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@@ -105,11 +105,11 @@
 Rule RussiaAsia 1984    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 Rule RussiaAsia 1985    2010    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    -
 Rule RussiaAsia 1996    2010    -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
 
 # Afghanistan
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Kabul      4:36:48 -       LMT     1890
                         4:00    -       +04     1945
                         4:30    -       +0430
 
 # Armenia

@@ -138,11 +138,11 @@
 # (brief)
 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_armenia03.html
 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 Rule Armenia    2011    only    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    -
 Rule Armenia    2011    only    -       Oct     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Yerevan    2:58:00 -       LMT     1924 May  2
                         3:00    -       +03     1957 Mar
                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
                         3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04 1995 Sep 24  2:00s
                         4:00    -       +04     1997

@@ -164,11 +164,11 @@
 # http://en.apa.az/xeber_azerbaijan_abolishes_daylight_savings_ti_240862.html
 
 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 Rule    Azer    1997    2015    -       Mar     lastSun  4:00   1:00    -
 Rule    Azer    1997    2015    -       Oct     lastSun  5:00   0       -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Baku       3:19:24 -       LMT     1924 May  2
                         3:00    -       +03     1957 Mar
                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
                         3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04 1992 Sep lastSun  2:00s
                         4:00    -       +04     1996

@@ -252,38 +252,38 @@
 
 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 Rule    Dhaka   2009    only    -       Jun     19      23:00   1:00    -
 Rule    Dhaka   2009    only    -       Dec     31      24:00   0       -
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Dhaka      6:01:40 -       LMT     1890
                         5:53:20 -       HMT     1941 Oct    # Howrah Mean Time?
                         6:30    -       +0630   1942 May 15
                         5:30    -       +0530   1942 Sep
                         6:30    -       +0630   1951 Sep 30
                         6:00    -       +06     2009
                         6:00    Dhaka   +06/+07
 
 # Bhutan
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Thimphu    5:58:36 -       LMT     1947 Aug 15 # or Thimbu
                         5:30    -       +0530   1987 Oct
                         6:00    -       +06
 
 # British Indian Ocean Territory
 # Whitman and the 1995 CIA time zone map say 5:00, but the
 # 1997 and later maps say 6:00.  Assume the switch occurred in 1996.
 # We have no information as to when standard time was introduced;
 # assume it occurred in 1907, the same year as Mauritius (which
 # then contained the Chagos Archipelago).
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Indian/Chagos   4:49:40 -       LMT     1907
                         5:00    -       +05     1996
                         6:00    -       +06
 
 # Brunei
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Brunei     7:39:40 -       LMT     1926 Mar # Bandar Seri Begawan
                         7:30    -       +0730   1933
                         8:00    -       +08
 
 # Burma / Myanmar

@@ -294,11 +294,11 @@
 # Page 27 of Reed & Low (cited for Asia/Kolkata) says "Rangoon local time is
 # used upon the railways and telegraphs of Burma, and is 6h. 24m. 47s. ahead
 # of Greenwich."  This refers to the period before Burma's transition to +0630,
 # a transition for which Shanks is the only source.
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Yangon     6:24:47 -       LMT     1880        # or Rangoon
                         6:24:47 -       RMT     1920        # Rangoon local time
                         6:30    -       +0630   1942 May
                         9:00    -       +09     1945 May  3
                         6:30    -       +0630

@@ -582,11 +582,11 @@
 # guess) as the transition from LMT.  Ignore the usage of +08 before
 # 1986-02-01 under the theory that the transition date to +08 is unknown and
 # that the sort of users who prefer Asia/Urumqi now typically ignored the
 # +08 mandate back then.
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 # Beijing time, used throughout China; represented by Shanghai.
 Zone    Asia/Shanghai   8:05:43 -       LMT     1901
                         8:00    Shang   C%sT    1949 May 28
                         8:00    PRC     C%sT
 # Xinjiang time, used by many in western China; represented by Ürümqi / Ürümchi

@@ -607,127 +607,27 @@
 # and incorrect rules. Although the exact switch over time is missing, I
 # think 3:30 is correct. The official DST record for Hong Kong can be
 # obtained from
 # http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
 
