeh Pournader (2007-11-05):
1441 # This is quoted from Official Gazette of the Islamic Republic of
1442 # Iran, Volume 63, No. 18242, dated Tuesday 1386/6/24
1443 # [2007-10-16]. I am doing the best translation I can:...
1444 # The official time of the country will be moved forward for one hour
1445 # on the 24 hours of the first day of the month of Farvardin and will
1446 # be changed back to its previous state on the 24 hours of the
1447 # thirtieth day of Shahrivar.
1448 #
1449 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1450 Rule    Iran    1978    1980    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1451 Rule    Iran    1978    only    -       Oct     20      24:00   0       -
1452 Rule    Iran    1979    only    -       Sep     18      24:00   0       -
1453 Rule    Iran    1980    only    -       Sep     22      24:00   0       -
1454 Rule    Iran    1991    only    -       May      2      24:00   1:00    -
1455 Rule    Iran    1992    1995    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1456 Rule    Iran    1991    1995    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1457 Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1458 Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1459 Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1460 Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1461 Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1462 Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1463 Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1464 Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1465 Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1466 Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1467 Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1468 Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1469 Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1470 Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1471 Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1472 Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1473 Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1474 Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1475 Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1476 Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1477 Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1478 Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1479 Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1480 Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1481 Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1482 Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1483 Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1484 Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1485 Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1486 Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1487 Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1488 Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1489 Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1490 Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1491 Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1492 Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1493 Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1494 Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1495 Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1496 Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1497 Rule    Iran    2036    2037    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1498 Rule    Iran    2036    2037    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1499 Rule    Iran    2038    2039    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1500 Rule    Iran    2038    2039    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1501 Rule    Iran    2040    2041    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1502 Rule    Iran    2040    2041    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1503 Rule    Iran    2042    2043    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1504 Rule    Iran    2042    2043    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1505 Rule    Iran    2044    2045    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1506 Rule    Iran    2044    2045    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1507 Rule    Iran    2046    2047    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1508 Rule    Iran    2046    2047    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1509 Rule    Iran    2048    2049    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1510 Rule    Iran    2048    2049    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1511 Rule    Iran    2050    2051    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1512 Rule    Iran    2050    2051    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1513 Rule    Iran    2052    2053    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1514 Rule    Iran    2052    2053    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1515 Rule    Iran    2054    2055    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1516 Rule    Iran    2054    2055    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1517 Rule    Iran    2056    2057    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1518 Rule    Iran    2056    2057    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1519 Rule    Iran    2058    2059    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1520 Rule    Iran    2058    2059    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1521 Rule    Iran    2060    2062    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1522 Rule    Iran    2060    2062    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1523 Rule    Iran    2063    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1524 Rule    Iran    2063    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1525 Rule    Iran    2064    2066    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1526 Rule    Iran    2064    2066    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1527 Rule    Iran    2067    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1528 Rule    Iran    2067    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1529 Rule    Iran    2068    2070    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1530 Rule    Iran    2068    2070    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1531 Rule    Iran    2071    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1532 Rule    Iran    2071    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1533 Rule    Iran    2072    2074    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1534 Rule    Iran    2072    2074    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1535 Rule    Iran    2075    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1536 Rule    Iran    2075    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1537 Rule    Iran    2076    2078    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1538 Rule    Iran    2076    2078    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1539 Rule    Iran    2079    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1540 Rule    Iran    2079    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1541 Rule    Iran    2080    2082    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1542 Rule    Iran    2080    2082    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1543 Rule    Iran    2083    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1544 Rule    Iran    2083    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1545 Rule    Iran    2084    2086    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1546 Rule    Iran    2084    2086    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1547 Rule    Iran    2087    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
1548 Rule    Iran    2087    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
1549 #
1550 # The following rules are approximations starting in the year 2088.
1551 # These are the best post-2088 approximations available, given the
1552 # restrictions of a single rule using ordinary Gregorian dates.
1553 # At some point this table will need to be extended, though quite
1554 # possibly Iran will change the rules first.
1555 Rule    Iran    2088    max     -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
1556 Rule    Iran    2088    max     -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
1557 
1558 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1559 Zone    Asia/Tehran     3:25:44 -       LMT     1916
1560                         3:25:44 -       TMT     1946     # Tehran Mean Time
1561                         3:30    -       +0330   1977 Nov
1562                         4:00    Iran    +04/+05 1979
1563                         3:30    Iran    +0330/+0430
1564 
1565 
1566 # Iraq
1567 #
1568 # From Jonathan Lennox (2000-06-12):
1569 # An article in this week's Economist ("Inside the Saddam-free zone", p. 50 in
1570 # the U.S. edition) on the Iraqi Kurds contains a paragraph:
1571 # "The three northern provinces ... switched their clocks this spring and
1572 # are an hour ahead of Baghdad."
1573 #
1574 # But Rives McDow (2000-06-18) quotes a contact in Iraqi-Kurdistan as follows:
1575 # In the past, some Kurdish nationalists, as a protest to the Iraqi
1576 # Government, did not adhere to daylight saving time.  They referred
1577 # to daylight saving as Saddam time.  But, as of today, the time zone
1578 # in Iraqi-Kurdistan is on standard time with Baghdad, Iraq.


1583 # The cabinet in Iraq abolished DST last week, according to the following
1584 # news sources (in Arabic):
1585 # http://www.aljeeran.net/wesima_articles/news-20080305-98602.html
1586 # http://www.aswataliraq.info/look/article.tpl?id=2047&IdLanguage=17&IdPublication=4&NrArticle=71743&NrIssue=1&NrSection=10
1587 #
1588 # We have published a short article in English about the change:
1589 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/iraq-dumps-daylight-saving.html
1590 
1591 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1592 Rule    Iraq    1982    only    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    -
1593 Rule    Iraq    1982    1984    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
1594 Rule    Iraq    1983    only    -       Mar     31      0:00    1:00    -
1595 Rule    Iraq    1984    1985    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    -
1596 Rule    Iraq    1985    1990    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
1597 Rule    Iraq    1986    1990    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    -
1598 # IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says Apr 1 12:01am UTC; guess the ':01' is a typo.
1599 # Shanks & Pottenger say Iraq did not observe DST 1992/1997; ignore this.
1600 #
1601 Rule    Iraq    1991    2007    -       Apr      1      3:00s   1:00    -
1602 Rule    Iraq    1991    2007    -       Oct      1      3:00s   0       -
1603 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1604 Zone    Asia/Baghdad    2:57:40 -       LMT     1890
1605                         2:57:36 -       BMT     1918     # Baghdad Mean Time?
1606                         3:00    -       +03     1982 May
1607                         3:00    Iraq    +03/+04
1608 
1609 
1610 ###############################################################################
1611 
1612 # Israel
1613 
1614 # From Ephraim Silverberg (2001-01-11):
1615 #
1616 # I coined "IST/IDT" circa 1988.  Until then there were three
1617 # different abbreviations in use:
1618 #
1619 # JST  Jerusalem Standard Time [Danny Braniss, Hebrew University]
1620 # IZT  Israel Zonal (sic) Time [Prof. Haim Papo, Technion]
1621 # EEST Eastern Europe Standard Time [used by almost everyone else]
1622 #
1623 # Since timezones should be called by country and not capital cities,


1648 Rule    Zion    1950    only    -       Apr     16      0:00    1:00    D
1649 Rule    Zion    1950    only    -       Sep     15      3:00    0       S
1650 Rule    Zion    1951    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
1651 Rule    Zion    1951    only    -       Nov     11      3:00    0       S
1652 Rule    Zion    1952    only    -       Apr     20      2:00    1:00    D
1653 Rule    Zion    1952    only    -       Oct     19      3:00    0       S
1654 Rule    Zion    1953    only    -       Apr     12      2:00    1:00    D
1655 Rule    Zion    1953    only    -       Sep     13      3:00    0       S
1656 Rule    Zion    1954    only    -       Jun     13      0:00    1:00    D
1657 Rule    Zion    1954    only    -       Sep     12      0:00    0       S
1658 Rule    Zion    1955    only    -       Jun     11      2:00    1:00    D
1659 Rule    Zion    1955    only    -       Sep     11      0:00    0       S
1660 Rule    Zion    1956    only    -       Jun      3      0:00    1:00    D
1661 Rule    Zion    1956    only    -       Sep     30      3:00    0       S
1662 Rule    Zion    1957    only    -       Apr     29      2:00    1:00    D
1663 Rule    Zion    1957    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1664 Rule    Zion    1974    only    -       Jul      7      0:00    1:00    D
1665 Rule    Zion    1974    only    -       Oct     13      0:00    0       S
1666 Rule    Zion    1975    only    -       Apr     20      0:00    1:00    D
1667 Rule    Zion    1975    only    -       Aug     31      0:00    0       S
1668 
1669 # From Alois Treindl (2019-03-06):
1670 # http://www.moin.gov.il/Documents/שעון%20קיץ/clock-50-years-7-2014.pdf
1671 # From Isaac Starkman (2019-03-06):
1672 # Summer time was in that period in 1980 and 1984, see
1673 # https://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-3951073,00.html
1674 # You can of course read it in translation.
1675 # I checked the local newspapers for that years.
1676 # It started on midnight and end at 01.00 am.
1677 # From Paul Eggert (2019-03-06):
1678 # Also see this thread about the moin.gov.il URL:
1679 # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-November/027194.html
1680 Rule    Zion    1980    only    -       Aug      2      0:00    1:00    D
1681 Rule    Zion    1980    only    -       Sep     13      1:00    0       S
1682 Rule    Zion    1984    only    -       May      5      0:00    1:00    D
1683 Rule    Zion    1984    only    -       Aug     25      1:00    0       S
1684 
1685 # From Shanks & Pottenger:
1686 Rule    Zion    1985    only    -       Apr     14      0:00    1:00    D
1687 Rule    Zion    1985    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S
1688 Rule    Zion    1986    only    -       May     18      0:00    1:00    D
1689 Rule    Zion    1986    only    -       Sep      7      0:00    0       S
1690 Rule    Zion    1987    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    D
1691 Rule    Zion    1987    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S
1692 
1693 # From Avigdor Finkelstein (2014-03-05):
1694 # I check the Parliament (Knesset) records and there it's stated that the
1695 # [1988] transition should take place on Saturday night, when the Sabbath
1696 # ends and changes to Sunday.
1697 Rule    Zion    1988    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    D
1698 Rule    Zion    1988    only    -       Sep      4      0:00    0       S
1699 
1700 # From Ephraim Silverberg
1701 # (1997-03-04, 1998-03-16, 1998-12-28, 2000-01-17, 2000-07-25, 2004-12-22,
1702 # and 2005-02-17):
1703 
1704 # According to the Office of the Secretary General of the Ministry of
1705 # Interior, there is NO set rule for Daylight-Savings/Standard time changes.


1788 Rule    Zion    2000    only    -       Oct      6      1:00    0       S
1789 Rule    Zion    2001    only    -       Apr      9      1:00    1:00    D
1790 Rule    Zion    2001    only    -       Sep     24      1:00    0       S
1791 Rule    Zion    2002    only    -       Mar     29      1:00    1:00    D
1792 Rule    Zion    2002    only    -       Oct      7      1:00    0       S
1793 Rule    Zion    2003    only    -       Mar     28      1:00    1:00    D
1794 Rule    Zion    2003    only    -       Oct      3      1:00    0       S
1795 Rule    Zion    2004    only    -       Apr      7      1:00    1:00    D
1796 Rule    Zion    2004    only    -       Sep     22      1:00    0       S
1797 
1798 # The proposed law agreed upon by the Knesset Interior Committee on
1799 # 2005-02-14 is that, for 2005 and beyond, DST starts at 02:00 the
1800 # last Friday before April 2nd (i.e. the last Friday in March or April
1801 # 1st itself if it falls on a Friday) and ends at 02:00 on the Saturday
1802 # night _before_ the fast of Yom Kippur.
1803 #
1804 # Those who can read Hebrew can view the announcement at:
1805 #
1806 #       ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2005+beyond.ps
1807 














1808 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1809 Rule    Zion    2005    2012    -       Apr     Fri<=1       2:00    1:00    D
1810 Rule    Zion    2005    only    -       Oct      9      2:00    0       S

1811 Rule    Zion    2006    only    -       Oct      1      2:00    0       S
1812 Rule    Zion    2007    only    -       Sep     16      2:00    0       S
1813 Rule    Zion    2008    only    -       Oct      5      2:00    0       S
1814 Rule    Zion    2009    only    -       Sep     27      2:00    0       S
1815 Rule    Zion    2010    only    -       Sep     12      2:00    0       S

1816 Rule    Zion    2011    only    -       Oct      2      2:00    0       S

1817 Rule    Zion    2012    only    -       Sep     23      2:00    0       S
1818 
1819 # From Ephraim Silverberg (2013-06-27):
1820 # On June 23, 2013, the Israeli government approved changes to the
1821 # Time Decree Law.  The next day, the changes passed the First Reading
1822 # in the Knesset.  The law is expected to pass the Second and Third
1823 # (final) Readings by the beginning of September 2013.
1824 #
1825 # As of 2013, DST starts at 02:00 on the Friday before the last Sunday
1826 # in March.  DST ends at 02:00 on the last Sunday of October.
1827 
1828 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1829 Rule    Zion    2013    max     -       Mar     Fri>=23      2:00    1:00    D
1830 Rule    Zion    2013    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1831 
1832 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1833 Zone    Asia/Jerusalem  2:20:54 -       LMT     1880
1834                         2:20:40 -       JMT     1918 # Jerusalem Mean Time?
1835                         2:00    Zion    I%sT
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 ###############################################################################
1840 
1841 # Japan
1842 
1843 # '9:00' and 'JST' is from Guy Harris.
1844 
1845 # From Paul Eggert (1995-03-06):
1846 # Today's _Asahi Evening News_ (page 4) reports that Japan had
1847 # daylight saving between 1948 and 1951, but "the system was discontinued
1848 # because the public believed it would lead to longer working hours."
1849 
1850 # From Mayumi Negishi in the 2005-08-10 Japan Times:
1851 # http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?nn20050810f2.htm
1852 # Occupation authorities imposed daylight-saving time on Japan on


1869 # [T]he webpage authored by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
1870 # https://eco.mtk.nao.ac.jp/koyomi/wiki/BBFEB9EF2FB2C6BBFEB9EF.html
1871 # ... mentioned that using Showa 23 (year 1948) as example, 13pm of September
1872 # 11 in summer time will equal to 0am of September 12 in standard time.
1873 # It cited a document issued by the Liaison Office which briefly existed
1874 # during the postwar period of Japan, where the detail on implementation
1875 # of the summer time is described in the document.
1876 # https://eco.mtk.nao.ac.jp/koyomi/wiki/BBFEB9EF2FB2C6BBFEB9EFB2C6BBFEB9EFA4CEBCC2BBDCA4CBA4C4A4A4A4C6.pdf
1877 # The text in the document do instruct a fall back to occur at
1878 # September 11, 13pm in summer time, while ordinary citizens can
1879 # change the clock before they sleep.
1880 #
1881 # From Paul Eggert (2018-09-27):
1882 # This instruction is equivalent to "Sat>=8 25:00", so use that.  zic treats
1883 # it like "Sun>=9 01:00", which is not quite the same but is the best we can
1884 # do in any POSIX or C platform.  The "25:00" assumes zic from 2007 or later,
1885 # which should be safe now.
1886 
1887 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1888 Rule    Japan   1948    only    -       May     Sat>=1       24:00   1:00    D
1889 Rule    Japan   1948    1951    -       Sep     Sat>=8       25:00   0       S
1890 Rule    Japan   1949    only    -       Apr     Sat>=1       24:00   1:00    D
1891 Rule    Japan   1950    1951    -       May     Sat>=1       24:00   1:00    D
1892 
1893 # From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-09):
1894 # 'Tokyo' usually stands for the former location of Tokyo Astronomical
1895 # Observatory: 139° 44' 40.90" E (9h 18m 58.727s), 35° 39' 16.0" N.
1896 # This data is from 'Rika Nenpyou (Chronological Scientific Tables) 1996'
1897 # edited by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan....
1898 # JST (Japan Standard Time) has been used since 1888-01-01 00:00 (JST).
1899 # The law is enacted on 1886-07-07.
1900 
1901 # From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-16):
1902 # The ordinance No. 51 (1886) established "standard time" in Japan,
1903 # which stands for the time on 135° E.
1904 # In the ordinance No. 167 (1895), "standard time" was renamed to "central
1905 # standard time".  And the same ordinance also established "western standard
1906 # time", which stands for the time on 120° E....  But "western standard
1907 # time" was abolished in the ordinance No. 529 (1937).  In the ordinance No.
1908 # 167, there is no mention regarding for what place western standard time is
1909 # standard....
1910 #
1911 # I wrote "ordinance" above, but I don't know how to translate.
1912 # In Japanese it's "chokurei", which means ordinance from emperor.
1913 
1914 # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
1915 # ...the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of Meiji Year 28 "The clause
1916 # about standard time" ... The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896.
1917 # https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
1918 #
1919 # ...the Showa Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 ... which
1920 # means the whole Japan territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan
1921 # Central Time (UT+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937.
1922 # https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件
1923 
1924 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1925 Zone    Asia/Tokyo      9:18:59 -       LMT     1887 Dec 31 15:00u
1926                         9:00    Japan   J%sT
1927 # Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo,
1928 # except that Truk (Chuuk), Ponape (Pohnpei), and Jaluit (Kosrae) did not
1929 # switch from +10 to +09 until 1941-04-01; see the 'australasia' file.
1930 
1931 # Jordan
1932 #
1933 # From <http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html>
1934 # Jordan Week (1999-07-01) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
1935 # Clocks in Jordan were forwarded one hour on Wednesday at midnight,
1936 # in accordance with the government's decision to implement summer time
1937 # all year round.
1938 #
1939 # From <http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html>
1940 # Jordan Week (1999-09-30) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-11-09):
1941 # Winter time starts today Thursday, 30 September. Clocks will be turned back
1942 # by one hour.  This is the latest government decision and it's final!
1943 # The decision was taken because of the increase in working hours in
1944 # government's departments from six to seven hours.
1945 #
1946 # From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22):
1947 # Starting 2003 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com.
1948 #
1949 # From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23):


2007 Rule    Jordan  1989    only    -       May     8       0:00    1:00    S
2008 Rule    Jordan  1990    only    -       Apr     27      0:00    1:00    S
2009 Rule    Jordan  1991    only    -       Apr     17      0:00    1:00    S
2010 Rule    Jordan  1991    only    -       Sep     27      0:00    0       -
2011 Rule    Jordan  1992    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    S
2012 Rule    Jordan  1992    1993    -       Oct     Fri>=1       0:00    0       -
2013 Rule    Jordan  1993    1998    -       Apr     Fri>=1       0:00    1:00    S
2014 Rule    Jordan  1994    only    -       Sep     Fri>=15      0:00    0       -
2015 Rule    Jordan  1995    1998    -       Sep     Fri>=15      0:00s   0       -
2016 Rule    Jordan  1999    only    -       Jul      1      0:00s   1:00    S
2017 Rule    Jordan  1999    2002    -       Sep     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
2018 Rule    Jordan  2000    2001    -       Mar     lastThu 0:00s   1:00    S
2019 Rule    Jordan  2002    2012    -       Mar     lastThu 24:00   1:00    S
2020 Rule    Jordan  2003    only    -       Oct     24      0:00s   0       -
2021 Rule    Jordan  2004    only    -       Oct     15      0:00s   0       -
2022 Rule    Jordan  2005    only    -       Sep     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
2023 Rule    Jordan  2006    2011    -       Oct     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
2024 Rule    Jordan  2013    only    -       Dec     20      0:00    0       -
2025 Rule    Jordan  2014    max     -       Mar     lastThu 24:00   1:00    S
2026 Rule    Jordan  2014    max     -       Oct     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
2027 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2028 Zone    Asia/Amman      2:23:44 -       LMT     1931
2029                         2:00    Jordan  EE%sT
2030 
2031 
2032 # Kazakhstan
2033 
2034 # From Kazakhstan Embassy's News Bulletin No. 11
2035 # <http://www.kazsociety.org.uk/news/2005/03/30.htm> (2005-03-21):
2036 # The Government of Kazakhstan passed a resolution March 15 abolishing
2037 # daylight saving time citing lack of economic benefits and health
2038 # complications coupled with a decrease in productivity.
2039 #
2040 # From Branislav Kojic (in Astana) via Gwillim Law (2005-06-28):
2041 # ... what happened was that the former Kazakhstan Eastern time zone
2042 # was "blended" with the Central zone.  Therefore, Kazakhstan now has
2043 # two time zones, and difference between them is one hour.  The zone
2044 # closer to UTC is the former Western zone (probably still called the
2045 # same), encompassing four provinces in the west: Aqtöbe, Atyraū,
2046 # Mangghystaū, and West Kazakhstan.  The other zone encompasses
2047 # everything else....  I guess that would make Kazakhstan time zones
2048 # de jure UTC+5 and UTC+6 respectively.
2049 
2050 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-27):
2051 # Review of the linked documents from http://adilet.zan.kz/
2052 # produced the following data for post-1991 Kazakhstan:
2053 #
2054 # 0. Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the USSR
2055 # from 1991-02-04 No. 20
2056 # http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102010545
2057 # removed the extra hour ("decree time") on the territory of the USSR
2058 # starting with the last Sunday of March 1991.
2059 # It also allowed (but not mandated) Kazakh SSR, Kirghiz SSR, Tajik SSR,
2060 # Turkmen SSR and Uzbek SSR to not have "summer" time.
2061 #
2062 # The 1992-01-13 act also refers to the act of the Cabinet of Ministers
2063 # of the Kazakh SSR from 1991-03-20 No. 170 "About the act of the Cabinet
2064 # of Ministers of the USSR from 1991-02-04 No. 20" but I didn't found its
2065 # text.
2066 #
2067 # According to Izvestia newspaper No. 68 (23334) from 1991-03-20
2068 # -- page 6; available at http://libinfo.org/newsr/newsr2574.djvu via
2069 # http://libinfo.org/index.php?id=58564 -- on 1991-03-31 at 2:00 during
2070 # transition to "summer" time:
2071 # Republic of Georgia, Latvian SSR, Lithuanian SSR, SSR Moldova,
2072 # Estonian SSR; Komi ASSR; Kaliningrad oblast; Nenets autonomous okrug
2073 # were to move clocks 1 hour forward.
2074 # Kazakh SSR (excluding Uralsk oblast); Republic of Kyrgyzstan, Tajik
2075 # SSR; Andijan, Jizzakh, Namangan, Sirdarya, Tashkent, Fergana oblasts
2076 # of the Uzbek SSR were to move clocks 1 hour backwards.
2077 # Other territories were to not move clocks.
2078 # When the "summer" time would end on 1991-09-29, clocks were to be
2079 # moved 1 hour backwards on the territory of the USSR excluding
2080 # Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenia, Tajikistan.
2081 #
2082 # Apparently there were last minute changes. Apparently Kazakh act No. 170
2083 # was one of such changes.
2084 #
2085 # https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Декретное_время
2086 # claims that Sovetskaya Rossiya newspaper on 1991-03-29 published that
2087 # Nenets autonomous okrug, Komi and Kazakhstan (excluding Uralsk oblast)
2088 # were to not move clocks and Uralsk oblast was to move clocks
2089 # forward; on 1991-09-29 Kazakhstan was to move clocks backwards.
2090 # (Probably there were changes even after that publication. There is an
2091 # article claiming that Kaliningrad oblast decided on 1991-03-29 to not
2092 # move clocks.)
2093 #
2094 # This implies that on 1991-03-31 Asia/Oral remained on +04/+05 while
2095 # the rest of Kazakhstan switched from +06/+07 to +05/06 or from +05/06
2096 # to +04/+05. It's unclear how Qyzylorda oblast moved into the fifth
2097 # time belt. (By switching from +04/+05 to +05/+06 on 1991-09-29?) ...
2098 #
2099 # 1. Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Kazakhstan
2100 # from 1992-01-13 No. 28
2101 # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P920000028_
2102 # (text includes modification from the 1996 act)
2103 # introduced new rules for calculation of time, mirroring Russian
2104 # 1992-01-08 act.  It specified that time would be calculated
2105 # according to time belts plus extra hour ("decree time"), moved clocks


2199 # No. 23 from 1992-01-08 [See 'europe' file for details].
2200 # Kazakh 1992-01-13 act appears to provide the same rules and 1992-03-27
2201 # act was to be enacted on the last Sunday of March 1992.
2202 
2203 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-11-08):
2204 # Turgai reorganization should affect only southern part of Qostanay
2205 # oblast.  Which should probably be separated into Asia/Arkalyk zone.
2206 # (There were also 1970, 1988 and 1990 Turgai oblast reorganizations
2207 # according to wikipedia.)
2208 #
2209 # [For Qostanay] http://www.ng.kz/gazeta/195/hranit/
2210 # suggests that clocks were to be moved 40 minutes backwards on
2211 # 1920-01-01 to the fourth time belt.  But I do not understand
2212 # how that could happen....
2213 #
2214 # [For Atyrau and Oral] 1919 decree
2215 # (http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-1919-02-08.html
2216 # and in Byalokoz) lists Ural river (plus 10 versts on its left bank) in
2217 # the third time belt (before 1930 this means +03).
2218 
2219 # From Alexander Konzurovski (2018-12-20):
2220 # Qyzyolrda Region (Asia/Qyzylorda) is changing its time zone from
2221 # UTC+6 to UTC+5 effective December 21st, 2018. The legal document is
2222 # located here: http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P1800000817 (russian language).
2223 
2224 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2225 #
2226 # Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata), representing most locations in Kazakhstan
2227 # This includes KZ-AKM, KZ-ALA, KZ-ALM, KZ-AST, KZ-BAY, KZ-VOS, KZ-ZHA,
2228 # KZ-KAR, KZ-SEV, KZ-PAV, and KZ-YUZ.
2229 Zone    Asia/Almaty     5:07:48 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Alma-Ata
2230                         5:00    -       +05     1930 Jun 21
2231                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2232                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2233                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2234                         6:00    -       +06
2235 # Qyzylorda (aka Kyzylorda, Kizilorda, Kzyl-Orda, etc.) (KZ-KZY)


2236 Zone    Asia/Qyzylorda  4:21:52 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2237                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
2238                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
2239                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
2240                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
2241                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2242                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Sep 29  2:00s
2243                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2244                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2245                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2246                         6:00    -       +06     2018 Dec 21  0:00
2247                         5:00    -       +05
2248 #
2249 # Qostanay (aka Kostanay, Kustanay) (KZ-KUS)
2250 # The 1991/2 rules are unclear partly because of the 1997 Turgai
2251 # reorganization.
2252 Zone    Asia/Qostanay   4:14:28 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2253                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
2254                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
2255                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
2256                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
2257                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2258                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2259                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2260                         6:00    -       +06
2261 













2262 # Aqtöbe (aka Aktobe, formerly Aktyubinsk) (KZ-AKT)
2263 Zone    Asia/Aqtobe     3:48:40 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2264                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
2265                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
2266                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
2267                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
2268                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2269                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2270                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2271                         5:00    -       +05
2272 # Mangghystaū (KZ-MAN)
2273 # Aqtau was not founded until 1963, but it represents an inhabited region,
2274 # so include timestamps before 1963.
2275 Zone    Asia/Aqtau      3:21:04 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2276                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
2277                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Oct  1
2278                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
2279                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2280                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2281                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1994 Sep 25  2:00s


2306                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2307                         5:00    -       +05
2308 
2309 # Kyrgyzstan (Kirgizstan)
2310 # Transitions through 1991 are from Shanks & Pottenger.
2311 
2312 # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-15):
2313 # According to an article dated today in the Kyrgyzstan Development Gateway
2314 # http://eng.gateway.kg/cgi-bin/page.pl?id=1&story_name=doc9979.shtml
2315 # Kyrgyzstan is canceling the daylight saving time system.  I take the article
2316 # to mean that they will leave their clocks at 6 hours ahead of UTC.
2317 # From Malik Abdugaliev (2005-09-21):
2318 # Our government cancels daylight saving time 6th of August 2005.
2319 # From 2005-08-12 our GMT-offset is +6, w/o any daylight saving.
2320 
2321 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2322 Rule    Kyrgyz  1992    1996    -       Apr     Sun>=7       0:00s   1:00    -
2323 Rule    Kyrgyz  1992    1996    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
2324 Rule    Kyrgyz  1997    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:30    1:00    -
2325 Rule    Kyrgyz  1997    2004    -       Oct     lastSun 2:30    0       -
2326 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2327 Zone    Asia/Bishkek    4:58:24 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2328                         5:00    -       +05     1930 Jun 21
2329                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2330                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Aug 31  2:00
2331                         5:00    Kyrgyz  +05/+06 2005 Aug 12
2332                         6:00    -       +06
2333 
2334 ###############################################################################
2335 
2336 # Korea (North and South)
2337 
2338 # From Annie I. Bang (2006-07-10):
2339 # http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=200607100012
2340 # Korea ran a daylight saving program from 1949-61 but stopped it
2341 # during the 1950-53 Korean War.  The system was temporarily enforced
2342 # between 1987 and 1988 ...
2343 
2344 # From Sanghyuk Jung (2014-10-29):
2345 # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-October/021830.html
2346 # According to the Korean Wikipedia
2347 # https://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/한국_표준시
2348 # [oldid=12896437 2014-09-04 08:03 UTC]
2349 # DST in Republic of Korea was as follows....  And I checked old
2350 # newspapers in Korean, all articles correspond with data in Wikipedia.
2351 # For example, the article in 1948 (Korean Language) proved that DST
2352 # started at June 1 in that year.  For another example, the article in
2353 # 1988 said that DST started at 2:00 AM in that year.
2354 
2355 # From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
2356 # 1. According to official announcement from Korean government, the DST end
2357 # date in South Korea should be
2358 # 1955-09-08 without specifying time
2359 # http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027977557
2360 # 1956-09-29 without specifying time
2361 # http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027978341
2362 # 1957-09-21 24 o'clock
2363 # http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027979690#3
2364 # 1958-09-20 24 o'clock
2365 # http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027981189
2366 # 1959-09-19 24 o'clock
2367 # http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027982974#2
2368 # 1960-09-17 24 o'clock
2369 # http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0028044104
2370 # ...
2371 # 2.... https://namu.wiki/w/대한민국%20표준시 ... [says]
2372 # when Korea was using GMT+8:30 as standard time, the international
2373 # aviation/marine/meteorological industry in the country refused to
2374 # follow and continued to use GMT+9:00 for interoperability.
2375 
2376 
2377 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2378 Rule    ROK     1948    only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    D
2379 Rule    ROK     1948    only    -       Sep     12      24:00   0       S
2380 Rule    ROK     1949    only    -       Apr      3       0:00   1:00    D
2381 Rule    ROK     1949    1951    -       Sep     Sat>=7       24:00   0       S
2382 Rule    ROK     1950    only    -       Apr      1       0:00   1:00    D
2383 Rule    ROK     1951    only    -       May      6       0:00   1:00    D
2384 Rule    ROK     1955    only    -       May      5       0:00   1:00    D
2385 Rule    ROK     1955    only    -       Sep      8      24:00   0       S
2386 Rule    ROK     1956    only    -       May     20       0:00   1:00    D
2387 Rule    ROK     1956    only    -       Sep     29      24:00   0       S
2388 Rule    ROK     1957    1960    -       May     Sun>=1        0:00   1:00    D
2389 Rule    ROK     1957    1960    -       Sep     Sat>=17      24:00   0       S
2390 Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=8        2:00   1:00    D
2391 Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       Oct     Sun>=8        3:00   0       S
2392 
2393 # From Paul Eggert (2016-08-23):
2394 # The Korean Wikipedia entry gives the following sources for UT offsets:
2395 #
2396 # 1908: Official Journal Article No. 3994 (decree No. 5)
2397 # 1912: Governor-General of Korea Official Gazette Issue No. 367
2398 #       (Announcement No. 338)
2399 # 1954: Presidential Decree No. 876 (1954-03-17)
2400 # 1961: Law No. 676 (1961-08-07)
2401 #
2402 # (Another source "1987: Law No. 3919 (1986-12-31)" was in the 2014-10-30
2403 # edition of the Korean Wikipedia entry.)
2404 #
2405 # I guessed that time zone abbreviations through 1945 followed the same
2406 # rules as discussed under Taiwan, with nominal switches from JST to KST
2407 # when the respective cities were taken over by the Allies after WWII.
2408 #
2409 # For Pyongyang, guess no changes from World War II until 2015, as we
2410 # have no information otherwise.
2411 


2421 # There is no common English-language abbreviation for this time zone.
2422 # Use KST, as that's what we already use for 1954-1961 in ROK.
2423 
2424 # From Kang Seonghoon (2018-04-29):
2425 # North Korea will revert its time zone from UTC+8:30 (PYT; Pyongyang
2426 # Time) back to UTC+9 (KST; Korea Standard Time).
2427 #
2428 # From Seo Sanghyeon (2018-04-30):
2429 # Rodong Sinmun 2018-04-30 announced Pyongyang Time transition plan.
2430 # https://www.nknews.org/kcna/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2018/04/rodong-2018-04-30.pdf
2431 # ... the transition date is 2018-05-05 ...  Citation should be Decree
2432 # No. 2232 of April 30, 2018, of the Presidium of the Supreme People's
2433 # Assembly, as published in Rodong Sinmun.
2434 # From Tim Parenti (2018-04-29):
2435 # It appears to be the front page story at the top in the right-most column.
2436 #
2437 # From Paul Eggert (2018-05-04):
2438 # The BBC reported that the transition was from 23:30 to 24:00 today.
2439 # https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-44010705
2440 
2441 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2442 Zone    Asia/Seoul      8:27:52 -       LMT     1908 Apr  1
2443                         8:30    -       KST     1912 Jan  1
2444                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep  8
2445                         9:00    -       KST     1954 Mar 21
2446                         8:30    ROK     K%sT    1961 Aug 10
2447                         9:00    ROK     K%sT
2448 Zone    Asia/Pyongyang  8:23:00 -       LMT     1908 Apr  1
2449                         8:30    -       KST     1912 Jan  1
2450                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Aug 24
2451                         9:00    -       KST     2015 Aug 15 00:00
2452                         8:30    -       KST     2018 May  4 23:30
2453                         9:00    -       KST
2454 
2455 ###############################################################################
2456 
2457 # Kuwait
2458 # See Asia/Riyadh.
2459 
2460 # Laos
2461 # See Asia/Bangkok.


2470 Rule    Lebanon 1922    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S
2471 Rule    Lebanon 1922    only    -       Oct     8       0:00    0       -
2472 Rule    Lebanon 1923    only    -       Apr     22      0:00    1:00    S
2473 Rule    Lebanon 1923    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       -
2474 Rule    Lebanon 1957    1961    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
2475 Rule    Lebanon 1957    1961    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
2476 Rule    Lebanon 1972    only    -       Jun     22      0:00    1:00    S
2477 Rule    Lebanon 1972    1977    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
2478 Rule    Lebanon 1973    1977    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
2479 Rule    Lebanon 1978    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    S
2480 Rule    Lebanon 1978    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
2481 Rule    Lebanon 1984    1987    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
2482 Rule    Lebanon 1984    1991    -       Oct     16      0:00    0       -
2483 Rule    Lebanon 1988    only    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    S
2484 Rule    Lebanon 1989    only    -       May     10      0:00    1:00    S
2485 Rule    Lebanon 1990    1992    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
2486 Rule    Lebanon 1992    only    -       Oct     4       0:00    0       -
2487 Rule    Lebanon 1993    max     -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
2488 Rule    Lebanon 1993    1998    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
2489 Rule    Lebanon 1999    max     -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       -
2490 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2491 Zone    Asia/Beirut     2:22:00 -       LMT     1880
2492                         2:00    Lebanon EE%sT
2493 
2494 # Malaysia
2495 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2496 Rule    NBorneo 1935    1941    -       Sep     14      0:00    0:20    -
2497 Rule    NBorneo 1935    1941    -       Dec     14      0:00    0       -
2498 #
2499 # peninsular Malaysia
2500 # taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
2501 # http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html
2502 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2503 Zone Asia/Kuala_Lumpur  6:46:46 -       LMT     1901 Jan  1
2504                         6:55:25 -       SMT     1905 Jun  1 # Singapore M.T.
2505                         7:00    -       +07     1933 Jan  1
2506                         7:00    0:20    +0720   1936 Jan  1
2507                         7:20    -       +0720   1941 Sep  1
2508                         7:30    -       +0730   1942 Feb 16
2509                         9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep 12
2510                         7:30    -       +0730   1982 Jan  1
2511                         8:00    -       +08
2512 # Sabah & Sarawak
2513 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-12):
2514 # The data entries here are mostly from Shanks & Pottenger, but the 1942, 1945
2515 # and 1982 transition dates are from Mok Ly Yng.
2516 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2517 Zone Asia/Kuching       7:21:20 -       LMT     1926 Mar
2518                         7:30    -       +0730   1933
2519                         8:00 NBorneo  +08/+0820 1942 Feb 16
2520                         9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep 12
2521                         8:00    -       +08
2522 
2523 # Maldives
2524 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2525 Zone    Indian/Maldives 4:54:00 -       LMT     1880 # Malé
2526                         4:54:00 -       MMT     1960 # Malé Mean Time
2527                         5:00    -       +05
2528 
2529 # Mongolia
2530 
2531 # Shanks & Pottenger say that Mongolia has three time zones, but
2532 # The USNO (1995-12-21) and the CIA map Standard Time Zones of the World
2533 # (2005-03) both say that it has just one.
2534 
2535 # From Oscar van Vlijmen (1999-12-11):
2536 # General Information Mongolia
2537 # <http://www.mongoliatourism.gov.mn/general.htm> (1999-09)
2538 # "Time: Mongolia has two time zones. Three westernmost provinces of
2539 # Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, and Hovd are one hour earlier than the capital city, and
2540 # the rest of the country follows the Ulaanbaatar time, which is UTC/GMT plus
2541 # eight hours."
2542 
2543 # From Rives McDow (1999-12-13):
2544 # Mongolia discontinued the use of daylight savings time in 1999; 1998