-# From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
-# According to Singaporean newspaper
-# http://eresources.nlb.gov.sg/newspapers/Digitised/Article/singfreepresswk19041102-1.2.37
-# the day that Hong Kong start using GMT+8 should be Oct 30, 1904.
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-17):
-# Hong Kong had a time ball near the Marine Police Station, Tsim Sha Tsui.
-# "The ball was raised manually each day and dropped at exactly 1pm
-# (except on Sundays and Government holidays)."
-# Dyson AD. From Time Ball to Atomic Clock. Hong Kong Government. 1983.
-# <https://www.hko.gov.hk/publica/gen_pub/timeball_atomic_clock.pdf>
-# "From 1904 October 30 the time-ball at Hong Kong has been dropped by order
-# of the Governor of the Colony at 17h 0m 0s G.M.T., which is 23m 18s.14 in
-# advance of 1h 0m 0s of Hong Kong mean time."
-# Hollis HP. Universal Time, Longitudes, and Geodesy. Mon Not R Astron Soc.
-# 1905-02-10;65(4):405-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/65.4.382
-#
-# From Joseph Myers (2018-11-18):
-# An astronomer before 1925 referring to GMT would have been using the old
-# astronomical convention where the day started at noon, not midnight.
-#
-# From Steve Allen (2018-11-17):
-# Meteorological Observations made at the Hongkong Observatory in the year 1904
-# page 4 <https://books.google.com/books?id=kgw5AQAAMAAJ&pg=RA4-PA4>
-# ... the log of drop times in Table II shows that on Sunday 1904-10-30 the
-# ball was dropped.  So that looks like a special case drop for the sake
-# of broadcasting the new local time.
-#
-# From Phake Nick (2018-11-18):
-# According to The Hong Kong Weekly Press, 1904-10-29, p.324, the
-# governor of Hong Kong at the time stated that "We are further desired to
-# make it known that the change will be effected by firing the gun and by the
-# dropping of the Ball at 23min. 18sec. before one."
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
-# See <https://mmis.hkpl.gov.hk> for this; unfortunately Flash is required.
-
-# From Phake Nick (2018-10-26):
-# I went to check microfilm records stored at Hong Kong Public Library....
-# on September 30 1941, according to Ta Kung Pao (Hong Kong edition), it was
-# stated that fallback would occur on the next day (the 1st)'s "03:00 am (Hong
-# Kong Time 04:00 am)" and the clock will fall back for a half hour. (03:00
-# probably refer to the time commonly used in mainland China at the time given
-# the paper's background) ... the sunrise/sunset time given by South China
-# Morning Post for October 1st was indeed moved by half an hour compares to
-# before.  After that, in December, the battle to capture Hong Kong started and
-# the library doesn't seems to have any record stored about press during that
-# period of time.  Some media resumed publication soon after that within the
-# same month, but there were not much information about time there.  Later they
-# started including a radio program guide when they restored radio service,
-# explicitly mentioning it use Tokyo standard time, and later added a note
-# saying it's half an hour ahead of the old Hong Kong standard time, and it
-# also seems to indicate that Hong Kong was not using GMT+8 when it was
-# captured by Japan.
-#
-# Image of related sections on newspaper:
-# * 1941-09-30, Ta Kung Pao (Hong Kong), "Winter Time start tomorrow".
-#   https://i.imgur.com/6waY51Z.jpg (Chinese)
-# * 1941-09-29, South China Morning Post, Information on sunrise/sunset
-#   time and other things for September 30 and October 1.
-#   https://i.imgur.com/kCiUR78.jpg
-# * 1942-02-05. The Hong Kong News, Radio Program Guide.
-#   https://i.imgur.com/eVvDMzS.jpg
-# * 1941-06-14. Hong Kong Daily Press, Daylight Saving from 3am Tomorrow.
-#   https://i.imgur.com/05KkvtC.png
-# * 1941-09-30, Hong Kong Daily Press, Winter Time Warning.
-#   https://i.imgur.com/dge4kFJ.png
-
-# From P Chan (2018-12-31):
-# * According to the Hong Kong Daylight-Saving Regulations, 1941, the
-#   1941 spring-forward transition was at 03:00.
-#       http://sunzi.lib.hku.hk/hkgro/view/g1941/304271.pdf
-#       http://sunzi.lib.hku.hk/hkgro/view/g1941/305516.pdf
-# * According to some articles from South China Morning Post, +08 was
-#   resumed on 1945-11-18 at 02:00.
-#       https://i.imgur.com/M2IsZ3c.png
-#       https://i.imgur.com/iOPqrVo.png
-#       https://i.imgur.com/fffcGDs.png
-# * Some newspapers ... said the 1946 spring-forward transition was on
-#   04-21 at 00:00.  The Kung Sheung Evening News 1946-04-20 (Chinese)
-#       https://i.imgur.com/ZSzent0.png
-#       https://mmis.hkpl.gov.hk///c/portal/cover?c=QF757YsWv5%2FH7zGe%2FKF%2BFLYsuqGhRBfe p.4
-#   The Kung Sheung Daily News 1946-04-21 (Chinese)
-#       https://i.imgur.com/7ecmRlcm.png
-#       https://mmis.hkpl.gov.hk///c/portal/cover?c=QF757YsWv5%2BQBGt1%2BwUj5qG2GqtwR3Wh p.4
-# * According to the Summer Time Ordinance (1946), the fallback
-#   transitions between 1946 and 1952 were at 03:30 Standard Time (+08)
-#       http://oelawhk.lib.hku.hk/archive/files/bb74b06a74d5294620a15de560ab33c6.pdf
-# * Some other laws and regulations related to DST from 1953 to 1979
-#   Summer Time Ordinance 1953
-#       https://i.imgur.com/IOlJMav.jpg
-#   Summer Time (Amendment) Ordinance 1965
-#       https://i.imgur.com/8rofeLa.jpg
-#   Interpretation and General Clauses Ordinance (1966)
-#       https://i.imgur.com/joy3msj.jpg
-#   Emergency (Summer Time) Regulation 1973 <https://i.imgur.com/OpRWrKz.jpg>
-#   Interpretation and General Clauses (Amendment) Ordinance 1977
-#       https://i.imgur.com/RaNqnc4.jpg
-#   Resolution of the Legislative Council passed on 9 May 1979
-#       https://www.legco.gov.hk/yr78-79/english/lc_sitg/hansard/h790509.pdf#page=39
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2019-05-31):
+# From Arthur David Olson (2009-10-28):
 # Here are the dates given at
-# https://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
-# as of 2014-06-19:
+# http://www.hko.gov.hk/gts/time/Summertime.htm
+# as of 2009-10-28:
 # Year        Period
-# 1941        15 Jun to 30 Sep
+# 1941        1 Apr to 30 Sep
 # 1942        Whole year
 # 1943        Whole year
 # 1944        Whole year
 # 1945        Whole year
 # 1946        20 Apr to 1 Dec
-# 1947        13 Apr to 30 Nov
+# 1947        13 Apr to 30 Dec
 # 1948        2 May to 31 Oct
 # 1949        3 Apr to 30 Oct
 # 1950        2 Apr to 29 Oct
 # 1951        1 Apr to 28 Oct
-# 1952        6 Apr to 2 Nov
+# 1952        6 Apr to 25 Oct
 # 1953        5 Apr to 1 Nov
 # 1954        21 Mar to 31 Oct
 # 1955        20 Mar to 6 Nov
 # 1956        18 Mar to 4 Nov
 # 1957        24 Mar to 3 Nov