2647 # Shanks & Pottenger say that the Sept. 1984 through Sept. 1990 switches
2648 # in Choibalsan (more precisely, in Dornod and Sükhbaatar) took place
2649 # at 02:00 standard time, not at 00:00 local time as in the rest of
2650 # the country.  That would be odd, and possibly is a result of their
2651 # correction of 02:00 (in the previous edition) not being done correctly
2652 # in the latest edition; so ignore it for now.
2653 
2654 # From Ganbold Tsagaankhuu (2017-02-09):
2655 # Mongolian Government meeting has concluded today to cancel daylight
2656 # saving time adoption in Mongolia.  Source: http://zasag.mn/news/view/16192
2657 
2658 Rule    Mongol  1985    1998    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    -
2659 Rule    Mongol  1984    1998    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
2660 # IATA SSIM (1999-09) says Mongolia no longer observes DST.
2661 Rule    Mongol  2001    only    -       Apr     lastSat 2:00    1:00    -
2662 Rule    Mongol  2001    2006    -       Sep     lastSat 2:00    0       -
2663 Rule    Mongol  2002    2006    -       Mar     lastSat 2:00    1:00    -
2664 Rule    Mongol  2015    2016    -       Mar     lastSat 2:00    1:00    -
2665 Rule    Mongol  2015    2016    -       Sep     lastSat 0:00    0       -
2666 
2667 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2668 # Hovd, a.k.a. Chovd, Dund-Us, Dzhargalant, Khovd, Jirgalanta
2669 Zone    Asia/Hovd       6:06:36 -       LMT     1905 Aug
2670                         6:00    -       +06     1978
2671                         7:00    Mongol  +07/+08
2672 # Ulaanbaatar, a.k.a. Ulan Bataar, Ulan Bator, Urga
2673 Zone    Asia/Ulaanbaatar 7:07:32 -      LMT     1905 Aug
2674                         7:00    -       +07     1978
2675                         8:00    Mongol  +08/+09
2676 # Choibalsan, a.k.a. Bajan Tümen, Bajan Tumen, Chojbalsan,
2677 # Choybalsan, Sanbejse, Tchoibalsan
2678 Zone    Asia/Choibalsan 7:38:00 -       LMT     1905 Aug
2679                         7:00    -       +07     1978
2680                         8:00    -       +08     1983 Apr
2681                         9:00    Mongol  +09/+10 2008 Mar 31
2682                         8:00    Mongol  +08/+09
2683 
2684 # Nepal
2685 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2686 Zone    Asia/Kathmandu  5:41:16 -       LMT     1920
2687                         5:30    -       +0530   1986
2688                         5:45    -       +0545
2689 
2690 # Oman
2691 # See Asia/Dubai.
2692 
2693 # Pakistan
2694 
2695 # From Rives McDow (2002-03-13):
2696 # I have been advised that Pakistan has decided to adopt dst on a
2697 # TRIAL basis for one year, starting 00:01 local time on April 7, 2002
2698 # and ending at 00:01 local time October 6, 2002.  This is what I was
2699 # told, but I believe that the actual time of change may be 00:00; the
2700 # 00:01 was to make it clear which day it was on.
2701 
2702 # From Paul Eggert (2002-03-15):
2703 # Jesper Nørgaard found this URL:
2704 # http://www.pak.gov.pk/public/news/app/app06_dec.htm
2705 # (dated 2001-12-06) which says that the Cabinet adopted a scheme "to


2815 # >
2816 # > Then today, the president said that they might have to revert the
2817 # > decision if it is not supported by the parliament. So at the time
2818 # > being, it seems unclear if DST will be actually observed or not - but
2819 # > April 1 could be a more likely date than April 15.
2820 # Now, it seems that the decision to not observe DST in final:
2821 #
2822 # "Govt Withdraws Plan To Advance Clocks"
2823 # http://www.apakistannews.com/govt-withdraws-plan-to-advance-clocks-172041
2824 #
2825 # "People laud PM's announcement to end DST"
2826 # http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99374&Itemid=2
2827 
2828 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2829 Rule Pakistan   2002    only    -       Apr     Sun>=2       0:00    1:00    S
2830 Rule Pakistan   2002    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2       0:00    0       -
2831 Rule Pakistan   2008    only    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    S
2832 Rule Pakistan   2008    2009    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       -
2833 Rule Pakistan   2009    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    S
2834 
2835 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2836 Zone    Asia/Karachi    4:28:12 -       LMT     1907
2837                         5:30    -       +0530   1942 Sep
2838                         5:30    1:00    +0630   1945 Oct 15
2839                         5:30    -       +0530   1951 Sep 30
2840                         5:00    -       +05     1971 Mar 26
2841                         5:00 Pakistan   PK%sT   # Pakistan Time
2842 
2843 # Palestine
2844 
2845 # From Amos Shapir (1998-02-15):
2846 #
2847 # From 1917 until 1948-05-15, all of Palestine, including the parts now
2848 # known as the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, was under British rule.
2849 # Therefore the rules given for Israel for that period, apply there too...
2850 #
2851 # The Gaza Strip was under Egyptian rule between 1948-05-15 until 1967-06-05
2852 # (except a short occupation by Israel from 1956-11 till 1957-03, but no
2853 # time zone was affected then).  It was never formally annexed to Egypt,
2854 # though.
2855 #


3100 # [T]he Palestinian cabinet decision (Mar 8th 2016) published on
3101 # http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/WebSite/Upload/Decree/GOV_17/16032016134830.pdf
3102 # states that summer time will end on Oct 29th at 01:00.
3103 #
3104 # From Tim Parenti (2016-10-19):
3105 # Predict fall transitions on October's last Saturday at 01:00 from now on.
3106 # This is consistent with the 2016 transition as well as our spring
3107 # predictions.
3108 #
3109 # From Paul Eggert (2016-10-19):
3110 # It's also consistent with predictions in the following URLs today:
3111 # https://www.timeanddate.com/time/change/gaza-strip/gaza
3112 # https://www.timeanddate.com/time/change/west-bank/hebron
3113 
3114 # From Sharef Mustafa (2018-03-16):
3115 # Palestine summer time will start on Mar 24th 2018 by advancing the
3116 # clock by 60 minutes as per Palestinian cabinet decision published on
3117 # the official website, though the decree did not specify the exact
3118 # time of the time shift.
3119 # http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/Website/AR/NDecrees/ViewFile.ashx?ID=e7a42ab7-ee23-435a-b9c8-a4f7e81f3817
3120 
3121 # From Even Scharning (2019-03-23):
3122 # http://pnn.ps/news/401130
3123 # http://palweather.ps/ar/node/50136.html
3124 #
3125 # From Sharif Mustafa (2019-03-26):
3126 # The Palestinian cabinet announced today that the switch to DST will
3127 # be on Fri Mar 29th 2019 by advancing the clock by 60 minutes.
3128 # The decree signing date is Mar 12th but it was not published till today.
3129 # The decree does not specify the exact time of switch.
3130 # http://palestinecabinet.gov.ps/Website/AR/NDecrees/ViewFile.ashx?ID=e54e9ea1-50ee-4137-84df-0d6c78da259b
3131 #
3132 # From Even Scharning (2019-04-10):
3133 # Our source in Palestine said it happened Friday 29 at 00:00 local time....
3134 #
3135 # From Paul Eggert (2019-04-10):
3136 # For now, guess spring-ahead transitions are March's last Friday at 00:00.
3137 
3138 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3139 Rule EgyptAsia  1957    only    -       May     10      0:00    1:00    S
3140 Rule EgyptAsia  1957    1958    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
3141 Rule EgyptAsia  1958    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
3142 Rule EgyptAsia  1959    1967    -       May      1      1:00    1:00    S
3143 Rule EgyptAsia  1959    1965    -       Sep     30      3:00    0       -
3144 Rule EgyptAsia  1966    only    -       Oct      1      3:00    0       -
3145 
3146 Rule Palestine  1999    2005    -       Apr     Fri>=15      0:00    1:00    S
3147 Rule Palestine  1999    2003    -       Oct     Fri>=15      0:00    0       -
3148 Rule Palestine  2004    only    -       Oct      1      1:00    0       -
3149 Rule Palestine  2005    only    -       Oct      4      2:00    0       -
3150 Rule Palestine  2006    2007    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
3151 Rule Palestine  2006    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
3152 Rule Palestine  2007    only    -       Sep     Thu>=8       2:00    0       -
3153 Rule Palestine  2008    2009    -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
3154 Rule Palestine  2008    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    0       -
3155 Rule Palestine  2009    only    -       Sep     Fri>=1       1:00    0       -
3156 Rule Palestine  2010    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S
3157 Rule Palestine  2010    only    -       Aug     11      0:00    0       -
3158 Rule Palestine  2011    only    -       Apr      1      0:01    1:00    S
3159 Rule Palestine  2011    only    -       Aug      1      0:00    0       -
3160 Rule Palestine  2011    only    -       Aug     30      0:00    1:00    S
3161 Rule Palestine  2011    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
3162 Rule Palestine  2012    2014    -       Mar     lastThu 24:00   1:00    S
3163 Rule Palestine  2012    only    -       Sep     21      1:00    0       -
3164 Rule Palestine  2013    only    -       Sep     Fri>=21      0:00    0       -
3165 Rule Palestine  2014    2015    -       Oct     Fri>=21      0:00    0       -
3166 Rule Palestine  2015    only    -       Mar     lastFri 24:00   1:00    S
3167 Rule Palestine  2016    2018    -       Mar     Sat>=24      1:00    1:00    S
3168 Rule Palestine  2016    max     -       Oct     lastSat 1:00    0       -
3169 Rule Palestine  2019    max     -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
3170 
3171 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3172 Zone    Asia/Gaza       2:17:52 -       LMT     1900 Oct
3173                         2:00    Zion    EET/EEST 1948 May 15
3174                         2:00 EgyptAsia  EE%sT   1967 Jun  5
3175                         2:00    Zion    I%sT    1996
3176                         2:00    Jordan  EE%sT   1999
3177                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2008 Aug 29  0:00
3178                         2:00    -       EET     2008 Sep
3179                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2010
3180                         2:00    -       EET     2010 Mar 27  0:01
3181                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2011 Aug  1
3182                         2:00    -       EET     2012
3183                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT
3184 
3185 Zone    Asia/Hebron     2:20:23 -       LMT     1900 Oct
3186                         2:00    Zion    EET/EEST 1948 May 15
3187                         2:00 EgyptAsia  EE%sT   1967 Jun  5
3188                         2:00    Zion    I%sT    1996
3189                         2:00    Jordan  EE%sT   1999
3190                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT
3191 
3192 # Paracel Is
3193 # no information
3194 
3195 # Philippines
3196 
3197 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
3198 # The Spanish initially used American (west-of-Greenwich) time.
3199 # It is unknown what time Manila kept when the British occupied it from
3200 # 1762-10-06 through 1764-04; for now assume it kept American time.
3201 # On 1844-08-16, Narciso Clavería, governor-general of the
3202 # Philippines, issued a proclamation announcing that 1844-12-30 was to
3203 # be immediately followed by 1845-01-01; see R.H. van Gent's
3204 # History of the International Date Line
3205 # https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/idl/idl_philippines.htm
3206 # The rest of the data entries are from Shanks & Pottenger.
3207 
3208 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-26):
3209 # ... claims that Philippines had DST last time in 1990:
3210 # http://story.philippinetimes.com/p.x/ct/9/id/145be20cc6b121c0/cid/3e5bbccc730d258c/
3211 # [a story dated 2006-04-25 by Cris Larano of Dow Jones Newswires,
3212 # but no details]
3213 
3214 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-14):
3215 # The following source says DST may be instituted November-January and again
3216 # March-June, but this is not definite.  It also says DST was last proclaimed
3217 # during the Ramos administration (1992-1998); but again, no details.
3218 # Carcamo D. PNoy urged to declare use of daylight saving time.
3219 # Philippine Star 2014-08-05
3220 # http://www.philstar.com/headlines/2014/08/05/1354152/pnoy-urged-declare-use-daylight-saving-time


3225 # The act [1] even specifies use of PST as the abbreviation, although
3226 # the FAQ provided by PAGASA [2] uses the "acronym PhST to distinguish
3227 # it from the Pacific Standard Time (PST)."
3228 # [1] http://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2013/05/15/republic-act-no-10535/
3229 # [2] https://www1.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/index.php/astronomy/philippine-standard-time#republic-act-10535
3230 #
3231 # From Paul Eggert (2018-06-19):
3232 # I surveyed recent news reports, and my impression is that "PST" is
3233 # more popular among reliable English-language news sources.  This is
3234 # not just a measure of Google hit counts: it's also the sizes and
3235 # influence of the sources.  There is no current abbreviation for DST,
3236 # so use "PDT", the usual American style.
3237 
3238 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3239 Rule    Phil    1936    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    1:00    D
3240 Rule    Phil    1937    only    -       Feb     1       0:00    0       S
3241 Rule    Phil    1954    only    -       Apr     12      0:00    1:00    D
3242 Rule    Phil    1954    only    -       Jul     1       0:00    0       S
3243 Rule    Phil    1978    only    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
3244 Rule    Phil    1978    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
3245 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3246 Zone    Asia/Manila     -15:56:00 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
3247                         8:04:00 -       LMT     1899 May 11
3248                         8:00    Phil    P%sT    1942 May
3249                         9:00    -       JST     1944 Nov
3250                         8:00    Phil    P%sT
3251 
3252 # Qatar
3253 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3254 Zone    Asia/Qatar      3:26:08 -       LMT     1920     # Al Dawhah / Doha
3255                         4:00    -       +04     1972 Jun
3256                         3:00    -       +03
3257 Link Asia/Qatar Asia/Bahrain
3258 
3259 # Saudi Arabia
3260 #
3261 # From Paul Eggert (2018-08-29):
3262 # Time in Saudi Arabia and other countries in the Arabian peninsula was not
3263 # standardized until 1968 or so; we don't know exactly when, and possibly it
3264 # has never been made official.  Richard P Hunt, in "Islam city yielding to
3265 # modern times", New York Times (1961-04-09), p 20, wrote that only airlines
3266 # observed standard time, and that people in Jeddah mostly observed quasi-solar
3267 # time, doing so by setting their watches at sunrise to 6 o'clock (or to 12
3268 # o'clock for "Arab" time).
3269 #
3270 # Timekeeping differed depending on who you were and which part of Saudi
3271 # Arabia you were in.  In 1969, Elias Antar wrote that although a common
3272 # practice had been to set one's watch to 12:00 (i.e., midnight) at sunset -
3273 # which meant that the time on one side of a mountain could differ greatly from
3274 # the time on the other side - many foreigners set their watches to 6pm
3275 # instead, while airlines instead used UTC +03 (except in Dhahran, where they
3276 # used UTC +04), Aramco used UTC +03 with DST, and the Trans-Arabian Pipe Line
3277 # Company used Aramco time in eastern Saudi Arabia and airline time in western.
3278 # (The American Military Aid Advisory Group used plain UTC.)  Antar writes,
3279 # "A man named Higgins, so the story goes, used to run a local power
3280 # station. One day, the whole thing became too much for Higgins and he
3281 # assembled his staff and laid down the law. 'I've had enough of this,' he
3282 # shrieked. 'It is now 12 o'clock Higgins Time, and from now on this station is
3283 # going to run on Higgins Time.' And so, until last year, it did."  See:
3284 # Antar E. Dinner at When? Saudi Aramco World, 1969 March/April. 2-3.
3285 # http://archive.aramcoworld.com/issue/196902/dinner.at.when.htm
3286 # Also see: Antar EN. Arabian flying is confusing.
3287 # Port Angeles (WA) Evening News. 1965-03-10. page 3.
3288 #
3289 # The TZ database cannot represent quasi-solar time; airline time is the best
3290 # we can do.  The 1946 foreign air news digest of the U.S. Civil Aeronautics
3291 # Board (OCLC 42299995) reported that the "... Arabian Government, inaugurated
3292 # a weekly Dhahran-Cairo service, via the Saudi Arabian cities of Riyadh and
3293 # Jidda, on March 14, 1947".  Shanks & Pottenger guessed 1950; go with the
3294 # earlier date.
3295 #
3296 # Shanks & Pottenger also state that until 1968-05-01 Saudi Arabia had two
3297 # time zones; the other zone, at UT +04, was in the far eastern part of
3298 # the country.  Presumably this is documenting airline time.  Ignore this,
3299 # as it's before our 1970 cutoff.
3300 #
3301 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3302 Zone    Asia/Riyadh     3:06:52 -       LMT     1947 Mar 14
3303                         3:00    -       +03
3304 Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Aden      # Yemen
3305 Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Kuwait
3306 
3307 # Singapore
3308 # taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
3309 # http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html
3310 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3311 Zone    Asia/Singapore  6:55:25 -       LMT     1901 Jan  1
3312                         6:55:25 -       SMT     1905 Jun  1 # Singapore M.T.
3313                         7:00    -       +07     1933 Jan  1
3314                         7:00    0:20    +0720   1936 Jan  1
3315                         7:20    -       +0720   1941 Sep  1
3316                         7:30    -       +0730   1942 Feb 16
3317                         9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep 12
3318                         7:30    -       +0730   1982 Jan  1
3319                         8:00    -       +08
3320 
3321 # Spratly Is
3322 # no information
3323 
3324 # Sri Lanka
3325 
3326 # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
3327 # Milne says "Madras mean time use from May 1, 1898.  Prior to this Colombo
3328 # mean time, 5h. 4m. 21.9s. F., was used."  But 5:04:21.9 differs considerably
3329 # from Colombo's meridian 5:19:24, so for now ignore Milne and stick with
3330 # Shanks and Pottenger.


3354 # Time (GMT), in line with neighbor India.
3355 # From Paul Eggert (2006-04-18):
3356 # People who live in regions under Tamil control can use [TZ='Asia/Kolkata'],
3357 # as that zone has agreed with the Tamil areas since our cutoff date of 1970.
3358 
3359 # From Sadika Sumanapala (2016-10-19):
3360 # According to http://www.sltime.org (maintained by Measurement Units,
3361 # Standards & Services Department, Sri Lanka) abbreviation for Sri Lanka
3362 # standard time is SLST.
3363 #
3364 # From Paul Eggert (2016-10-18):
3365 # "SLST" seems to be reasonably recent and rarely-used outside time
3366 # zone nerd sources.  I searched Google News and found three uses of
3367 # it in the International Business Times of India in February and
3368 # March of this year when discussing cricket match times, but nothing
3369 # since then (though there has been a lot of cricket) and nothing in
3370 # other English-language news sources.  Our old abbreviation "LKT" is
3371 # even worse.  For now, let's use a numeric abbreviation; we can
3372 # switch to "SLST" if it catches on.
3373 
3374 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3375 Zone    Asia/Colombo    5:19:24 -       LMT     1880
3376                         5:19:32 -       MMT     1906        # Moratuwa Mean Time
3377                         5:30    -       +0530   1942 Jan  5
3378                         5:30    0:30    +06     1942 Sep
3379                         5:30    1:00    +0630   1945 Oct 16  2:00
3380                         5:30    -       +0530   1996 May 25  0:00
3381                         6:30    -       +0630   1996 Oct 26  0:30
3382                         6:00    -       +06     2006 Apr 15  0:30
3383                         5:30    -       +0530
3384 
3385 # Syria
3386 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3387 Rule    Syria   1920    1923    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00    1:00    S
3388 Rule    Syria   1920    1923    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00    0       -
3389 Rule    Syria   1962    only    -       Apr     29      2:00    1:00    S
3390 Rule    Syria   1962    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       -
3391 Rule    Syria   1963    1965    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    S
3392 Rule    Syria   1963    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       -
3393 Rule    Syria   1964    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       -
3394 Rule    Syria   1965    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       -


3524 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):
3525 # Today, Syria's government announced that they will start DST early on Friday
3526 # (00:00). This is a bit earlier than the past two years.
3527 #
3528 # From Syrian Arab News Agency, in Arabic:
3529 # http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2012/03/26/408215.htm
3530 #
3531 # Our brief summary:
3532 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-2012.html
3533 
3534 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-27):
3535 # Assume last Friday in March going forward XXX.
3536 
3537 Rule    Syria   2008    only    -       Apr     Fri>=1       0:00    1:00    S
3538 Rule    Syria   2008    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       -
3539 Rule    Syria   2009    only    -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
3540 Rule    Syria   2010    2011    -       Apr     Fri>=1       0:00    1:00    S
3541 Rule    Syria   2012    max     -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
3542 Rule    Syria   2009    max     -       Oct     lastFri 0:00    0       -
3543 
3544 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3545 Zone    Asia/Damascus   2:25:12 -       LMT     1920 # Dimashq
3546                         2:00    Syria   EE%sT
3547 
3548 # Tajikistan
3549 # From Shanks & Pottenger.
3550 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3551 Zone    Asia/Dushanbe   4:35:12 -       LMT     1924 May  2
3552                         5:00    -       +05     1930 Jun 21
3553                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3554                         5:00    1:00    +05/+06 1991 Sep  9  2:00s
3555                         5:00    -       +05
3556 
3557 # Thailand
3558 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3559 Zone    Asia/Bangkok    6:42:04 -       LMT     1880
3560                         6:42:04 -       BMT     1920 Apr # Bangkok Mean Time
3561                         7:00    -       +07
3562 Link Asia/Bangkok Asia/Phnom_Penh       # Cambodia
3563 Link Asia/Bangkok Asia/Vientiane        # Laos
3564 
3565 # Turkmenistan
3566 # From Shanks & Pottenger.
3567 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3568 Zone    Asia/Ashgabat   3:53:32 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Ashkhabad
3569                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
3570                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00
3571                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00
3572                         5:00    -       +05
3573 
3574 # United Arab Emirates
3575 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3576 Zone    Asia/Dubai      3:41:12 -       LMT     1920
3577                         4:00    -       +04
3578 Link Asia/Dubai Asia/Muscat     # Oman
3579 
3580 # Uzbekistan
3581 # Byalokoz 1919 says Uzbekistan was 4:27:53.
3582 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3583 Zone    Asia/Samarkand  4:27:53 -       LMT     1924 May  2
3584                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
3585                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
3586                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
3587                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
3588                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992
3589                         5:00    -       +05
3590 # Milne says Tashkent was 4:37:10.8; round to nearest.
3591 Zone    Asia/Tashkent   4:37:11 -       LMT     1924 May  2
3592                         5:00    -       +05     1930 Jun 21
3593                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00
3594                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992
3595                         5:00    -       +05
3596 
3597 # Vietnam
3598 
3599 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-04):
3600 # Milne gives 7:16:56 for the meridian of Saigon in 1899, as being
3601 # used in Lower Laos, Cambodia, and Annam.  But this is quite a ways
3602 # from Saigon's location.  For now, ignore this and stick with Shanks


3628 # To 07:00 on 1911-05-01.
3629 # To 08:00 on 1942-12-31 at 23:00.
3630 # To 09:00 in 1945-03-14 at 23:00.
3631 # To 07:00 on 1945-09-02 in Vietnam.
3632 # To 08:00 on 1947-04-01 in French-controlled Indochina.
3633 # To 07:00 on 1955-07-01 in South Vietnam.
3634 # To 08:00 on 1959-12-31 at 23:00 in South Vietnam.
3635 # To 07:00 on 1975-06-13 in South Vietnam.
3636 #
3637 # Trần cites the following sources; it's unclear which supplied the info above.
3638 #
3639 # Hoàng Xuân Hãn: "Lịch và lịch Việt Nam". Tập san Khoa học Xã hội,
3640 # No. 9, Paris, February 1982.
3641 #
3642 # Lê Thành Lân: "Lịch và niên biểu lịch sử hai mươi thế kỷ (0001-2010)",
3643 # NXB Thống kê, Hanoi, 2000.
3644 #
3645 # Lê Thành Lân: "Lịch hai thế kỷ (1802-2010) và các lịch vĩnh cửu",
3646 # NXB Thuận Hoá, Huế, 1995.
3647 
3648 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3649 Zone Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh   7:06:40 -       LMT     1906 Jul  1
3650                         7:06:30 -       PLMT    1911 May  1 # Phù Liễn MT
3651                         7:00    -       +07     1942 Dec 31 23:00
3652                         8:00    -       +08     1945 Mar 14 23:00
3653                         9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep  2
3654                         7:00    -       +07     1947 Apr  1
3655                         8:00    -       +08     1955 Jul  1
3656                         7:00    -       +07     1959 Dec 31 23:00
3657                         8:00    -       +08     1975 Jun 13
3658                         7:00    -       +07
3659 
3660 # From Paul Eggert (2019-02-19):
3661 #
3662 # The Ho Chi Minh entry suffices for most purposes as it agrees with all of
3663 # Vietnam since 1975-06-13.  Presumably clocks often changed in south Vietnam
3664 # in the early 1970s as locations changed hands during the war; however the
3665 # details are unknown and would likely be too voluminous for this database.
3666 #
3667 # For timestamps in north Vietnam back to 1970 (the tzdb cutoff),
3668 # use Asia/Bangkok; see the VN entries in the file zone1970.tab.
3669 # For timestamps before 1970, see Asia/Hanoi in the file 'backzone'.
3670 
3671 
3672 # Yemen
3673 # See Asia/Riyadh.


  90 # Technical Support (including a page from the Official Airline Guide -
  91 # Worldwide Edition).
  92 
  93 ###############################################################################
  94 
  95 # These rules are stolen from the 'europe' file.
  96 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  97 Rule    EUAsia  1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  1:00    S
  98 Rule    EUAsia  1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
  99 Rule    EUAsia  1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 100 Rule E-EurAsia  1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  0:00   1:00    -
 101 Rule E-EurAsia  1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 102 Rule E-EurAsia  1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 103 Rule RussiaAsia 1981    1984    -       Apr     1        0:00   1:00    -
 104 Rule RussiaAsia 1981    1983    -       Oct     1        0:00   0       -
 105 Rule RussiaAsia 1984    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 106 Rule RussiaAsia 1985    2010    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    -
 107 Rule RussiaAsia 1996    2010    -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 108 
 109 # Afghanistan
 110 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 111 Zone    Asia/Kabul      4:36:48 -       LMT     1890
 112                         4:00    -       +04     1945
 113                         4:30    -       +0430
 114 
 115 # Armenia
 116 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
 117 # Shanks & Pottenger have Yerevan switching to 3:00 (with Russian DST)
 118 # in spring 1991, then to 4:00 with no DST in fall 1995, then
 119 # readopting Russian DST in 1997.  Go with Shanks & Pottenger, even
 120 # when they disagree with others.  Edgar Der-Danieliantz
 121 # reported (1996-05-04) that Yerevan probably wouldn't use DST
 122 # in 1996, though it did use DST in 1995.  IATA SSIM (1991/1998) reports that
 123 # Armenia switched from 3:00 to 4:00 in 1998 and observed DST after 1991,
 124 # but started switching at 3:00s in 1998.
 125 
 126 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
 127 # While Russia abandoned DST in 2011, Armenia may choose to
 128 # follow Russia's "old" rules.
 129 
 130 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2012-02-10):
 131 # According to News Armenia, on Feb 9, 2012,
 132 # http://newsarmenia.ru/society/20120209/42609695.html
 133 #
 134 # The Armenia National Assembly adopted final reading of Amendments to the
 135 # Law "On procedure of calculation time on the territory of the Republic of
 136 # Armenia" according to which Armenia [is] abolishing Daylight Saving Time.
 137 # or
 138 # (brief)
 139 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_armenia03.html
 140 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 141 Rule Armenia    2011    only    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    -
 142 Rule Armenia    2011    only    -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 143 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 144 Zone    Asia/Yerevan    2:58:00 -       LMT     1924 May  2
 145                         3:00    -       +03     1957 Mar
 146                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
 147                         3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04 1995 Sep 24  2:00s
 148                         4:00    -       +04     1997
 149                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 2011
 150                         4:00    Armenia +04/+05
 151 
 152 # Azerbaijan
 153 
 154 # From Rustam Aliyev of the Azerbaijan Internet Forum (2005-10-23):
 155 # According to the resolution of Cabinet of Ministers, 1997
 156 # From Paul Eggert (2015-09-17): It was Resolution No. 21 (1997-03-17).
 157 # http://code.az/files/daylight_res.pdf
 158 
 159 # From Steffen Thorsen (2016-03-17):
 160 # ... the Azerbaijani Cabinet of Ministers has cancelled switching to
 161 # daylight saving time....
 162 # https://www.azernews.az/azerbaijan/94137.html
 163 # http://vestnikkavkaza.net/news/Azerbaijani-Cabinet-of-Ministers-cancels-daylight-saving-time.html
 164 # http://en.apa.az/xeber_azerbaijan_abolishes_daylight_savings_ti_240862.html
 165 
 166 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 167 Rule    Azer    1997    2015    -       Mar     lastSun  4:00   1:00    -
 168 Rule    Azer    1997    2015    -       Oct     lastSun  5:00   0       -
 169 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 170 Zone    Asia/Baku       3:19:24 -       LMT     1924 May  2
 171                         3:00    -       +03     1957 Mar
 172                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
 173                         3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04 1992 Sep lastSun  2:00s
 174                         4:00    -       +04     1996
 175                         4:00    EUAsia  +04/+05 1997
 176                         4:00    Azer    +04/+05
 177 
 178 # Bahrain
 179 # See Asia/Qatar.
 180 
 181 # Bangladesh
 182 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-05-13):
 183 # According to newspaper Asian Tribune (May 6, 2009) Bangladesh may introduce
 184 # Daylight Saving Time from June 16 to Sept 30
 185 #
 186 # Bangladesh to introduce daylight saving time likely from June 16
 187 # http://www.asiantribune.com/?q=node/17288
 188 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh02.html
 189 #


 237 #
 238 # Clock goes back 1-hr on Dec 31 night.
 239 # http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=119228
 240 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh05.html
 241 #
 242 # "...The government yesterday decided to put the clock back by one hour
 243 # on December 31 midnight and the new time will continue until March 31,
 244 # 2010 midnight. The decision came at a cabinet meeting at the Prime
 245 # Minister's Office last night..."
 246 
 247 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2010-03-22):
 248 # According to Bangladesh newspaper "The Daily Star,"
 249 # Cabinet cancels Daylight Saving Time
 250 # http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/latest_news.php?nid=22817
 251 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_bangladesh06.html
 252 
 253 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 254 Rule    Dhaka   2009    only    -       Jun     19      23:00   1:00    -
 255 Rule    Dhaka   2009    only    -       Dec     31      24:00   0       -
 256 
 257 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 258 Zone    Asia/Dhaka      6:01:40 -       LMT     1890
 259                         5:53:20 -       HMT     1941 Oct    # Howrah Mean Time?
 260                         6:30    -       +0630   1942 May 15
 261                         5:30    -       +0530   1942 Sep
 262                         6:30    -       +0630   1951 Sep 30
 263                         6:00    -       +06     2009
 264                         6:00    Dhaka   +06/+07
 265 
 266 # Bhutan
 267 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 268 Zone    Asia/Thimphu    5:58:36 -       LMT     1947 Aug 15 # or Thimbu
 269                         5:30    -       +0530   1987 Oct
 270                         6:00    -       +06
 271 
 272 # British Indian Ocean Territory
 273 # Whitman and the 1995 CIA time zone map say 5:00, but the
 274 # 1997 and later maps say 6:00.  Assume the switch occurred in 1996.
 275 # We have no information as to when standard time was introduced;
 276 # assume it occurred in 1907, the same year as Mauritius (which
 277 # then contained the Chagos Archipelago).
 278 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 279 Zone    Indian/Chagos   4:49:40 -       LMT     1907
 280                         5:00    -       +05     1996
 281                         6:00    -       +06
 282 
 283 # Brunei
 284 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 285 Zone    Asia/Brunei     7:39:40 -       LMT     1926 Mar # Bandar Seri Begawan
 286                         7:30    -       +0730   1933
 287                         8:00    -       +08
 288 
 289 # Burma / Myanmar
 290 
 291 # Milne says 6:24:40 was the meridian of the time ball observatory at Rangoon.
 292 
 293 # From Paul Eggert (2017-04-20):
 294 # Page 27 of Reed & Low (cited for Asia/Kolkata) says "Rangoon local time is
 295 # used upon the railways and telegraphs of Burma, and is 6h. 24m. 47s. ahead
 296 # of Greenwich."  This refers to the period before Burma's transition to +0630,
 297 # a transition for which Shanks is the only source.
 298 
 299 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 300 Zone    Asia/Yangon     6:24:47 -       LMT     1880        # or Rangoon
 301                         6:24:47 -       RMT     1920        # Rangoon local time
 302                         6:30    -       +0630   1942 May
 303                         9:00    -       +09     1945 May  3
 304                         6:30    -       +0630
 305 
 306 # Cambodia
 307 # See Asia/Bangkok.
 308 
 309 
 310 # China
 311 
 312 # From Paul Eggert (2018-10-02):
 313 # The following comes from Table 1 of:
 314 # Li Yu. Research on the daylight saving movement in 1940s Shanghai.
 315 # Nanjing Journal of Social Sciences. 2014;(2):144-50.
 316 # http://oversea.cnki.net/kns55/detail.aspx?dbname=CJFD2014&filename=NJSH201402020
 317 # The table lists dates only; I am guessing 00:00 and 24:00 transition times.
 318 # Also, the table lists the planned end of DST in 1949, but the corresponding
 319 # zone line cuts this off on May 28, when the Communists took power.


 567 # Memories of life in Lhasa under Chinese Rule, Columbia U Press, ISBN
 568 # 978-0231142861 (2008), translator's introduction by Matthew Akester, p x.
 569 # As this is before our 1970 cutoff, Tibet doesn't need a separate zone.
 570 #
 571 # Xinjiang Time is well-documented as being officially recognized.  E.g., see
 572 # "The Working-Calendar for The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region Government"
 573 # <http://www.sinkiang.gov.cn/service/ourworking/> (2014-04-22).
 574 # Unfortunately, we have no good records of time in Xinjiang before 1986.
 575 # During the 20th century parts of Xinjiang were ruled by the Qing dynasty,
 576 # the Republic of China, various warlords, the First and Second East Turkestan
 577 # Republics, the Soviet Union, the Kuomintang, and the People's Republic of
 578 # China, and tracking down all these organizations' timekeeping rules would be
 579 # quite a trick.  Approximate this lost history by a transition from LMT to
 580 # UT +06 at the start of 1928, the year of accession of the warlord Jin Shuren,
 581 # which happens to be the date given by Shanks & Pottenger (no doubt as a
 582 # guess) as the transition from LMT.  Ignore the usage of +08 before
 583 # 1986-02-01 under the theory that the transition date to +08 is unknown and
 584 # that the sort of users who prefer Asia/Urumqi now typically ignored the
 585 # +08 mandate back then.
 586 
 587 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 588 # Beijing time, used throughout China; represented by Shanghai.
 589 Zone    Asia/Shanghai   8:05:43 -       LMT     1901
 590                         8:00    Shang   C%sT    1949 May 28
 591                         8:00    PRC     C%sT
 592 # Xinjiang time, used by many in western China; represented by Ürümqi / Ürümchi
 593 # / Wulumuqi.  (Please use Asia/Shanghai if you prefer Beijing time.)
 594 Zone    Asia/Urumqi     5:50:20 -       LMT     1928
 595                         6:00    -       +06
 596 
 597 
 598 # Hong Kong (Xianggang)
 599 
 600 # Milne gives 7:36:41.7; round this.
 601 
 602 # From Lee Yiu Chung (2009-10-24):
 603 # I found there are some mistakes for the...DST rule for Hong
 604 # Kong. [According] to the DST record from Hong Kong Observatory (actually,
 605 # it is not [an] observatory, but the official meteorological agency of HK,
 606 # and also serves as the official timing agency), there are some missing
 607 # and incorrect rules. Although the exact switch over time is missing, I
 608 # think 3:30 is correct. The official DST record for Hong Kong can be
 609 # obtained from
 610 # http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
 611 
 612 # From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):




































































































 613 # Here are the dates given at
 614 # http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
 615 # as of 2009-10-28:
 616 # Year        Period
 617 # 1941        1 Apr to 30 Sep
 618 # 1942        Whole year
 619 # 1943        Whole year
 620 # 1944        Whole year
 621 # 1945        Whole year
 622 # 1946        20 Apr to 1 Dec
 623 # 1947        13 Apr to 30 Dec
 624 # 1948        2 May to 31 Oct
 625 # 1949        3 Apr to 30 Oct
 626 # 1950        2 Apr to 29 Oct
 627 # 1951        1 Apr to 28 Oct
 628 # 1952        6 Apr to 25 Oct
 629 # 1953        5 Apr to 1 Nov
 630 # 1954        21 Mar to 31 Oct
 631 # 1955        20 Mar to 6 Nov
 632 # 1956        18 Mar to 4 Nov
 633 # 1957        24 Mar to 3 Nov
 634 # 1958        23 Mar to 2 Nov
 635 # 1959        22 Mar to 1 Nov
 636 # 1960        20 Mar to 6 Nov
 637 # 1961        19 Mar to 5 Nov
 638 # 1962        18 Mar to 4 Nov
 639 # 1963        24 Mar to 3 Nov
 640 # 1964        22 Mar to 1 Nov
 641 # 1965        18 Apr to 17 Oct
 642 # 1966        17 Apr to 16 Oct
 643 # 1967        16 Apr to 22 Oct
 644 # 1968        21 Apr to 20 Oct
 645 # 1969        20 Apr to 19 Oct
 646 # 1970        19 Apr to 18 Oct
 647 # 1971        18 Apr to 17 Oct
 648 # 1972        16 Apr to 22 Oct
 649 # 1973        22 Apr to 21 Oct
 650 # 1973/74     30 Dec 73 to 20 Oct 74
 651 # 1975        20 Apr to 19 Oct
 652 # 1976        18 Apr to 17 Oct
 653 # 1977        Nil
 654 # 1978        Nil
 655 # 1979        13 May to 21 Oct
 656 # 1980 to Now Nil
 657 # The page does not give start or end times of day.
 658 # The page does not give a start date for 1942.
 659 # The page does not givw an end date for 1945.
 660 # The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began on 1941-12-25.
 661 # The Japanese surrender of Hong Kong was signed 1945-09-15.
 662 # For lack of anything better, use start of those days as the transition times.
 663 
 664 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 665 Rule    HK      1941    only    -       Apr     1       3:30    1:00    S
 666 Rule    HK      1941    only    -       Sep     30      3:30    0       -
 667 Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Apr     20      3:30    1:00    S
 668 Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Dec     1       3:30    0       -
 669 Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Apr     13      3:30    1:00    S
 670 Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Dec     30      3:30    0       -
 671 Rule    HK      1948    only    -       May     2       3:30    1:00    S
 672 Rule    HK      1948    1951    -       Oct     lastSun 3:30    0       -
 673 Rule    HK      1952    only    -       Oct     25      3:30    0       -
 674 Rule    HK      1949    1953    -       Apr     Sun>=1       3:30    1:00    S
 675 Rule    HK      1953    only    -       Nov     1       3:30    0       -
 676 Rule    HK      1954    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=18      3:30    1:00    S
 677 Rule    HK      1954    only    -       Oct     31      3:30    0       -
 678 Rule    HK      1955    1964    -       Nov     Sun>=1       3:30    0       -
 679 Rule    HK      1965    1976    -       Apr     Sun>=16      3:30    1:00    S
 680 Rule    HK      1965    1976    -       Oct     Sun>=16      3:30    0       -
 681 Rule    HK      1973    only    -       Dec     30      3:30    1:00    S
 682 Rule    HK      1979    only    -       May     Sun>=8       3:30    1:00    S
 683 Rule    HK      1979    only    -       Oct     Sun>=16      3:30    0       -
 684 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 685 Zone    Asia/Hong_Kong  7:36:42 -       LMT     1904 Oct 30
 686                         8:00    HK      HK%sT   1941 Dec 25
 687                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 15


 688                         8:00    HK      HK%sT
 689 
 690 ###############################################################################
 691 
 692 # Taiwan
 693 
 694 # From smallufo (2010-04-03):
 695 # According to Taiwan's CWB [Central Weather Bureau],
 696 # http://www.cwb.gov.tw/V6/astronomy/cdata/summert.htm
 697 # Taipei has DST in 1979 between July 1st and Sep 30.
 698 
 699 # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
 700 # On Dec 28, 1895, the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of
 701 # Meiji Year 28 "The clause about standard time", mentioned that
 702 # Taiwan and Penghu Islands, as well as Yaeyama and Miyako Islands
 703 # (both in Okinawa) adopt the Western Standard Time which is based on
 704 # 120E. The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896. The original text can be
 705 # found on Wikisource:
 706 # https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
 707 # ... This could be the first adoption of time zone in Taiwan, because