@@ -752,35 +652,41 @@
 # 1976        18 Apr to 17 Oct
 # 1977        Nil
 # 1978        Nil
 # 1979        13 May to 21 Oct
 # 1980 to Now Nil
-# The page does not give times of day for transitions,
-# or dates for the 1942 and 1945 transitions.
-# The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began 1941-12-25.
-
-# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
-Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Apr     21      0:00    1:00    S
-Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Dec     1       3:30s   0       -
-Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Apr     13      3:30s   1:00    S
-Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Nov     30      3:30s   0       -
-Rule    HK      1948    only    -       May     2       3:30s   1:00    S
-Rule    HK      1948    1952    -       Oct     Sun>=28 3:30s   0       -
+# The page does not give start or end times of day.
+# The page does not give a start date for 1942.
+# The page does not givw an end date for 1945.
+# The Japanese occupation of Hong Kong began on 1941-12-25.
+# The Japanese surrender of Hong Kong was signed 1945-09-15.
+# For lack of anything better, use start of those days as the transition times.
+
+# Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
+Rule    HK      1941    only    -       Apr     1       3:30    1:00    S
+Rule    HK      1941    only    -       Sep     30      3:30    0       -
+Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Apr     20      3:30    1:00    S
+Rule    HK      1946    only    -       Dec     1       3:30    0       -
+Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Apr     13      3:30    1:00    S
+Rule    HK      1947    only    -       Dec     30      3:30    0       -
+Rule    HK      1948    only    -       May     2       3:30    1:00    S
+Rule    HK      1948    1951    -       Oct     lastSun 3:30    0       -
+Rule    HK      1952    only    -       Oct     25      3:30    0       -
 Rule    HK      1949    1953    -       Apr     Sun>=1  3:30    1:00    S
-Rule    HK      1953    1964    -       Oct     Sun>=31 3:30    0       -
+Rule    HK      1953    only    -       Nov     1       3:30    0       -
 Rule    HK      1954    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=18 3:30    1:00    S
+Rule    HK      1954    only    -       Oct     31      3:30    0       -
+Rule    HK      1955    1964    -       Nov     Sun>=1  3:30    0       -
 Rule    HK      1965    1976    -       Apr     Sun>=16 3:30    1:00    S
 Rule    HK      1965    1976    -       Oct     Sun>=16 3:30    0       -
 Rule    HK      1973    only    -       Dec     30      3:30    1:00    S
-Rule    HK      1979    only    -       May     13      3:30    1:00    S
-Rule    HK      1979    only    -       Oct     21      3:30    0       -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
-Zone    Asia/Hong_Kong  7:36:42 -       LMT     1904 Oct 30  0:36:42
-                        8:00    -       HKT     1941 Jun 15  3:00
-                        8:00    1:00    HKST    1941 Oct  1  4:00
-                        8:30    -       HKT     1941 Dec 25
-                        9:00    -       JST     1945 Nov 18  2:00
+Rule    HK      1979    only    -       May     Sun>=8  3:30    1:00    S
+Rule    HK      1979    only    -       Oct     Sun>=16 3:30    0       -
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+Zone    Asia/Hong_Kong  7:36:42 -       LMT     1904 Oct 30
+                        8:00    HK      HK%sT   1941 Dec 25
+                        9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 15
                         8:00    HK      HK%sT
 