 791 # until 1945-09-21 at 01:00, overriding Shanks & Pottenger.
 792 # Likewise, use Yu-Cheng Chuang's data for DST in Taiwan.
 793 
 794 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 795 Rule    Taiwan  1946    only    -       May     15      0:00    1:00    D
 796 Rule    Taiwan  1946    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 797 Rule    Taiwan  1947    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    D
 798 Rule    Taiwan  1947    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       S
 799 Rule    Taiwan  1948    1951    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    D
 800 Rule    Taiwan  1948    1951    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 801 Rule    Taiwan  1952    only    -       Mar     1       0:00    1:00    D
 802 Rule    Taiwan  1952    1954    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       S
 803 Rule    Taiwan  1953    1959    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    D
 804 Rule    Taiwan  1955    1961    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 805 Rule    Taiwan  1960    1961    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    D
 806 Rule    Taiwan  1974    1975    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    D
 807 Rule    Taiwan  1974    1975    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 808 Rule    Taiwan  1979    only    -       Jul     1       0:00    1:00    D
 809 Rule    Taiwan  1979    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 810 
 811 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 812 # Taipei or Taibei or T'ai-pei
 813 Zone    Asia/Taipei     8:06:00 -       LMT     1896 Jan  1
 814                         8:00    -       CST     1937 Oct  1
 815                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 21  1:00
 816                         8:00    Taiwan  C%sT
 817 
 818 # Macau (Macao, Aomen)
 819 #
 820 # From P Chan (2018-05-10):
 821 # * LegisMac
 822 #   http://legismac.safp.gov.mo/legismac/descqry/Descqry.jsf?lang=pt
 823 #   A database for searching titles of legal documents of Macau in
 824 #   Chinese and Portuguese.  The term "HORÁRIO DE VERÃO" can be used for
 825 #   searching decrees about summer time.
 826 # * Archives of Macao
 827 #   http://www.archives.gov.mo/en/bo/
 828 #   It contains images of old official gazettes.
 829 # * The Macao Meteorological and Geophysical Bureau have a page listing the
 830 #   summer time history.  But it is not complete and has some mistakes.
 831 #   http://www.smg.gov.mo/smg/geophysics/e_t_Summer%20Time.htm


 929 Rule    Macau   1948    only    -       Oct     31      23:00s  0       S
 930 Rule    Macau   1949    1950    -       Apr     Sat>=1       23:00s  1:00    D
 931 Rule    Macau   1949    1950    -       Oct     lastSat 23:00s  0       S
 932 Rule    Macau   1951    only    -       Mar     31      23:00s  1:00    D
 933 Rule    Macau   1951    only    -       Oct     28      23:00s  0       S
 934 Rule    Macau   1952    1953    -       Apr     Sat>=1       23:00s  1:00    D
 935 Rule    Macau   1952    only    -       Nov      1      23:00s  0       S
 936 Rule    Macau   1953    1954    -       Oct     lastSat 23:00s  0       S
 937 Rule    Macau   1954    1956    -       Mar     Sat>=17      23:00s  1:00    D
 938 Rule    Macau   1955    only    -       Nov      5      23:00s  0       S
 939 Rule    Macau   1956    1964    -       Nov     Sun>=1       03:30   0       S
 940 Rule    Macau   1957    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=18      03:30   1:00    D
 941 Rule    Macau   1965    1973    -       Apr     Sun>=16      03:30   1:00    D
 942 Rule    Macau   1965    1966    -       Oct     Sun>=16      02:30   0       S
 943 Rule    Macau   1967    1976    -       Oct     Sun>=16      03:30   0       S
 944 Rule    Macau   1973    only    -       Dec     30      03:30   1:00    D
 945 Rule    Macau   1975    1976    -       Apr     Sun>=16      03:30   1:00    D
 946 Rule    Macau   1979    only    -       May     13      03:30   1:00    D
 947 Rule    Macau   1979    only    -       Oct     Sun>=16      03:30   0       S
 948 
 949 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 950 Zone    Asia/Macau      7:34:10 -       LMT     1904 Oct 30
 951                         8:00    -       CST     1941 Dec 21 23:00
 952                         9:00    Macau   +09/+10 1945 Sep 30 24:00
 953                         8:00    Macau   C%sT
 954 
 955 
 956 ###############################################################################
 957 
 958 # Cyprus
 959 
 960 # Milne says the Eastern Telegraph Company used 2:14:00.  Stick with LMT.
 961 # IATA SSIM (1998-09) has Cyprus using EU rules for the first time.
 962 
 963 # From Paul Eggert (2016-09-09):
 964 # Yesterday's Cyprus Mail reports that Northern Cyprus followed Turkey's
 965 # lead and switched from +02/+03 to +03 year-round.
 966 # http://cyprus-mail.com/2016/09/08/two-time-zones-cyprus-turkey-will-not-turn-clocks-back-next-month/
 967 #
 968 # From Even Scharning (2016-10-31):
 969 # Looks like the time zone split in Cyprus went through last night.
 970 # http://cyprus-mail.com/2016/10/30/cyprus-new-division-two-time-zones-now-reality/
 971 
 972 # From Paul Eggert (2017-10-18):
 973 # Northern Cyprus will reinstate winter time on October 29, thus
 974 # staying in sync with the rest of Cyprus.  See: Anastasiou A.
 975 # Cyprus to remain united in time.  Cyprus Mail 2017-10-17.
 976 # https://cyprus-mail.com/2017/10/17/cyprus-remain-united-time/
 977 
 978 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 979 Rule    Cyprus  1975    only    -       Apr     13      0:00    1:00    S
 980 Rule    Cyprus  1975    only    -       Oct     12      0:00    0       -
 981 Rule    Cyprus  1976    only    -       May     15      0:00    1:00    S
 982 Rule    Cyprus  1976    only    -       Oct     11      0:00    0       -
 983 Rule    Cyprus  1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    S
 984 Rule    Cyprus  1977    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    0       -
 985 Rule    Cyprus  1978    only    -       Oct     2       0:00    0       -
 986 Rule    Cyprus  1979    1997    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
 987 Rule    Cyprus  1981    1998    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
 988 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 989 Zone    Asia/Nicosia    2:13:28 -       LMT     1921 Nov 14
 990                         2:00    Cyprus  EE%sT   1998 Sep
 991                         2:00    EUAsia  EE%sT
 992 Zone    Asia/Famagusta  2:15:48 -       LMT     1921 Nov 14
 993                         2:00    Cyprus  EE%sT   1998 Sep
 994                         2:00    EUAsia  EE%sT   2016 Sep  8
 995                         3:00    -       +03     2017 Oct 29 1:00u
 996                         2:00    EUAsia  EE%sT
 997 
 998 # Classically, Cyprus belongs to Asia; e.g. see Herodotus, Histories, I.72.
 999 # However, for various reasons many users expect to find it under Europe.
1000 Link    Asia/Nicosia    Europe/Nicosia
1001 
1002 # Georgia
1003 # From Paul Eggert (1994-11-19):
1004 # Today's _Economist_ (p 60) reports that Georgia moved its clocks forward
1005 # an hour recently, due to a law proposed by Zurab Murvanidze,
1006 # an MP who went on a hunger strike for 11 days to force discussion about it!
1007 # We have no details, but we'll guess they didn't move the clocks back in fall.
1008 #


1017 # republic has changed its time zone back to that of Moscow.  As a result it
1018 # is now just four hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time, rather than five hours
1019 # ahead.  The switch was decreed by the pro-Western president of Georgia,
1020 # Mikheil Saakashvili, who said the change was partly prompted by the process
1021 # of integration into Europe.
1022 
1023 # From Teimuraz Abashidze (2005-11-07):
1024 # Government of Georgia ... decided to NOT CHANGE daylight savings time on
1025 # [Oct.] 30, as it was done before during last more than 10 years.
1026 # Currently, we are in fact GMT +4:00, as before 30 October it was GMT
1027 # +3:00.... The problem is, there is NO FORMAL LAW or governmental document
1028 # about it.  As far as I can find, I was told, that there is no document,
1029 # because we just DIDN'T ISSUE document about switching to winter time....
1030 # I don't know what can be done, especially knowing that some years ago our
1031 # DST rules where changed THREE TIMES during one month.
1032 
1033 # Milne 1899 says Tbilisi (Tiflis) time was 2:59:05.7.
1034 # Byalokoz 1919 says Georgia was 2:59:11.
1035 # Go with Byalokoz.
1036 
1037 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1038 Zone    Asia/Tbilisi    2:59:11 -       LMT     1880
1039                         2:59:11 -       TBMT    1924 May  2 # Tbilisi Mean Time
1040                         3:00    -       +03     1957 Mar
1041                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
1042                         3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04 1992
1043                         3:00 E-EurAsia  +03/+04 1994 Sep lastSun
1044                         4:00 E-EurAsia  +04/+05 1996 Oct lastSun
1045                         4:00    1:00    +05     1997 Mar lastSun
1046                         4:00 E-EurAsia  +04/+05 2004 Jun 27
1047                         3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04 2005 Mar lastSun  2:00
1048                         4:00    -       +04
1049 
1050 # East Timor
1051 
1052 # See Indonesia for the 1945 transition.
1053 
1054 # From João Carrascalão, brother of the former governor of East Timor, in
1055 # East Timor may be late for its millennium
1056 # <https://etan.org/et99c/december/26-31/30ETMAY.htm> (1999-12-26/31):
1057 # Portugal tried to change the time forward in 1974 because the sun
1058 # rises too early but the suggestion raised a lot of problems with the
1059 # Timorese and I still don't think it would work today because it
1060 # conflicts with their way of life.
1061 
1062 # From Paul Eggert (2000-12-04):
1063 # We don't have any record of the above attempt.
1064 # Most likely our records are incomplete, but we have no better data.
1065 
1066 # From Manoel de Almeida e Silva, Deputy Spokesman for the UN Secretary-General
1067 # http://www.hri.org/news/world/undh/2000/00-08-16.undh.html
1068 # (2000-08-16):
1069 # The Cabinet of the East Timor Transition Administration decided
1070 # today to advance East Timor's time by one hour.  The time change,
1071 # which will be permanent, with no seasonal adjustment, will happen at
1072 # midnight on Saturday, September 16.
1073 
1074 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1075 Zone    Asia/Dili       8:22:20 -       LMT     1912 Jan  1
1076                         8:00    -       +08     1942 Feb 21 23:00
1077                         9:00    -       +09     1976 May  3
1078                         8:00    -       +08     2000 Sep 17  0:00
1079                         9:00    -       +09
1080 
1081 # India
1082 










1083 # From Ian P. Beacock, in "A brief history of (modern) time", The Atlantic
1084 # https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/12/the-creation-of-modern-time/421419/
1085 # (2015-12-22):
1086 # In January 1906, several thousand cotton-mill workers rioted on the
1087 # outskirts of Bombay....  They were protesting the proposed abolition of
1088 # local time in favor of Indian Standard Time....  Journalists called this
1089 # dispute the "Battle of the Clocks."  It lasted nearly half a century.
1090 
1091 # From Paul Eggert (2017-04-20):
1092 # Good luck trying to nail down old timekeeping records in India.
1093 # "... in the nineteenth century ... Madras Observatory took its magnetic
1094 # measurements on Göttingen time, its meteorological measurements on Madras
1095 # (local) time, dropped its time ball on Greenwich (ocean navigator's) time,
1096 # and distributed civil (local time)." -- Bartky IR. Selling the true time:
1097 # 19th-century timekeeping in america. Stanford U Press (2000), 247 note 19.
1098 # "A more potent cause of resistance to the general adoption of the present
1099 # standard time lies in the fact that it is Madras time.  The citizen of
1100 # Bombay, proud of being 'primus in Indis' and of Calcutta, equally proud of
1101 # his city being the Capital of India, and - for a part of the year - the Seat
1102 # of the Supreme Government, alike look down on Madras, and refuse to change


1110 # only government observatory' - was suggested as a standard railway time,
1111 # first to be adopted on the Great Indian Peninsular Railway (GIPR)....
1112 # Calcutta, Bombay, and Karachi, were to be allowed to continue with their
1113 # local time for civil purposes." - Prasad R. Tracks of Change: Railways and
1114 # Everyday Life in Colonial India. Cambridge University Press (2016), 145.
1115 #
1116 # Reed S, Low F. The Indian Year Book 1936-37. Bennett, Coleman, pp 27-8.
1117 # https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.282212
1118 # This lists +052110 as Madras local time used in railways, and says that on
1119 # 1906-01-01 railways and telegraphs in India switched to +0530.  Some
1120 # municipalities retained their former time, and the time in Calcutta
1121 # continued to depend on whether you were at the railway station or at
1122 # government offices.  Government time was at +055320 (according to Shanks) or
1123 # at +0554 (according to the Indian Year Book).  Railway time is more
1124 # appropriate for our purposes, as it was better documented, it is what we do
1125 # elsewhere (e.g., Europe/London before 1880), and after 1906 it was
1126 # consistent in the region now identified by Asia/Kolkata.  So, use railway
1127 # time for 1870-1941.  Shanks is our only (and dubious) source for the
1128 # 1941-1945 data.
1129 
1130 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1131 Zone    Asia/Kolkata    5:53:28 -       LMT     1854 Jun 28 # Kolkata
1132                         5:53:20 -       HMT     1870        # Howrah Mean Time?
1133                         5:21:10 -       MMT     1906 Jan  1 # Madras local time
1134                         5:30    -       IST     1941 Oct
1135                         5:30    1:00    +0630   1942 May 15
1136                         5:30    -       IST     1942 Sep
1137                         5:30    1:00    +0630   1945 Oct 15
1138                         5:30    -       IST
1139 # Since 1970 the following are like Asia/Kolkata:
1140 #       Andaman Is
1141 #       Lakshadweep (Laccadive, Minicoy and Amindivi Is)
1142 #       Nicobar Is
1143 
1144 # Indonesia
1145 #
1146 # From Paul Eggert (2014-09-06):
1147 # The 1876 Report of the Secretary of the [US] Navy, p 306 says that Batavia
1148 # civil time was 7:07:12.5; round to even for Jakarta.
1149 #
1150 # From Gwillim Law (2001-05-28), overriding Shanks & Pottenger:


1162 # These would be the earliest possible times for a change.
1163 # Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, by Henri Le Corre, (Éditions
1164 # Traditionnelles, 1987, Paris) says that Java and Madura switched
1165 # from UT +09 to +07:30 on 1945-09-23, and gives 1944-09-01 for Jayapura
1166 # (Hollandia).  For now, assume all Indonesian locations other than Jayapura
1167 # switched on 1945-09-23.
1168 #
1169 # From Paul Eggert (2013-08-11):
1170 # Normally the tz database uses English-language abbreviations, but in
1171 # Indonesia it's typical to use Indonesian-language abbreviations even
1172 # when writing in English.  For example, see the English-language
1173 # summary published by the Time and Frequency Laboratory of the
1174 # Research Center for Calibration, Instrumentation and Metrology,
1175 # Indonesia, <http://time.kim.lipi.go.id/time-eng.php> (2006-09-29).
1176 # The time zone abbreviations and UT offsets are:
1177 #
1178 # WIB  - +07 - Waktu Indonesia Barat (Indonesia western time)
1179 # WITA - +08 - Waktu Indonesia Tengah (Indonesia central time)
1180 # WIT  - +09 - Waktu Indonesia Timur (Indonesia eastern time)
1181 #
1182 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1183 # Java, Sumatra
1184 Zone Asia/Jakarta       7:07:12 -       LMT     1867 Aug 10
1185 # Shanks & Pottenger say the next transition was at 1924 Jan 1 0:13,
1186 # but this must be a typo.
1187                         7:07:12 -       BMT     1923 Dec 31 23:47:12 # Batavia
1188                         7:20    -       +0720   1932 Nov
1189                         7:30    -       +0730   1942 Mar 23
1190                         9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep 23
1191                         7:30    -       +0730   1948 May
1192                         8:00    -       +08     1950 May
1193                         7:30    -       +0730   1964
1194                         7:00    -       WIB
1195 # west and central Borneo
1196 Zone Asia/Pontianak     7:17:20 -       LMT     1908 May
1197                         7:17:20 -       PMT     1932 Nov    # Pontianak MT
1198                         7:30    -       +0730   1942 Jan 29
1199                         9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep 23
1200                         7:30    -       +0730   1948 May
1201                         8:00    -       +08     1950 May
1202                         7:30    -       +0730   1964


1233 #       for synchronizing the official times of the country, agreed that:
1234 #
1235 #       The official time of the country will should move forward one hour
1236 #       at the 24[:00] hours of the first day of Farvardin and should return
1237 #       to its previous state at the 24[:00] hours of the 30th day of
1238 #       Shahrivar.
1239 #
1240 #       First Deputy to the President - Hassan Habibi
1241 #
1242 # From personal experience, that agrees with what has been followed
1243 # for at least the last 5 years.  Before that, for a few years, the
1244 # date used was the first Thursday night of Farvardin and the last
1245 # Thursday night of Shahrivar, but I can't give exact dates....
1246 #
1247 # From Roozbeh Pournader (2005-04-05):
1248 # The text of the Iranian law, in effect since 1925, clearly mentions
1249 # that the true solar year is the measure, and there is no arithmetic
1250 # leap year calculation involved.  There has never been any serious
1251 # plan to change that law....
1252 #
1253 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1254 # Go with Shanks & Pottenger before Sept. 1991, and with Pournader thereafter.
1255 # I used Ed Reingold's cal-persia in GNU Emacs 21.2 to check Persian dates,
1256 # stopping after 2037 when 32-bit time_t's overflow.
1257 # That cal-persia used Birashk's approximation, which disagrees with the solar
1258 # calendar predictions for the year 2025, so I corrected those dates by hand.





















































1259 #
1260 # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-03-30), writing about future
1261 # discrepancies between cal-persia and the Iranian calendar:
1262 # For 2091 solar-longitude-after yields 2091-03-20 08:40:07.7 UT for
1263 # the vernal equinox and that gets so close to 12:00 some local
1264 # Iranian time that the definition of the correct location needs to be
1265 # known exactly, amongst other factors.  2157 is even closer:
1266 # 2157-03-20 08:37:15.5 UT.  But the Gregorian year 2025 should give
1267 # no interpretation problem whatsoever.  By the way, another instant
1268 # in the near future where there will be a discrepancy between
1269 # arithmetical and astronomical Iranian calendars will be in 2058:
1270 # vernal equinox on 2058-03-20 09:03:05.9 UT.  The Java version of
1271 # Reingold's/Dershowitz' calculator gives correctly the Gregorian date
1272 # 2058-03-21 for 1 Farvardin 1437 (astronomical).
1273 #
1274 # From Steffen Thorsen (2006-03-22):
1275 # Several of my users have reported that Iran will not observe DST anymore:
1276 # http://www.irna.ir/en/news/view/line-17/0603193812164948.htm
1277 #
1278 # From Reuters (2007-09-16), with a heads-up from Jesper Nørgaard Welen:
1279 # ... the Guardian Council ... approved a law on Sunday to re-introduce
1280 # daylight saving time ...
1281 # https://uk.reuters.com/article/oilRpt/idUKBLA65048420070916
1282 #
1283 # From Roozbeh Pournader (2007-11-05):
1284 # This is quoted from Official Gazette of the Islamic Republic of
1285 # Iran, Volume 63, No. 18242, dated Tuesday 1386/6/24
1286 # [2007-10-16]. I am doing the best translation I can:...
1287 # The official time of the country will be moved forward for one hour
1288 # on the 24 hours of the first day of the month of Farvardin and will
1289 # be changed back to its previous state on the 24 hours of the
1290 # thirtieth day of Shahrivar.
1291 #
1292 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1293 Rule    Iran    1978    1980    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
1294 Rule    Iran    1978    only    -       Oct     21      0:00    0       -
1295 Rule    Iran    1979    only    -       Sep     19      0:00    0       -
1296 Rule    Iran    1980    only    -       Sep     23      0:00    0       -
1297 Rule    Iran    1991    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    -
1298 Rule    Iran    1992    1995    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
1299 Rule    Iran    1991    1995    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
1300 Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
1301 Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
1302 Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
1303 Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
1304 Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
1305 Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
1306 Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
1307 Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
1308 Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
1309 Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
1310 Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
1311 Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
1312 Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
1313 Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
1314 Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
1315 Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
1316 Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
1317 Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
1318 Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
1319 Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
1320 Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
1321 Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
1322 Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
1323 Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
1324 Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
1325 Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
1326 Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
1327 Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
1328 Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
1329 Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
1330 Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
1331 Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
1332 Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
1333 Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
1334 Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
1335 Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
1336 Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
1337 Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
1338 Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
1339 Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
1340 #
1341 # The following rules are approximations starting in the year 2038.
1342 # These are the best post-2037 approximations available, given the
1343 # restrictions of a single rule using a Gregorian-based data format.




















































1344 # At some point this table will need to be extended, though quite
1345 # possibly Iran will change the rules first.
1346 Rule    Iran    2036    max     -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
1347 Rule    Iran    2036    max     -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
1348 
1349 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1350 Zone    Asia/Tehran     3:25:44 -       LMT     1916
1351                         3:25:44 -       TMT     1946     # Tehran Mean Time
1352                         3:30    -       +0330   1977 Nov
1353                         4:00    Iran    +04/+05 1979
1354                         3:30    Iran    +0330/+0430
1355 
1356 
1357 # Iraq
1358 #
1359 # From Jonathan Lennox (2000-06-12):
1360 # An article in this week's Economist ("Inside the Saddam-free zone", p. 50 in
1361 # the U.S. edition) on the Iraqi Kurds contains a paragraph:
1362 # "The three northern provinces ... switched their clocks this spring and
1363 # are an hour ahead of Baghdad."
1364 #
1365 # But Rives McDow (2000-06-18) quotes a contact in Iraqi-Kurdistan as follows:
1366 # In the past, some Kurdish nationalists, as a protest to the Iraqi
1367 # Government, did not adhere to daylight saving time.  They referred
1368 # to daylight saving as Saddam time.  But, as of today, the time zone
1369 # in Iraqi-Kurdistan is on standard time with Baghdad, Iraq.