 ###############################################################################
 
 # Taiwan

@@ -900,11 +806,11 @@
 Rule    Taiwan  1974    1975    -       Apr     1       0:00    1:00    D
 Rule    Taiwan  1974    1975    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 Rule    Taiwan  1979    only    -       Jul     1       0:00    1:00    D
 Rule    Taiwan  1979    only    -       Oct     1       0:00    0       S
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 # Taipei or Taibei or T'ai-pei
 Zone    Asia/Taipei     8:06:00 -       LMT     1896 Jan  1
                         8:00    -       CST     1937 Oct  1
                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep 21  1:00
                         8:00    Taiwan  C%sT

@@ -1038,11 +944,11 @@
 Rule    Macau   1973    only    -       Dec     30      03:30   1:00    D
 Rule    Macau   1975    1976    -       Apr     Sun>=16 03:30   1:00    D
 Rule    Macau   1979    only    -       May     13      03:30   1:00    D
 Rule    Macau   1979    only    -       Oct     Sun>=16 03:30   0       S
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Macau      7:34:10 -       LMT     1904 Oct 30
                         8:00    -       CST     1941 Dec 21 23:00
                         9:00    Macau   +09/+10 1945 Sep 30 24:00
                         8:00    Macau   C%sT
 

@@ -1077,11 +983,11 @@
 Rule    Cyprus  1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    S
 Rule    Cyprus  1977    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    0       -
 Rule    Cyprus  1978    only    -       Oct     2       0:00    0       -
 Rule    Cyprus  1979    1997    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
 Rule    Cyprus  1981    1998    -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Nicosia    2:13:28 -       LMT     1921 Nov 14
                         2:00    Cyprus  EE%sT   1998 Sep
                         2:00    EUAsia  EE%sT
 Zone    Asia/Famagusta  2:15:48 -       LMT     1921 Nov 14
                         2:00    Cyprus  EE%sT   1998 Sep

@@ -1126,11 +1032,11 @@
 
 # Milne 1899 says Tbilisi (Tiflis) time was 2:59:05.7.
 # Byalokoz 1919 says Georgia was 2:59:11.
 # Go with Byalokoz.
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Tbilisi    2:59:11 -       LMT     1880
                         2:59:11 -       TBMT    1924 May  2 # Tbilisi Mean Time
                         3:00    -       +03     1957 Mar
                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
                         3:00 RussiaAsia +03/+04 1992

@@ -1163,29 +1069,19 @@
 # The Cabinet of the East Timor Transition Administration decided
 # today to advance East Timor's time by one hour.  The time change,
 # which will be permanent, with no seasonal adjustment, will happen at
 # midnight on Saturday, September 16.
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Dili       8:22:20 -       LMT     1912 Jan  1
                         8:00    -       +08     1942 Feb 21 23:00
                         9:00    -       +09     1976 May  3
                         8:00    -       +08     2000 Sep 17  0:00
                         9:00    -       +09
 
 # India
 
-# British astronomer Henry Park Hollis disliked India Standard Time's offset:
-# "A new time system has been proposed for India, Further India, and Burmah.
-# The scheme suggested is that the times of the meridians 5½ and 6½ hours
-# east of Greenwich should be adopted in these territories.  No reason is
-# given why hourly meridians five hours and six hours east should not be
-# chosen; a plan which would bring the time of India into harmony with
-# that of almost the whole of the civilised world."
-# Hollis HP. Universal Time, Longitudes, and Geodesy. Mon Not R Astron Soc.
-# 1905-02-10;65(4):405-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/65.4.382
-
 # From Ian P. Beacock, in "A brief history of (modern) time", The Atlantic
 # https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2015/12/the-creation-of-modern-time/421419/
 # (2015-12-22):
 # In January 1906, several thousand cotton-mill workers rioted on the
 # outskirts of Bombay....  They were protesting the proposed abolition of

@@ -1229,11 +1125,11 @@
 # elsewhere (e.g., Europe/London before 1880), and after 1906 it was
 # consistent in the region now identified by Asia/Kolkata.  So, use railway
 # time for 1870-1941.  Shanks is our only (and dubious) source for the
 # 1941-1945 data.
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Kolkata    5:53:28 -       LMT     1854 Jun 28 # Kolkata
                         5:53:20 -       HMT     1870        # Howrah Mean Time?
                         5:21:10 -       MMT     1906 Jan  1 # Madras local time
                         5:30    -       IST     1941 Oct
                         5:30    1:00    +0630   1942 May 15

@@ -1281,11 +1177,11 @@
 #
 # WIB  - +07 - Waktu Indonesia Barat (Indonesia western time)
 # WITA - +08 - Waktu Indonesia Tengah (Indonesia central time)
 # WIT  - +09 - Waktu Indonesia Timur (Indonesia eastern time)
 #
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 # Java, Sumatra
 Zone Asia/Jakarta       7:07:12 -       LMT     1867 Aug 10
 # Shanks & Pottenger say the next transition was at 1924 Jan 1 0:13,
 # but this must be a typo.
                         7:07:12 -       BMT     1923 Dec 31 23:47:12 # Batavia

@@ -1352,69 +1248,16 @@
 # The text of the Iranian law, in effect since 1925, clearly mentions
 # that the true solar year is the measure, and there is no arithmetic
 # leap year calculation involved.  There has never been any serious
 # plan to change that law....
 #
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-30):
+# From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
 # Go with Shanks & Pottenger before Sept. 1991, and with Pournader thereafter.
-# I used the following code in GNU Emacs 26.1 to generate the "Rule Iran"
-# lines from 2008 through 2087.  Emacs 26.1 uses Ed Reingold's
-# cal-persia implementation of Birashk's approximation, which in the
-# 2008-2087 range disagrees with the astronomical Persian calendar
-# for Persian years 1404 (Gregorian 2025) and 1437 (Gregorian 2058), so
-# the following code special-cases those years.  See Table 15.1, page 264, of:
-# Edward M. Reingold and Nachum Dershowitz, Calendrical Calculations:
-# The Ultimate Edition, Cambridge University Press (2018).
-# https://www.cambridge.org/fr/academic/subjects/computer-science/computing-general-interest/calendrical-calculations-ultimate-edition-4th-edition
-# Page 258, footnote 2, of this book says there is some dispute over what will
-# happen in 2091 (and some other years after that), so this code
-# stops in 2087, as 2088 and 2089 agree with the "max" rule below.
-# (cl-loop
-#  initially (require 'cal-persia)
-#  with first-persian-year = 1387
-#  with last-persian-year = 1466
-#  ;; Exceptional years in the above range,
-#  ;; from Reingold & Dershowitz Table 15.1, page 264:
-#  with exceptional-persian-years = '(1404 1437)
-#  with range-start = nil
-#  for persian-year from first-persian-year to last-persian-year
-#  do
-#  (let*
-#      ((exceptional-year-offset
-#        (if (member persian-year exceptional-persian-years) 1 0))
-#       (beg-dst-absolute
-#        (+ (calendar-persian-to-absolute (list 1 1 persian-year))
-#           exceptional-year-offset))
-#       (end-dst-absolute
-#        (+ (calendar-persian-to-absolute (list 6 30 persian-year))
-#           exceptional-year-offset))
-#       (next-year-beg-dst-absolute
-#        (+ (calendar-persian-to-absolute (list 1 1 (1+ persian-year)))
-#           (if (member (1+ persian-year) exceptional-persian-years) 1 0)))
-#       (beg-dst (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute beg-dst-absolute))
-#       (end-dst (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute end-dst-absolute))
-#       (next-year-beg-dst (calendar-gregorian-from-absolute
-#                           next-year-beg-dst-absolute))
-#       (year (calendar-extract-year beg-dst))
-#       (range-end (if range-start year "only")))
-#    (setq range-start (or range-start year))
-#    (when (or (/= (calendar-extract-day beg-dst)
-#                  (calendar-extract-day next-year-beg-dst))
-#              (= persian-year last-persian-year))
-#      (insert
-#       (format
-#        "Rule\tIran\t%d\t%s\t-\t%s\t%2d\t24:00\t1:00\t-\n"
-#        range-start range-end
-#        (calendar-month-name (calendar-extract-month beg-dst) t)
-#        (calendar-extract-day beg-dst)))
-#      (insert
-#       (format
-#        "Rule\tIran\t%d\t%s\t-\t%s\t%2d\t24:00\t0\t-\n"
-#        range-start range-end
-#        (calendar-month-name (calendar-extract-month end-dst) t)
-#        (calendar-extract-day end-dst)))
-#      (setq range-start nil))))
+# I used Ed Reingold's cal-persia in GNU Emacs 21.2 to check Persian dates,
+# stopping after 2037 when 32-bit time_t's overflow.
+# That cal-persia used Birashk's approximation, which disagrees with the solar
+# calendar predictions for the year 2025, so I corrected those dates by hand.
 #
 # From Oscar van Vlijmen (2005-03-30), writing about future
 # discrepancies between cal-persia and the Iranian calendar:
 # For 2091 solar-longitude-after yields 2091-03-20 08:40:07.7 UT for
 # the vernal equinox and that gets so close to 12:00 some local