1374 # The cabinet in Iraq abolished DST last week, according to the following
1375 # news sources (in Arabic):
1376 # http://www.aljeeran.net/wesima_articles/news-20080305-98602.html
1377 # http://www.aswataliraq.info/look/article.tpl?id=2047&IdLanguage=17&IdPublication=4&NrArticle=71743&NrIssue=1&NrSection=10
1378 #
1379 # We have published a short article in English about the change:
1380 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/iraq-dumps-daylight-saving.html
1381 
1382 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1383 Rule    Iraq    1982    only    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    -
1384 Rule    Iraq    1982    1984    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
1385 Rule    Iraq    1983    only    -       Mar     31      0:00    1:00    -
1386 Rule    Iraq    1984    1985    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    -
1387 Rule    Iraq    1985    1990    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
1388 Rule    Iraq    1986    1990    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    -
1389 # IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says Apr 1 12:01am UTC; guess the ':01' is a typo.
1390 # Shanks & Pottenger say Iraq did not observe DST 1992/1997; ignore this.
1391 #
1392 Rule    Iraq    1991    2007    -       Apr      1      3:00s   1:00    -
1393 Rule    Iraq    1991    2007    -       Oct      1      3:00s   0       -
1394 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1395 Zone    Asia/Baghdad    2:57:40 -       LMT     1890
1396                         2:57:36 -       BMT     1918     # Baghdad Mean Time?
1397                         3:00    -       +03     1982 May
1398                         3:00    Iraq    +03/+04
1399 
1400 
1401 ###############################################################################
1402 
1403 # Israel
1404 
1405 # From Ephraim Silverberg (2001-01-11):
1406 #
1407 # I coined "IST/IDT" circa 1988.  Until then there were three
1408 # different abbreviations in use:
1409 #
1410 # JST  Jerusalem Standard Time [Danny Braniss, Hebrew University]
1411 # IZT  Israel Zonal (sic) Time [Prof. Haim Papo, Technion]
1412 # EEST Eastern Europe Standard Time [used by almost everyone else]
1413 #
1414 # Since timezones should be called by country and not capital cities,


1439 Rule    Zion    1950    only    -       Apr     16      0:00    1:00    D
1440 Rule    Zion    1950    only    -       Sep     15      3:00    0       S
1441 Rule    Zion    1951    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
1442 Rule    Zion    1951    only    -       Nov     11      3:00    0       S
1443 Rule    Zion    1952    only    -       Apr     20      2:00    1:00    D
1444 Rule    Zion    1952    only    -       Oct     19      3:00    0       S
1445 Rule    Zion    1953    only    -       Apr     12      2:00    1:00    D
1446 Rule    Zion    1953    only    -       Sep     13      3:00    0       S
1447 Rule    Zion    1954    only    -       Jun     13      0:00    1:00    D
1448 Rule    Zion    1954    only    -       Sep     12      0:00    0       S
1449 Rule    Zion    1955    only    -       Jun     11      2:00    1:00    D
1450 Rule    Zion    1955    only    -       Sep     11      0:00    0       S
1451 Rule    Zion    1956    only    -       Jun      3      0:00    1:00    D
1452 Rule    Zion    1956    only    -       Sep     30      3:00    0       S
1453 Rule    Zion    1957    only    -       Apr     29      2:00    1:00    D
1454 Rule    Zion    1957    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
1455 Rule    Zion    1974    only    -       Jul      7      0:00    1:00    D
1456 Rule    Zion    1974    only    -       Oct     13      0:00    0       S
1457 Rule    Zion    1975    only    -       Apr     20      0:00    1:00    D
1458 Rule    Zion    1975    only    -       Aug     31      0:00    0       S


















1459 Rule    Zion    1985    only    -       Apr     14      0:00    1:00    D
1460 Rule    Zion    1985    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S
1461 Rule    Zion    1986    only    -       May     18      0:00    1:00    D
1462 Rule    Zion    1986    only    -       Sep      7      0:00    0       S
1463 Rule    Zion    1987    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    D
1464 Rule    Zion    1987    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S
1465 
1466 # From Avigdor Finkelstein (2014-03-05):
1467 # I check the Parliament (Knesset) records and there it's stated that the
1468 # [1988] transition should take place on Saturday night, when the Sabbath
1469 # ends and changes to Sunday.
1470 Rule    Zion    1988    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    D
1471 Rule    Zion    1988    only    -       Sep      4      0:00    0       S
1472 
1473 # From Ephraim Silverberg
1474 # (1997-03-04, 1998-03-16, 1998-12-28, 2000-01-17, 2000-07-25, 2004-12-22,
1475 # and 2005-02-17):
1476 
1477 # According to the Office of the Secretary General of the Ministry of
1478 # Interior, there is NO set rule for Daylight-Savings/Standard time changes.


1561 Rule    Zion    2000    only    -       Oct      6      1:00    0       S
1562 Rule    Zion    2001    only    -       Apr      9      1:00    1:00    D
1563 Rule    Zion    2001    only    -       Sep     24      1:00    0       S
1564 Rule    Zion    2002    only    -       Mar     29      1:00    1:00    D
1565 Rule    Zion    2002    only    -       Oct      7      1:00    0       S
1566 Rule    Zion    2003    only    -       Mar     28      1:00    1:00    D
1567 Rule    Zion    2003    only    -       Oct      3      1:00    0       S
1568 Rule    Zion    2004    only    -       Apr      7      1:00    1:00    D
1569 Rule    Zion    2004    only    -       Sep     22      1:00    0       S
1570 
1571 # The proposed law agreed upon by the Knesset Interior Committee on
1572 # 2005-02-14 is that, for 2005 and beyond, DST starts at 02:00 the
1573 # last Friday before April 2nd (i.e. the last Friday in March or April
1574 # 1st itself if it falls on a Friday) and ends at 02:00 on the Saturday
1575 # night _before_ the fast of Yom Kippur.
1576 #
1577 # Those who can read Hebrew can view the announcement at:
1578 #
1579 #       ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2005+beyond.ps
1580 
1581 # From Paul Eggert (2012-10-26):
1582 # I used Ephraim Silverberg's dst-israel.el program
1583 # <ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/software/dst-israel.el> (2005-02-20)
1584 # along with Ed Reingold's cal-hebrew in GNU Emacs 21.4,
1585 # to generate the transitions from 2005 through 2012.
1586 # (I replaced "lastFri" with "Fri>=26" by hand.)
1587 # The spring transitions all correspond to the following Rule:
1588 #
1589 # Rule  Zion    2005    2012    -       Mar     Fri>=26      2:00    1:00    D
1590 #
1591 # but older zic implementations (e.g., Solaris 8) do not support
1592 # "Fri>=26" to mean April 1 in years like 2005, so for now we list the
1593 # springtime transitions explicitly.
1594 
1595 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1596 Rule    Zion    2005    only    -       Apr      1      2:00    1:00    D
1597 Rule    Zion    2005    only    -       Oct      9      2:00    0       S
1598 Rule    Zion    2006    2010    -       Mar     Fri>=26      2:00    1:00    D
1599 Rule    Zion    2006    only    -       Oct      1      2:00    0       S
1600 Rule    Zion    2007    only    -       Sep     16      2:00    0       S
1601 Rule    Zion    2008    only    -       Oct      5      2:00    0       S
1602 Rule    Zion    2009    only    -       Sep     27      2:00    0       S
1603 Rule    Zion    2010    only    -       Sep     12      2:00    0       S
1604 Rule    Zion    2011    only    -       Apr      1      2:00    1:00    D
1605 Rule    Zion    2011    only    -       Oct      2      2:00    0       S
1606 Rule    Zion    2012    only    -       Mar     Fri>=26      2:00    1:00    D
1607 Rule    Zion    2012    only    -       Sep     23      2:00    0       S
1608 
1609 # From Ephraim Silverberg (2013-06-27):
1610 # On June 23, 2013, the Israeli government approved changes to the
1611 # Time Decree Law.  The next day, the changes passed the First Reading
1612 # in the Knesset.  The law is expected to pass the Second and Third
1613 # (final) Readings by the beginning of September 2013.
1614 #
1615 # As of 2013, DST starts at 02:00 on the Friday before the last Sunday
1616 # in March.  DST ends at 02:00 on the last Sunday of October.
1617 
1618 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1619 Rule    Zion    2013    max     -       Mar     Fri>=23      2:00    1:00    D
1620 Rule    Zion    2013    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1621 
1622 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1623 Zone    Asia/Jerusalem  2:20:54 -       LMT     1880
1624                         2:20:40 -       JMT     1918 # Jerusalem Mean Time?
1625                         2:00    Zion    I%sT
1626 
1627 
1628 
1629 ###############################################################################
1630 
1631 # Japan
1632 
1633 # '9:00' and 'JST' is from Guy Harris.
1634 
1635 # From Paul Eggert (1995-03-06):
1636 # Today's _Asahi Evening News_ (page 4) reports that Japan had
1637 # daylight saving between 1948 and 1951, but "the system was discontinued
1638 # because the public believed it would lead to longer working hours."
1639 
1640 # From Mayumi Negishi in the 2005-08-10 Japan Times:
1641 # http://www.japantimes.co.jp/cgi-bin/getarticle.pl5?nn20050810f2.htm
1642 # Occupation authorities imposed daylight-saving time on Japan on


1659 # [T]he webpage authored by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
1660 # https://eco.mtk.nao.ac.jp/koyomi/wiki/BBFEB9EF2FB2C6BBFEB9EF.html
1661 # ... mentioned that using Showa 23 (year 1948) as example, 13pm of September
1662 # 11 in summer time will equal to 0am of September 12 in standard time.
1663 # It cited a document issued by the Liaison Office which briefly existed
1664 # during the postwar period of Japan, where the detail on implementation
1665 # of the summer time is described in the document.
1666 # https://eco.mtk.nao.ac.jp/koyomi/wiki/BBFEB9EF2FB2C6BBFEB9EFB2C6BBFEB9EFA4CEBCC2BBDCA4CBA4C4A4A4A4C6.pdf
1667 # The text in the document do instruct a fall back to occur at
1668 # September 11, 13pm in summer time, while ordinary citizens can
1669 # change the clock before they sleep.
1670 #
1671 # From Paul Eggert (2018-09-27):
1672 # This instruction is equivalent to "Sat>=8 25:00", so use that.  zic treats
1673 # it like "Sun>=9 01:00", which is not quite the same but is the best we can
1674 # do in any POSIX or C platform.  The "25:00" assumes zic from 2007 or later,
1675 # which should be safe now.
1676 
1677 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1678 Rule    Japan   1948    only    -       May     Sat>=1       24:00   1:00    D
1679 Rule    Japan   1948    1951    -       Sep     Sun>=9        1:00   0       S
1680 Rule    Japan   1949    only    -       Apr     Sat>=1       24:00   1:00    D
1681 Rule    Japan   1950    1951    -       May     Sat>=1       24:00   1:00    D
1682 
1683 # From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-09):
1684 # 'Tokyo' usually stands for the former location of Tokyo Astronomical
1685 # Observatory: 139° 44' 40.90" E (9h 18m 58.727s), 35° 39' 16.0" N.
1686 # This data is from 'Rika Nenpyou (Chronological Scientific Tables) 1996'
1687 # edited by National Astronomical Observatory of Japan....
1688 # JST (Japan Standard Time) has been used since 1888-01-01 00:00 (JST).
1689 # The law is enacted on 1886-07-07.
1690 
1691 # From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-16):
1692 # The ordinance No. 51 (1886) established "standard time" in Japan,
1693 # which stands for the time on 135° E.
1694 # In the ordinance No. 167 (1895), "standard time" was renamed to "central
1695 # standard time".  And the same ordinance also established "western standard
1696 # time", which stands for the time on 120° E....  But "western standard
1697 # time" was abolished in the ordinance No. 529 (1937).  In the ordinance No.
1698 # 167, there is no mention regarding for what place western standard time is
1699 # standard....
1700 #
1701 # I wrote "ordinance" above, but I don't know how to translate.
1702 # In Japanese it's "chokurei", which means ordinance from emperor.
1703 
1704 # From Yu-Cheng Chuang (2013-07-12):
1705 # ...the Meiji Emperor announced Ordinance No. 167 of Meiji Year 28 "The clause
1706 # about standard time" ... The adoption began from Jan 1, 1896.
1707 # https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/標準時ニ關スル件_(公布時)
1708 #
1709 # ...the Showa Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 ... which
1710 # means the whole Japan territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan
1711 # Central Time (UT+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937.
1712 # https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件
1713 
1714 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1715 Zone    Asia/Tokyo      9:18:59 -       LMT     1887 Dec 31 15:00u
1716                         9:00    Japan   J%sT
1717 # Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo.


1718 
1719 # Jordan
1720 #
1721 # From <http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html>
1722 # Jordan Week (1999-07-01) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
1723 # Clocks in Jordan were forwarded one hour on Wednesday at midnight,
1724 # in accordance with the government's decision to implement summer time
1725 # all year round.
1726 #
1727 # From <http://star.arabia.com/990930/JO9.html>
1728 # Jordan Week (1999-09-30) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-11-09):
1729 # Winter time starts today Thursday, 30 September. Clocks will be turned back
1730 # by one hour.  This is the latest government decision and it's final!
1731 # The decision was taken because of the increase in working hours in
1732 # government's departments from six to seven hours.
1733 #
1734 # From Paul Eggert (2005-11-22):
1735 # Starting 2003 transitions are from Steffen Thorsen's web site timeanddate.com.
1736 #
1737 # From Steffen Thorsen (2005-11-23):


1795 Rule    Jordan  1989    only    -       May     8       0:00    1:00    S
1796 Rule    Jordan  1990    only    -       Apr     27      0:00    1:00    S
1797 Rule    Jordan  1991    only    -       Apr     17      0:00    1:00    S
1798 Rule    Jordan  1991    only    -       Sep     27      0:00    0       -
1799 Rule    Jordan  1992    only    -       Apr     10      0:00    1:00    S
1800 Rule    Jordan  1992    1993    -       Oct     Fri>=1       0:00    0       -
1801 Rule    Jordan  1993    1998    -       Apr     Fri>=1       0:00    1:00    S
1802 Rule    Jordan  1994    only    -       Sep     Fri>=15      0:00    0       -
1803 Rule    Jordan  1995    1998    -       Sep     Fri>=15      0:00s   0       -
1804 Rule    Jordan  1999    only    -       Jul      1      0:00s   1:00    S
1805 Rule    Jordan  1999    2002    -       Sep     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
1806 Rule    Jordan  2000    2001    -       Mar     lastThu 0:00s   1:00    S
1807 Rule    Jordan  2002    2012    -       Mar     lastThu 24:00   1:00    S
1808 Rule    Jordan  2003    only    -       Oct     24      0:00s   0       -
1809 Rule    Jordan  2004    only    -       Oct     15      0:00s   0       -
1810 Rule    Jordan  2005    only    -       Sep     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
1811 Rule    Jordan  2006    2011    -       Oct     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
1812 Rule    Jordan  2013    only    -       Dec     20      0:00    0       -
1813 Rule    Jordan  2014    max     -       Mar     lastThu 24:00   1:00    S
1814 Rule    Jordan  2014    max     -       Oct     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
1815 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1816 Zone    Asia/Amman      2:23:44 -       LMT     1931
1817                         2:00    Jordan  EE%sT
1818 
1819 
1820 # Kazakhstan
1821 
1822 # From Kazakhstan Embassy's News Bulletin No. 11
1823 # <http://www.kazsociety.org.uk/news/2005/03/30.htm> (2005-03-21):
1824 # The Government of Kazakhstan passed a resolution March 15 abolishing
1825 # daylight saving time citing lack of economic benefits and health
1826 # complications coupled with a decrease in productivity.
1827 #
1828 # From Branislav Kojic (in Astana) via Gwillim Law (2005-06-28):
1829 # ... what happened was that the former Kazakhstan Eastern time zone
1830 # was "blended" with the Central zone.  Therefore, Kazakhstan now has
1831 # two time zones, and difference between them is one hour.  The zone
1832 # closer to UTC is the former Western zone (probably still called the
1833 # same), encompassing four provinces in the west: Aqtöbe, Atyraū,
1834 # Mangghystaū, and West Kazakhstan.  The other zone encompasses
1835 # everything else....  I guess that would make Kazakhstan time zones
1836 # de jure UTC+5 and UTC+6 respectively.
1837 
1838 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-27):
1839 # Review of the linked documents from http://adilet.zan.kz/
1840 # produced the following data for post-1991 Kazakhstan:
1841 #
1842 # 0. Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the USSR
1843 # from 1991-02-04 No. 20
1844 # http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?docbody=&nd=102010545
1845 # removed the extra hour ("decree time") on the territory of the USSR
1846 # starting with the last Sunday of March 1991.
1847 # It also allowed (but not mandated) Kazakh SSR, Kirghiz SSR, Tajik SSR,
1848 # Turkmen SSR and Uzbek SSR to not have "summer" time.
1849 #
1850 # The 1992-01-13 act also refers to the act of the Cabinet of Ministers
1851 # of the Kazakh SSR from 1991-03-20 No. 170 "About the act of the Cabinet
1852 # of Ministers of the USSR from 1991-02-04 No. 20" but I didn't found its
1853 # text.
1854 #
1855 # According to Izvestia newspaper No. 68 (23334) from 1991-03-20
1856 # (page 6; available at http://libinfo.org/newsr/newsr2574.djvu via
1857 # http://libinfo.org/index.php?id=58564) on 1991-03-31 at 2:00 during
1858 # transition to "summer" time:
1859 # Republic of Georgia, Latvian SSR, Lithuanian SSR, SSR Moldova,
1860 # Estonian SSR; Komi ASSR; Kaliningrad oblast; Nenets autonomous okrug
1861 # were to move clocks 1 hour forward.
1862 # Kazakh SSR (excluding Uralsk oblast); Republic of Kyrgyzstan, Tajik
1863 # SSR; Andijan, Jizzakh, Namangan, Sirdarya, Tashkent, Fergana oblasts
1864 # of the Uzbek SSR were to move clocks 1 hour backwards.
1865 # Other territories were to not move clocks.
1866 # When the "summer" time would end on 1991-09-29, clocks were to be
1867 # moved 1 hour backwards on the territory of the USSR excluding
1868 # Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenia, Tajikistan.
1869 #
1870 # Apparently there were last minute changes. Apparently Kazakh act No. 170
1871 # was one of such changes.
1872 #
1873 # https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Декретное время
1874 # claims that Sovetskaya Rossiya newspaper on 1991-03-29 published that
1875 # Nenets autonomous okrug, Komi and Kazakhstan (excluding Uralsk oblast)
1876 # were to not move clocks and Uralsk oblast was to move clocks
1877 # forward; on 1991-09-29 Kazakhstan was to move clocks backwards.
1878 # (Probably there were changes even after that publication. There is an
1879 # article claiming that Kaliningrad oblast decided on 1991-03-29 to not
1880 # move clocks.)
1881 #
1882 # This implies that on 1991-03-31 Asia/Oral remained on +04/+05 while
1883 # the rest of Kazakhstan switched from +06/+07 to +05/06 or from +05/06
1884 # to +04/+05. It's unclear how Qyzylorda oblast moved into the fifth
1885 # time belt. (By switching from +04/+05 to +05/+06 on 1991-09-29?) ...
1886 #
1887 # 1. Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Kazakhstan
1888 # from 1992-01-13 No. 28
1889 # http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P920000028_
1890 # (text includes modification from the 1996 act)
1891 # introduced new rules for calculation of time, mirroring Russian
1892 # 1992-01-08 act.  It specified that time would be calculated
1893 # according to time belts plus extra hour ("decree time"), moved clocks


1987 # No. 23 from 1992-01-08 [See 'europe' file for details].
1988 # Kazakh 1992-01-13 act appears to provide the same rules and 1992-03-27
1989 # act was to be enacted on the last Sunday of March 1992.
1990 
1991 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-11-08):
1992 # Turgai reorganization should affect only southern part of Qostanay
1993 # oblast.  Which should probably be separated into Asia/Arkalyk zone.
1994 # (There were also 1970, 1988 and 1990 Turgai oblast reorganizations
1995 # according to wikipedia.)
1996 #
1997 # [For Qostanay] http://www.ng.kz/gazeta/195/hranit/
1998 # suggests that clocks were to be moved 40 minutes backwards on
1999 # 1920-01-01 to the fourth time belt.  But I do not understand
2000 # how that could happen....
2001 #
2002 # [For Atyrau and Oral] 1919 decree
2003 # (http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-1919-02-08.html
2004 # and in Byalokoz) lists Ural river (plus 10 versts on its left bank) in
2005 # the third time belt (before 1930 this means +03).
2006 
2007 # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-06):
2008 # The tables below reflect Golosunov's remarks, with exceptions as noted.


2009 
2010 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2011 #
2012 # Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata), representing most locations in Kazakhstan
2013 # This includes KZ-AKM, KZ-ALA, KZ-ALM, KZ-AST, KZ-BAY, KZ-VOS, KZ-ZHA,
2014 # KZ-KAR, KZ-SEV, KZ-PAV, and KZ-YUZ.
2015 Zone    Asia/Almaty     5:07:48 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Alma-Ata
2016                         5:00    -       +05     1930 Jun 21
2017                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2018                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2019                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2020                         6:00    -       +06
2021 # Qyzylorda (aka Kyzylorda, Kizilorda, Kzyl-Orda, etc.) (KZ-KZY)
2022 # This currently includes Qostanay (aka Kostanay, Kustanay) (KZ-KUS);
2023 # see comments below.
2024 Zone    Asia/Qyzylorda  4:21:52 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2025                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
2026                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
2027                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
2028                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
2029                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2030                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Sep 29  2:00s
2031                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2032                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1992 Mar 29  2:00s
2033                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s














2034                         6:00    -       +06
2035 # The following zone is like Asia/Qyzylorda except for being one
2036 # hour earlier from 1991-09-29 to 1992-03-29.  The 1991/2 rules for
2037 # Qostanay are unclear partly because of the 1997 Turgai
2038 # reorganization, so this zone is commented out for now.
2039 #Zone   Asia/Qostanay   4:14:20 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2040 #                       4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
2041 #                       5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
2042 #                       5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
2043 #                       6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
2044 #                       5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2045 #                       4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2046 #                       5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2047 #                       6:00    -       +06
2048 #
2049 # Aqtöbe (aka Aktobe, formerly Aktyubinsk) (KZ-AKT)
2050 Zone    Asia/Aqtobe     3:48:40 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2051                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
2052                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
2053                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
2054                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
2055                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2056                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2057                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2058                         5:00    -       +05
2059 # Mangghystaū (KZ-MAN)
2060 # Aqtau was not founded until 1963, but it represents an inhabited region,
2061 # so include timestamps before 1963.
2062 Zone    Asia/Aqtau      3:21:04 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2063                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
2064                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Oct  1
2065                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
2066                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2067                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
2068                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1994 Sep 25  2:00s


2093                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
2094                         5:00    -       +05
2095 
2096 # Kyrgyzstan (Kirgizstan)
2097 # Transitions through 1991 are from Shanks & Pottenger.
2098 
2099 # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-15):
2100 # According to an article dated today in the Kyrgyzstan Development Gateway
2101 # http://eng.gateway.kg/cgi-bin/page.pl?id=1&story_name=doc9979.shtml
2102 # Kyrgyzstan is canceling the daylight saving time system.  I take the article
2103 # to mean that they will leave their clocks at 6 hours ahead of UTC.
2104 # From Malik Abdugaliev (2005-09-21):
2105 # Our government cancels daylight saving time 6th of August 2005.
2106 # From 2005-08-12 our GMT-offset is +6, w/o any daylight saving.
2107 
2108 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2109 Rule    Kyrgyz  1992    1996    -       Apr     Sun>=7       0:00s   1:00    -
2110 Rule    Kyrgyz  1992    1996    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
2111 Rule    Kyrgyz  1997    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:30    1:00    -
2112 Rule    Kyrgyz  1997    2004    -       Oct     lastSun 2:30    0       -
2113 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2114 Zone    Asia/Bishkek    4:58:24 -       LMT     1924 May  2
2115                         5:00    -       +05     1930 Jun 21
2116                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
2117                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Aug 31  2:00
2118                         5:00    Kyrgyz  +05/+06 2005 Aug 12
2119                         6:00    -       +06
2120 
2121 ###############################################################################
2122 
2123 # Korea (North and South)
2124 
2125 # From Annie I. Bang (2006-07-10):
2126 # http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=200607100012
2127 # Korea ran a daylight saving program from 1949-61 but stopped it
2128 # during the 1950-53 Korean War.  The system was temporarily enforced
2129 # between 1987 and 1988 ...
2130 
2131 # From Sanghyuk Jung (2014-10-29):
2132 # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2014-October/021830.html
2133 # According to the Korean Wikipedia
2134 # https://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/한국_표준시
2135 # [oldid=12896437 2014-09-04 08:03 UTC]
2136 # DST in Republic of Korea was as follows....  And I checked old
2137 # newspapers in Korean, all articles correspond with data in Wikipedia.
2138 # For example, the article in 1948 (Korean Language) proved that DST
2139 # started at June 1 in that year.  For another example, the article in
2140 # 1988 said that DST started at 2:00 AM in that year.
2141 






















2142 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2143 Rule    ROK     1948    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    D
2144 Rule    ROK     1948    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S
2145 Rule    ROK     1949    only    -       Apr      3      0:00    1:00    D
2146 Rule    ROK     1949    1951    -       Sep     Sun>=8       0:00    0       S
2147 Rule    ROK     1950    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
2148 Rule    ROK     1951    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    D
2149 Rule    ROK     1955    only    -       May      5      0:00    1:00    D
2150 Rule    ROK     1955    only    -       Sep      9      0:00    0       S
2151 Rule    ROK     1956    only    -       May     20      0:00    1:00    D
2152 Rule    ROK     1956    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S
2153 Rule    ROK     1957    1960    -       May     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    D
2154 Rule    ROK     1957    1960    -       Sep     Sun>=18      0:00    0       S
2155 Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
2156 Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       Oct     Sun>=8       3:00    0       S
2157 
2158 # From Paul Eggert (2016-08-23):
2159 # The Korean Wikipedia entry gives the following sources for UT offsets:
2160 #
2161 # 1908: Official Journal Article No. 3994 (decree No. 5)
2162 # 1912: Governor-General of Korea Official Gazette Issue No. 367
2163 #       (Announcement No. 338)
2164 # 1954: Presidential Decree No. 876 (1954-03-17)
2165 # 1961: Law No. 676 (1961-08-07)
2166 #
2167 # (Another source "1987: Law No. 3919 (1986-12-31)" was in the 2014-10-30
2168 # edition of the Korean Wikipedia entry.)
2169 #
2170 # I guessed that time zone abbreviations through 1945 followed the same
2171 # rules as discussed under Taiwan, with nominal switches from JST to KST
2172 # when the respective cities were taken over by the Allies after WWII.
2173 #
2174 # For Pyongyang, guess no changes from World War II until 2015, as we
2175 # have no information otherwise.
2176 


2186 # There is no common English-language abbreviation for this time zone.
2187 # Use KST, as that's what we already use for 1954-1961 in ROK.
2188 
2189 # From Kang Seonghoon (2018-04-29):
2190 # North Korea will revert its time zone from UTC+8:30 (PYT; Pyongyang
2191 # Time) back to UTC+9 (KST; Korea Standard Time).
2192 #
2193 # From Seo Sanghyeon (2018-04-30):
2194 # Rodong Sinmun 2018-04-30 announced Pyongyang Time transition plan.
2195 # https://www.nknews.org/kcna/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2018/04/rodong-2018-04-30.pdf
2196 # ... the transition date is 2018-05-05 ...  Citation should be Decree
2197 # No. 2232 of April 30, 2018, of the Presidium of the Supreme People's
2198 # Assembly, as published in Rodong Sinmun.
2199 # From Tim Parenti (2018-04-29):
2200 # It appears to be the front page story at the top in the right-most column.
2201 #
2202 # From Paul Eggert (2018-05-04):
2203 # The BBC reported that the transition was from 23:30 to 24:00 today.
2204 # https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-44010705
2205 
2206 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2207 Zone    Asia/Seoul      8:27:52 -       LMT     1908 Apr  1
2208                         8:30    -       KST     1912 Jan  1
2209                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep  8
2210                         9:00    -       KST     1954 Mar 21
2211                         8:30    ROK     K%sT    1961 Aug 10
2212                         9:00    ROK     K%sT
2213 Zone    Asia/Pyongyang  8:23:00 -       LMT     1908 Apr  1
2214                         8:30    -       KST     1912 Jan  1
2215                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Aug 24
2216                         9:00    -       KST     2015 Aug 15 00:00
2217                         8:30    -       KST     2018 May  4 23:30
2218                         9:00    -       KST
2219 
2220 ###############################################################################
2221 
2222 # Kuwait
2223 # See Asia/Riyadh.
2224 
2225 # Laos
2226 # See Asia/Bangkok.


2235 Rule    Lebanon 1922    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S
2236 Rule    Lebanon 1922    only    -       Oct     8       0:00    0       -
2237 Rule    Lebanon 1923    only    -       Apr     22      0:00    1:00    S
2238 Rule    Lebanon 1923    only    -       Sep     16      0:00    0       -
2239 Rule    Lebanon 1957    1961    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
2240 Rule    Lebanon 1957    1961    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
2241 Rule    Lebanon 1972    only    -       Jun     22      0:00    1:00    S
2242 Rule    Lebanon 1972    1977    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       -
2243 Rule    Lebanon 1973    1977    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
2244 Rule    Lebanon 1978    only    -       Apr     30      0:00    1:00    S
2245 Rule    Lebanon 1978    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
2246 Rule    Lebanon 1984    1987    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
2247 Rule    Lebanon 1984    1991    -       Oct     16      0:00    0       -
2248 Rule    Lebanon 1988    only    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    S
2249 Rule    Lebanon 1989    only    -       May     10      0:00    1:00    S
2250 Rule    Lebanon 1990    1992    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
2251 Rule    Lebanon 1992    only    -       Oct     4       0:00    0       -
2252 Rule    Lebanon 1993    max     -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
2253 Rule    Lebanon 1993    1998    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
2254 Rule    Lebanon 1999    max     -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       -
2255 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2256 Zone    Asia/Beirut     2:22:00 -       LMT     1880
2257                         2:00    Lebanon EE%sT
2258 
2259 # Malaysia
2260 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2261 Rule    NBorneo 1935    1941    -       Sep     14      0:00    0:20    -
2262 Rule    NBorneo 1935    1941    -       Dec     14      0:00    0       -
2263 #
2264 # peninsular Malaysia
2265 # taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
2266 # http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html
2267 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2268 Zone Asia/Kuala_Lumpur  6:46:46 -       LMT     1901 Jan  1
2269                         6:55:25 -       SMT     1905 Jun  1 # Singapore M.T.
2270                         7:00    -       +07     1933 Jan  1
2271                         7:00    0:20    +0720   1936 Jan  1
2272                         7:20    -       +0720   1941 Sep  1
2273                         7:30    -       +0730   1942 Feb 16
2274                         9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep 12
2275                         7:30    -       +0730   1982 Jan  1
2276                         8:00    -       +08
2277 # Sabah & Sarawak
2278 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-12):
2279 # The data entries here are mostly from Shanks & Pottenger, but the 1942, 1945
2280 # and 1982 transition dates are from Mok Ly Yng.
2281 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2282 Zone Asia/Kuching       7:21:20 -       LMT     1926 Mar
2283                         7:30    -       +0730   1933
2284                         8:00 NBorneo  +08/+0820 1942 Feb 16
2285                         9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep 12
2286                         8:00    -       +08
2287 
2288 # Maldives
2289 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2290 Zone    Indian/Maldives 4:54:00 -       LMT     1880 # Malé
2291                         4:54:00 -       MMT     1960 # Malé Mean Time
2292                         5:00    -       +05
2293 
2294 # Mongolia
2295 
2296 # Shanks & Pottenger say that Mongolia has three time zones, but
2297 # The USNO (1995-12-21) and the CIA map Standard Time Zones of the World
2298 # (2005-03) both say that it has just one.
2299 
2300 # From Oscar van Vlijmen (1999-12-11):
2301 # General Information Mongolia
2302 # <http://www.mongoliatourism.gov.mn/general.htm> (1999-09)
2303 # "Time: Mongolia has two time zones. Three westernmost provinces of
2304 # Bayan-Ölgii, Uvs, and Hovd are one hour earlier than the capital city, and
2305 # the rest of the country follows the Ulaanbaatar time, which is UTC/GMT plus
2306 # eight hours."
2307 
2308 # From Rives McDow (1999-12-13):
2309 # Mongolia discontinued the use of daylight savings time in 1999; 1998


2412 # Shanks & Pottenger say that the Sept. 1984 through Sept. 1990 switches
2413 # in Choibalsan (more precisely, in Dornod and Sükhbaatar) took place
2414 # at 02:00 standard time, not at 00:00 local time as in the rest of
2415 # the country.  That would be odd, and possibly is a result of their
2416 # correction of 02:00 (in the previous edition) not being done correctly
2417 # in the latest edition; so ignore it for now.
2418 
2419 # From Ganbold Tsagaankhuu (2017-02-09):
2420 # Mongolian Government meeting has concluded today to cancel daylight
2421 # saving time adoption in Mongolia.  Source: http://zasag.mn/news/view/16192
2422 
2423 Rule    Mongol  1985    1998    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    -
2424 Rule    Mongol  1984    1998    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
2425 # IATA SSIM (1999-09) says Mongolia no longer observes DST.
2426 Rule    Mongol  2001    only    -       Apr     lastSat 2:00    1:00    -
2427 Rule    Mongol  2001    2006    -       Sep     lastSat 2:00    0       -
2428 Rule    Mongol  2002    2006    -       Mar     lastSat 2:00    1:00    -
2429 Rule    Mongol  2015    2016    -       Mar     lastSat 2:00    1:00    -
2430 Rule    Mongol  2015    2016    -       Sep     lastSat 0:00    0       -
2431 
2432 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2433 # Hovd, a.k.a. Chovd, Dund-Us, Dzhargalant, Khovd, Jirgalanta
2434 Zone    Asia/Hovd       6:06:36 -       LMT     1905 Aug
2435                         6:00    -       +06     1978
2436                         7:00    Mongol  +07/+08
2437 # Ulaanbaatar, a.k.a. Ulan Bataar, Ulan Bator, Urga
2438 Zone    Asia/Ulaanbaatar 7:07:32 -      LMT     1905 Aug
2439                         7:00    -       +07     1978
2440                         8:00    Mongol  +08/+09
2441 # Choibalsan, a.k.a. Bajan Tümen, Bajan Tumen, Chojbalsan,
2442 # Choybalsan, Sanbejse, Tchoibalsan
2443 Zone    Asia/Choibalsan 7:38:00 -       LMT     1905 Aug
2444                         7:00    -       +07     1978
2445                         8:00    -       +08     1983 Apr
2446                         9:00    Mongol  +09/+10 2008 Mar 31
2447                         8:00    Mongol  +08/+09
2448 
2449 # Nepal
2450 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2451 Zone    Asia/Kathmandu  5:41:16 -       LMT     1920
2452                         5:30    -       +0530   1986
2453                         5:45    -       +0545
2454 
2455 # Oman
2456 # See Asia/Dubai.
2457 
2458 # Pakistan
2459 
2460 # From Rives McDow (2002-03-13):
2461 # I have been advised that Pakistan has decided to adopt dst on a
2462 # TRIAL basis for one year, starting 00:01 local time on April 7, 2002
2463 # and ending at 00:01 local time October 6, 2002.  This is what I was
2464 # told, but I believe that the actual time of change may be 00:00; the
2465 # 00:01 was to make it clear which day it was on.
2466 
2467 # From Paul Eggert (2002-03-15):
2468 # Jesper Nørgaard found this URL:
2469 # http://www.pak.gov.pk/public/news/app/app06_dec.htm
2470 # (dated 2001-12-06) which says that the Cabinet adopted a scheme "to


2580 # >
2581 # > Then today, the president said that they might have to revert the
2582 # > decision if it is not supported by the parliament. So at the time
2583 # > being, it seems unclear if DST will be actually observed or not - but
2584 # > April 1 could be a more likely date than April 15.
2585 # Now, it seems that the decision to not observe DST in final:
2586 #
2587 # "Govt Withdraws Plan To Advance Clocks"
2588 # http://www.apakistannews.com/govt-withdraws-plan-to-advance-clocks-172041
2589 #
2590 # "People laud PM's announcement to end DST"
2591 # http://www.app.com.pk/en_/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=99374&Itemid=2
2592 
2593 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2594 Rule Pakistan   2002    only    -       Apr     Sun>=2       0:00    1:00    S
2595 Rule Pakistan   2002    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2       0:00    0       -
2596 Rule Pakistan   2008    only    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    S
2597 Rule Pakistan   2008    2009    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       -
2598 Rule Pakistan   2009    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    S
2599 
2600 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2601 Zone    Asia/Karachi    4:28:12 -       LMT     1907
2602                         5:30    -       +0530   1942 Sep
2603                         5:30    1:00    +0630   1945 Oct 15
2604                         5:30    -       +0530   1951 Sep 30
2605                         5:00    -       +05     1971 Mar 26
2606                         5:00 Pakistan   PK%sT   # Pakistan Time
2607 
2608 # Palestine
2609 
2610 # From Amos Shapir (1998-02-15):
2611 #
2612 # From 1917 until 1948-05-15, all of Palestine, including the parts now
2613 # known as the Gaza Strip and the West Bank, was under British rule.
2614 # Therefore the rules given for Israel for that period, apply there too...
2615 #
2616 # The Gaza Strip was under Egyptian rule between 1948-05-15 until 1967-06-05
2617 # (except a short occupation by Israel from 1956-11 till 1957-03, but no
2618 # time zone was affected then).  It was never formally annexed to Egypt,
2619 # though.
2620 #


2865 # [T]he Palestinian cabinet decision (Mar 8th 2016) published on
2866 # http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/WebSite/Upload/Decree/GOV_17/16032016134830.pdf
2867 # states that summer time will end on Oct 29th at 01:00.
2868 #
2869 # From Tim Parenti (2016-10-19):
2870 # Predict fall transitions on October's last Saturday at 01:00 from now on.
2871 # This is consistent with the 2016 transition as well as our spring
2872 # predictions.
2873 #
2874 # From Paul Eggert (2016-10-19):
2875 # It's also consistent with predictions in the following URLs today:
2876 # https://www.timeanddate.com/time/change/gaza-strip/gaza
2877 # https://www.timeanddate.com/time/change/west-bank/hebron
2878 
2879 # From Sharef Mustafa (2018-03-16):
2880 # Palestine summer time will start on Mar 24th 2018 by advancing the
2881 # clock by 60 minutes as per Palestinian cabinet decision published on
2882 # the official website, though the decree did not specify the exact
2883 # time of the time shift.
2884 # http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/Website/AR/NDecrees/ViewFile.ashx?ID=e7a42ab7-ee23-435a-b9c8-a4f7e81f3817











2885 #
2886 # From Paul Eggert (2018-03-16):
2887 # For 2016 on, predict spring transitions on March's fourth Saturday at 01:00.