@@ -1445,119 +1288,67 @@
 # on the 24 hours of the first day of the month of Farvardin and will
 # be changed back to its previous state on the 24 hours of the
 # thirtieth day of Shahrivar.
 #
 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
-Rule    Iran    1978    1980    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    1978    only    -       Oct     20      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    1979    only    -       Sep     18      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    1980    only    -       Sep     22      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    1991    only    -       May      2      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    1992    1995    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    1991    1995    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2036    2037    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2036    2037    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2038    2039    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2038    2039    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2040    2041    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2040    2041    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2042    2043    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2042    2043    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2044    2045    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2044    2045    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2046    2047    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2046    2047    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2048    2049    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2048    2049    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2050    2051    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2050    2051    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2052    2053    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2052    2053    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2054    2055    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2054    2055    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2056    2057    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2056    2057    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2058    2059    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2058    2059    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2060    2062    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2060    2062    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2063    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2063    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2064    2066    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2064    2066    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2067    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2067    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2068    2070    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2068    2070    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2071    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2071    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2072    2074    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2072    2074    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2075    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2075    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2076    2078    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2076    2078    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2079    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2079    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2080    2082    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2080    2082    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2083    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2083    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2084    2086    -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2084    2086    -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
-Rule    Iran    2087    only    -       Mar     21      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2087    only    -       Sep     21      24:00   0       -
-#
-# The following rules are approximations starting in the year 2088.
-# These are the best post-2088 approximations available, given the
-# restrictions of a single rule using ordinary Gregorian dates.
+Rule    Iran    1978    1980    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    1978    only    -       Oct     21      0:00    0       -
+Rule    Iran    1979    only    -       Sep     19      0:00    0       -
+Rule    Iran    1980    only    -       Sep     23      0:00    0       -
+Rule    Iran    1991    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    1992    1995    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    1991    1995    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
+Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    1996    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
+Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    1997    1999    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
+Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2000    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
+Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2001    2003    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
+Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2004    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
+Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2005    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
+Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2008    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
+Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2009    2011    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
+Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2012    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
+Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2013    2015    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
+Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2016    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
+Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2017    2019    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
+Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2020    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
+Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2021    2023    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
+Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2024    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
+Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2025    2027    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
+Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2028    2029    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
+Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2030    2031    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
+Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2032    2033    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
+Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2034    2035    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       -
+#
+# The following rules are approximations starting in the year 2038.
+# These are the best post-2037 approximations available, given the
+# restrictions of a single rule using a Gregorian-based data format.
 # At some point this table will need to be extended, though quite
 # possibly Iran will change the rules first.
-Rule    Iran    2088    max     -       Mar     20      24:00   1:00    -
-Rule    Iran    2088    max     -       Sep     20      24:00   0       -
+Rule    Iran    2036    max     -       Mar     21      0:00    1:00    -
+Rule    Iran    2036    max     -       Sep     21      0:00    0       -
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Tehran     3:25:44 -       LMT     1916
                         3:25:44 -       TMT     1946     # Tehran Mean Time
                         3:30    -       +0330   1977 Nov
                         4:00    Iran    +04/+05 1979
                         3:30    Iran    +0330/+0430