2888 
2889 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2890 Rule EgyptAsia  1957    only    -       May     10      0:00    1:00    S
2891 Rule EgyptAsia  1957    1958    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
2892 Rule EgyptAsia  1958    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
2893 Rule EgyptAsia  1959    1967    -       May      1      1:00    1:00    S
2894 Rule EgyptAsia  1959    1965    -       Sep     30      3:00    0       -
2895 Rule EgyptAsia  1966    only    -       Oct      1      3:00    0       -
2896 
2897 Rule Palestine  1999    2005    -       Apr     Fri>=15      0:00    1:00    S
2898 Rule Palestine  1999    2003    -       Oct     Fri>=15      0:00    0       -
2899 Rule Palestine  2004    only    -       Oct      1      1:00    0       -
2900 Rule Palestine  2005    only    -       Oct      4      2:00    0       -
2901 Rule Palestine  2006    2007    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
2902 Rule Palestine  2006    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
2903 Rule Palestine  2007    only    -       Sep     Thu>=8       2:00    0       -
2904 Rule Palestine  2008    2009    -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
2905 Rule Palestine  2008    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    0       -
2906 Rule Palestine  2009    only    -       Sep     Fri>=1       1:00    0       -
2907 Rule Palestine  2010    only    -       Mar     26      0:00    1:00    S
2908 Rule Palestine  2010    only    -       Aug     11      0:00    0       -
2909 Rule Palestine  2011    only    -       Apr      1      0:01    1:00    S
2910 Rule Palestine  2011    only    -       Aug      1      0:00    0       -
2911 Rule Palestine  2011    only    -       Aug     30      0:00    1:00    S
2912 Rule Palestine  2011    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
2913 Rule Palestine  2012    2014    -       Mar     lastThu 24:00   1:00    S
2914 Rule Palestine  2012    only    -       Sep     21      1:00    0       -
2915 Rule Palestine  2013    only    -       Sep     Fri>=21      0:00    0       -
2916 Rule Palestine  2014    2015    -       Oct     Fri>=21      0:00    0       -
2917 Rule Palestine  2015    only    -       Mar     lastFri 24:00   1:00    S
2918 Rule Palestine  2016    max     -       Mar     Sat>=22      1:00    1:00    S
2919 Rule Palestine  2016    max     -       Oct     lastSat 1:00    0       -

2920 
2921 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2922 Zone    Asia/Gaza       2:17:52 -       LMT     1900 Oct
2923                         2:00    Zion    EET/EEST 1948 May 15
2924                         2:00 EgyptAsia  EE%sT   1967 Jun  5
2925                         2:00    Zion    I%sT    1996
2926                         2:00    Jordan  EE%sT   1999
2927                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2008 Aug 29  0:00
2928                         2:00    -       EET     2008 Sep
2929                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2010
2930                         2:00    -       EET     2010 Mar 27  0:01
2931                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT   2011 Aug  1
2932                         2:00    -       EET     2012
2933                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT
2934 
2935 Zone    Asia/Hebron     2:20:23 -       LMT     1900 Oct
2936                         2:00    Zion    EET/EEST 1948 May 15
2937                         2:00 EgyptAsia  EE%sT   1967 Jun  5
2938                         2:00    Zion    I%sT    1996
2939                         2:00    Jordan  EE%sT   1999
2940                         2:00 Palestine  EE%sT
2941 
2942 # Paracel Is
2943 # no information
2944 
2945 # Philippines





2946 # On 1844-08-16, Narciso Clavería, governor-general of the
2947 # Philippines, issued a proclamation announcing that 1844-12-30 was to
2948 # be immediately followed by 1845-01-01; see R.H. van Gent's
2949 # History of the International Date Line
2950 # https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/idl/idl_philippines.htm
2951 # The rest of the data entries are from Shanks & Pottenger.
2952 
2953 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2006-04-26):
2954 # ... claims that Philippines had DST last time in 1990:
2955 # http://story.philippinetimes.com/p.x/ct/9/id/145be20cc6b121c0/cid/3e5bbccc730d258c/
2956 # [a story dated 2006-04-25 by Cris Larano of Dow Jones Newswires,
2957 # but no details]
2958 
2959 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-14):
2960 # The following source says DST may be instituted November-January and again
2961 # March-June, but this is not definite.  It also says DST was last proclaimed
2962 # during the Ramos administration (1992-1998); but again, no details.
2963 # Carcamo D. PNoy urged to declare use of daylight saving time.
2964 # Philippine Star 2014-08-05
2965 # http://www.philstar.com/headlines/2014/08/05/1354152/pnoy-urged-declare-use-daylight-saving-time


2970 # The act [1] even specifies use of PST as the abbreviation, although
2971 # the FAQ provided by PAGASA [2] uses the "acronym PhST to distinguish
2972 # it from the Pacific Standard Time (PST)."
2973 # [1] http://www.officialgazette.gov.ph/2013/05/15/republic-act-no-10535/
2974 # [2] https://www1.pagasa.dost.gov.ph/index.php/astronomy/philippine-standard-time#republic-act-10535
2975 #
2976 # From Paul Eggert (2018-06-19):
2977 # I surveyed recent news reports, and my impression is that "PST" is
2978 # more popular among reliable English-language news sources.  This is
2979 # not just a measure of Google hit counts: it's also the sizes and
2980 # influence of the sources.  There is no current abbreviation for DST,
2981 # so use "PDT", the usual American style.
2982 
2983 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2984 Rule    Phil    1936    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    1:00    D
2985 Rule    Phil    1937    only    -       Feb     1       0:00    0       S
2986 Rule    Phil    1954    only    -       Apr     12      0:00    1:00    D
2987 Rule    Phil    1954    only    -       Jul     1       0:00    0       S
2988 Rule    Phil    1978    only    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
2989 Rule    Phil    1978    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
2990 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2991 Zone    Asia/Manila     -15:56:00 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
2992                         8:04:00 -       LMT     1899 May 11
2993                         8:00    Phil    P%sT    1942 May
2994                         9:00    -       JST     1944 Nov
2995                         8:00    Phil    P%sT
2996 
2997 # Qatar
2998 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2999 Zone    Asia/Qatar      3:26:08 -       LMT     1920     # Al Dawhah / Doha
3000                         4:00    -       +04     1972 Jun
3001                         3:00    -       +03
3002 Link Asia/Qatar Asia/Bahrain
3003 
3004 # Saudi Arabia
3005 #
3006 # From Paul Eggert (2018-08-29):
3007 # Time in Saudi Arabia and other countries in the Arabian peninsula was not
3008 # standardized until 1968 or so; we don't know exactly when, and possibly it
3009 # has never been made official.  Richard P Hunt, in "Islam city yielding to
3010 # modern times", New York Times (1961-04-09), p 20, wrote that only airlines
3011 # observed standard time, and that people in Jeddah mostly observed quasi-solar
3012 # time, doing so by setting their watches at sunrise to 6 o'clock (or to 12
3013 # o'clock for "Arab" time).
3014 #
3015 # Timekeeping differed depending on who you were and which part of Saudi
3016 # Arabia you were in.  In 1969, Elias Antar wrote that although a common
3017 # practice had been to set one's watch to 12:00 (i.e., midnight) at sunset -
3018 # which meant that the time on one side of a mountain could differ greatly from
3019 # the time on the other side - many foreigners set their watches to 6pm
3020 # instead, while airlines instead used UTC +03 (except in Dhahran, where they
3021 # used UTC +04), Aramco used UTC +03 with DST, and the Trans-Arabian Pipe Line
3022 # Company used Aramco time in eastern Saudi Arabia and airline time in western.
3023 # (The American Military Aid Advisory Group used plain UTC.)  Antar writes,
3024 # "A man named Higgins, so the story goes, used to run a local power
3025 # station. One day, the whole thing became too much for Higgins and he
3026 # assembled his staff and laid down the law. 'I've had enough of this,' he
3027 # shrieked. 'It is now 12 o'clock Higgins Time, and from now on this station is
3028 # going to run on Higgins Time.' And so, until last year, it did."  See:
3029 # Antar E. Dinner at When? Saudi Aramco World, 1969 March/April. 2-3.
3030 # http://archive.aramcoworld.com/issue/196902/dinner.at.when.htm
3031 # newspapers.com says a similar story about Higgins was published in the Port
3032 # Angeles (WA) Evening News, 1965-03-10, page 5, but I lack access to the text.
3033 #
3034 # The TZ database cannot represent quasi-solar time; airline time is the best
3035 # we can do.  The 1946 foreign air news digest of the U.S. Civil Aeronautics
3036 # Board (OCLC 42299995) reported that the "... Arabian Government, inaugurated
3037 # a weekly Dhahran-Cairo service, via the Saudi Arabian cities of Riyadh and
3038 # Jidda, on March 14, 1947".  Shanks & Pottenger guessed 1950; go with the
3039 # earlier date.
3040 #
3041 # Shanks & Pottenger also state that until 1968-05-01 Saudi Arabia had two
3042 # time zones; the other zone, at UT +04, was in the far eastern part of
3043 # the country.  Presumably this is documenting airline time.  Ignore this,
3044 # as it's before our 1970 cutoff.
3045 #
3046 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3047 Zone    Asia/Riyadh     3:06:52 -       LMT     1947 Mar 14
3048                         3:00    -       +03
3049 Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Aden      # Yemen
3050 Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Kuwait
3051 
3052 # Singapore
3053 # taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
3054 # http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html
3055 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3056 Zone    Asia/Singapore  6:55:25 -       LMT     1901 Jan  1
3057                         6:55:25 -       SMT     1905 Jun  1 # Singapore M.T.
3058                         7:00    -       +07     1933 Jan  1
3059                         7:00    0:20    +0720   1936 Jan  1
3060                         7:20    -       +0720   1941 Sep  1
3061                         7:30    -       +0730   1942 Feb 16
3062                         9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep 12
3063                         7:30    -       +0730   1982 Jan  1
3064                         8:00    -       +08
3065 
3066 # Spratly Is
3067 # no information
3068 
3069 # Sri Lanka
3070 
3071 # From Paul Eggert (2013-02-21):
3072 # Milne says "Madras mean time use from May 1, 1898.  Prior to this Colombo
3073 # mean time, 5h. 4m. 21.9s. F., was used."  But 5:04:21.9 differs considerably
3074 # from Colombo's meridian 5:19:24, so for now ignore Milne and stick with
3075 # Shanks and Pottenger.


3099 # Time (GMT), in line with neighbor India.
3100 # From Paul Eggert (2006-04-18):
3101 # People who live in regions under Tamil control can use [TZ='Asia/Kolkata'],
3102 # as that zone has agreed with the Tamil areas since our cutoff date of 1970.
3103 
3104 # From Sadika Sumanapala (2016-10-19):
3105 # According to http://www.sltime.org (maintained by Measurement Units,
3106 # Standards & Services Department, Sri Lanka) abbreviation for Sri Lanka
3107 # standard time is SLST.
3108 #
3109 # From Paul Eggert (2016-10-18):
3110 # "SLST" seems to be reasonably recent and rarely-used outside time
3111 # zone nerd sources.  I searched Google News and found three uses of
3112 # it in the International Business Times of India in February and
3113 # March of this year when discussing cricket match times, but nothing
3114 # since then (though there has been a lot of cricket) and nothing in
3115 # other English-language news sources.  Our old abbreviation "LKT" is
3116 # even worse.  For now, let's use a numeric abbreviation; we can
3117 # switch to "SLST" if it catches on.
3118 
3119 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3120 Zone    Asia/Colombo    5:19:24 -       LMT     1880
3121                         5:19:32 -       MMT     1906        # Moratuwa Mean Time
3122                         5:30    -       +0530   1942 Jan  5
3123                         5:30    0:30    +06     1942 Sep
3124                         5:30    1:00    +0630   1945 Oct 16  2:00
3125                         5:30    -       +0530   1996 May 25  0:00
3126                         6:30    -       +0630   1996 Oct 26  0:30
3127                         6:00    -       +06     2006 Apr 15  0:30
3128                         5:30    -       +0530
3129 
3130 # Syria
3131 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3132 Rule    Syria   1920    1923    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00    1:00    S
3133 Rule    Syria   1920    1923    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00    0       -
3134 Rule    Syria   1962    only    -       Apr     29      2:00    1:00    S
3135 Rule    Syria   1962    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       -
3136 Rule    Syria   1963    1965    -       May     1       2:00    1:00    S
3137 Rule    Syria   1963    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       -
3138 Rule    Syria   1964    only    -       Oct     1       2:00    0       -
3139 Rule    Syria   1965    only    -       Sep     30      2:00    0       -


3269 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-03-26):
3270 # Today, Syria's government announced that they will start DST early on Friday
3271 # (00:00). This is a bit earlier than the past two years.
3272 #
3273 # From Syrian Arab News Agency, in Arabic:
3274 # http://www.sana.sy/ara/2/2012/03/26/408215.htm
3275 #
3276 # Our brief summary:
3277 # https://www.timeanddate.com/news/time/syria-dst-2012.html
3278 
3279 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-27):
3280 # Assume last Friday in March going forward XXX.
3281 
3282 Rule    Syria   2008    only    -       Apr     Fri>=1       0:00    1:00    S
3283 Rule    Syria   2008    only    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       -
3284 Rule    Syria   2009    only    -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
3285 Rule    Syria   2010    2011    -       Apr     Fri>=1       0:00    1:00    S
3286 Rule    Syria   2012    max     -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
3287 Rule    Syria   2009    max     -       Oct     lastFri 0:00    0       -
3288 
3289 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3290 Zone    Asia/Damascus   2:25:12 -       LMT     1920 # Dimashq
3291                         2:00    Syria   EE%sT
3292 
3293 # Tajikistan
3294 # From Shanks & Pottenger.
3295 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3296 Zone    Asia/Dushanbe   4:35:12 -       LMT     1924 May  2
3297                         5:00    -       +05     1930 Jun 21
3298                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3299                         5:00    1:00    +05/+06 1991 Sep  9  2:00s
3300                         5:00    -       +05
3301 
3302 # Thailand
3303 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3304 Zone    Asia/Bangkok    6:42:04 -       LMT     1880
3305                         6:42:04 -       BMT     1920 Apr # Bangkok Mean Time
3306                         7:00    -       +07
3307 Link Asia/Bangkok Asia/Phnom_Penh       # Cambodia
3308 Link Asia/Bangkok Asia/Vientiane        # Laos
3309 
3310 # Turkmenistan
3311 # From Shanks & Pottenger.
3312 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3313 Zone    Asia/Ashgabat   3:53:32 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Ashkhabad
3314                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
3315                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00
3316                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00
3317                         5:00    -       +05
3318 
3319 # United Arab Emirates
3320 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3321 Zone    Asia/Dubai      3:41:12 -       LMT     1920
3322                         4:00    -       +04
3323 Link Asia/Dubai Asia/Muscat     # Oman
3324 
3325 # Uzbekistan
3326 # Byalokoz 1919 says Uzbekistan was 4:27:53.
3327 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3328 Zone    Asia/Samarkand  4:27:53 -       LMT     1924 May  2
3329                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
3330                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
3331                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
3332                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
3333                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992
3334                         5:00    -       +05
3335 # Milne says Tashkent was 4:37:10.8; round to nearest.
3336 Zone    Asia/Tashkent   4:37:11 -       LMT     1924 May  2
3337                         5:00    -       +05     1930 Jun 21
3338                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00
3339                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992
3340                         5:00    -       +05
3341 
3342 # Vietnam
3343 
3344 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-04):
3345 # Milne gives 7:16:56 for the meridian of Saigon in 1899, as being
3346 # used in Lower Laos, Cambodia, and Annam.  But this is quite a ways
3347 # from Saigon's location.  For now, ignore this and stick with Shanks


3373 # To 07:00 on 1911-05-01.
3374 # To 08:00 on 1942-12-31 at 23:00.
3375 # To 09:00 in 1945-03-14 at 23:00.
3376 # To 07:00 on 1945-09-02 in Vietnam.
3377 # To 08:00 on 1947-04-01 in French-controlled Indochina.
3378 # To 07:00 on 1955-07-01 in South Vietnam.
3379 # To 08:00 on 1959-12-31 at 23:00 in South Vietnam.
3380 # To 07:00 on 1975-06-13 in South Vietnam.
3381 #
3382 # Trần cites the following sources; it's unclear which supplied the info above.
3383 #
3384 # Hoàng Xuân Hãn: "Lịch và lịch Việt Nam". Tập san Khoa học Xã hội,
3385 # No. 9, Paris, February 1982.
3386 #
3387 # Lê Thành Lân: "Lịch và niên biểu lịch sử hai mươi thế kỷ (0001-2010)",
3388 # NXB Thống kê, Hanoi, 2000.
3389 #
3390 # Lê Thành Lân: "Lịch hai thế kỷ (1802-2010) và các lịch vĩnh cửu",
3391 # NXB Thuận Hoá, Huế, 1995.
3392 
3393 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3394 Zone Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh   7:06:40 -       LMT     1906 Jul  1
3395                         7:06:30 -       PLMT    1911 May  1 # Phù Liễn MT
3396                         7:00    -       +07     1942 Dec 31 23:00
3397                         8:00    -       +08     1945 Mar 14 23:00
3398                         9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep  2
3399                         7:00    -       +07     1947 Apr  1
3400                         8:00    -       +08     1955 Jul  1
3401                         7:00    -       +07     1959 Dec 31 23:00
3402                         8:00    -       +08     1975 Jun 13
3403                         7:00    -       +07












3404 
3405 # Yemen
3406 # See Asia/Riyadh.
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