@@ -1598,11 +1389,11 @@
 # IATA SSIM (1991/1996) says Apr 1 12:01am UTC; guess the ':01' is a typo.
 # Shanks & Pottenger say Iraq did not observe DST 1992/1997; ignore this.
 #
 Rule    Iraq    1991    2007    -       Apr      1      3:00s   1:00    -
 Rule    Iraq    1991    2007    -       Oct      1      3:00s   0       -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Baghdad    2:57:40 -       LMT     1890
                         2:57:36 -       BMT     1918     # Baghdad Mean Time?
                         3:00    -       +03     1982 May
                         3:00    Iraq    +03/+04
 

@@ -1663,28 +1454,10 @@
 Rule    Zion    1957    only    -       Sep     22      0:00    0       S
 Rule    Zion    1974    only    -       Jul      7      0:00    1:00    D
 Rule    Zion    1974    only    -       Oct     13      0:00    0       S
 Rule    Zion    1975    only    -       Apr     20      0:00    1:00    D
 Rule    Zion    1975    only    -       Aug     31      0:00    0       S
-
-# From Alois Treindl (2019-03-06):
-# http://www.moin.gov.il/Documents/שעון%20קיץ/clock-50-years-7-2014.pdf
-# From Isaac Starkman (2019-03-06):
-# Summer time was in that period in 1980 and 1984, see
-# https://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-3951073,00.html
-# You can of course read it in translation.
-# I checked the local newspapers for that years.
-# It started on midnight and end at 01.00 am.
-# From Paul Eggert (2019-03-06):
-# Also see this thread about the moin.gov.il URL:
-# https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-November/027194.html
-Rule    Zion    1980    only    -       Aug      2      0:00    1:00    D
-Rule    Zion    1980    only    -       Sep     13      1:00    0       S
-Rule    Zion    1984    only    -       May      5      0:00    1:00    D
-Rule    Zion    1984    only    -       Aug     25      1:00    0       S
-
-# From Shanks & Pottenger:
 Rule    Zion    1985    only    -       Apr     14      0:00    1:00    D
 Rule    Zion    1985    only    -       Sep     15      0:00    0       S
 Rule    Zion    1986    only    -       May     18      0:00    1:00    D
 Rule    Zion    1986    only    -       Sep      7      0:00    0       S
 Rule    Zion    1987    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    D

@@ -1803,19 +1576,36 @@
 #
 # Those who can read Hebrew can view the announcement at:
 #
 #       ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/announcements/2005+beyond.ps
 
+# From Paul Eggert (2012-10-26):
+# I used Ephraim Silverberg's dst-israel.el program
+# <ftp://ftp.cs.huji.ac.il/pub/tz/software/dst-israel.el> (2005-02-20)
+# along with Ed Reingold's cal-hebrew in GNU Emacs 21.4,
+# to generate the transitions from 2005 through 2012.
+# (I replaced "lastFri" with "Fri>=26" by hand.)
+# The spring transitions all correspond to the following Rule:
+#
+# Rule  Zion    2005    2012    -       Mar     Fri>=26 2:00    1:00    D
+#
+# but older zic implementations (e.g., Solaris 8) do not support
+# "Fri>=26" to mean April 1 in years like 2005, so for now we list the
+# springtime transitions explicitly.
+
 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
-Rule    Zion    2005    2012    -       Apr     Fri<=1  2:00    1:00    D
+Rule    Zion    2005    only    -       Apr      1      2:00    1:00    D
 Rule    Zion    2005    only    -       Oct      9      2:00    0       S
+Rule    Zion    2006    2010    -       Mar     Fri>=26 2:00    1:00    D
 Rule    Zion    2006    only    -       Oct      1      2:00    0       S
 Rule    Zion    2007    only    -       Sep     16      2:00    0       S
 Rule    Zion    2008    only    -       Oct      5      2:00    0       S
 Rule    Zion    2009    only    -       Sep     27      2:00    0       S
 Rule    Zion    2010    only    -       Sep     12      2:00    0       S
+Rule    Zion    2011    only    -       Apr      1      2:00    1:00    D
 Rule    Zion    2011    only    -       Oct      2      2:00    0       S
+Rule    Zion    2012    only    -       Mar     Fri>=26 2:00    1:00    D
 Rule    Zion    2012    only    -       Sep     23      2:00    0       S
 
 # From Ephraim Silverberg (2013-06-27):
 # On June 23, 2013, the Israeli government approved changes to the
 # Time Decree Law.  The next day, the changes passed the First Reading

@@ -1827,11 +1617,11 @@
 
 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 Rule    Zion    2013    max     -       Mar     Fri>=23 2:00    1:00    D
 Rule    Zion    2013    max     -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Jerusalem  2:20:54 -       LMT     1880
                         2:20:40 -       JMT     1918 # Jerusalem Mean Time?
                         2:00    Zion    I%sT
 
 

@@ -1884,11 +1674,11 @@
 # do in any POSIX or C platform.  The "25:00" assumes zic from 2007 or later,
 # which should be safe now.
 
 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 Rule    Japan   1948    only    -       May     Sat>=1  24:00   1:00    D
-Rule    Japan   1948    1951    -       Sep     Sat>=8  25:00   0       S
+Rule    Japan   1948    1951    -       Sep     Sun>=9   1:00   0       S
 Rule    Japan   1949    only    -       Apr     Sat>=1  24:00   1:00    D
 Rule    Japan   1950    1951    -       May     Sat>=1  24:00   1:00    D
 
 # From Hideyuki Suzuki (1998-11-09):
 # 'Tokyo' usually stands for the former location of Tokyo Astronomical

@@ -1919,16 +1709,14 @@
 # ...the Showa Emperor announced Ordinance No. 529 of Showa Year 12 ... which
 # means the whole Japan territory, including later occupations, adopt Japan
 # Central Time (UT+9). The adoption began on Oct 1, 1937.
 # https://ja.wikisource.org/wiki/明治二十八年勅令第百六十七號標準時ニ關スル件中改正ノ件
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Tokyo      9:18:59 -       LMT     1887 Dec 31 15:00u
                         9:00    Japan   J%sT
-# Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo,
-# except that Truk (Chuuk), Ponape (Pohnpei), and Jaluit (Kosrae) did not
-# switch from +10 to +09 until 1941-04-01; see the 'australasia' file.
+# Since 1938, all Japanese possessions have been like Asia/Tokyo.
 
 # Jordan
 #
 # From <http://star.arabia.com/990701/JO9.html>
 # Jordan Week (1999-07-01) via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):

@@ -2022,11 +1810,11 @@
 Rule    Jordan  2005    only    -       Sep     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
 Rule    Jordan  2006    2011    -       Oct     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
 Rule    Jordan  2013    only    -       Dec     20      0:00    0       -
 Rule    Jordan  2014    max     -       Mar     lastThu 24:00   1:00    S
 Rule    Jordan  2014    max     -       Oct     lastFri 0:00s   0       -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Amman      2:23:44 -       LMT     1931
                         2:00    Jordan  EE%sT
 
 
 # Kazakhstan

@@ -2063,12 +1851,12 @@
 # of the Kazakh SSR from 1991-03-20 No. 170 "About the act of the Cabinet
 # of Ministers of the USSR from 1991-02-04 No. 20" but I didn't found its
 # text.
 #
 # According to Izvestia newspaper No. 68 (23334) from 1991-03-20
-# -- page 6; available at http://libinfo.org/newsr/newsr2574.djvu via
-# http://libinfo.org/index.php?id=58564 -- on 1991-03-31 at 2:00 during
+# (page 6; available at http://libinfo.org/newsr/newsr2574.djvu via
+# http://libinfo.org/index.php?id=58564) on 1991-03-31 at 2:00 during
 # transition to "summer" time:
 # Republic of Georgia, Latvian SSR, Lithuanian SSR, SSR Moldova,
 # Estonian SSR; Komi ASSR; Kaliningrad oblast; Nenets autonomous okrug
 # were to move clocks 1 hour forward.
 # Kazakh SSR (excluding Uralsk oblast); Republic of Kyrgyzstan, Tajik

@@ -2080,11 +1868,11 @@
 # Kazakhstan, Kirghizia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenia, Tajikistan.
 #
 # Apparently there were last minute changes. Apparently Kazakh act No. 170
 # was one of such changes.
 #
-# https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Декретное_время
+# https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Декретное время
 # claims that Sovetskaya Rossiya newspaper on 1991-03-29 published that
 # Nenets autonomous okrug, Komi and Kazakhstan (excluding Uralsk oblast)
 # were to not move clocks and Uralsk oblast was to move clocks
 # forward; on 1991-09-29 Kazakhstan was to move clocks backwards.
 # (Probably there were changes even after that publication. There is an

@@ -2214,16 +2002,14 @@
 # [For Atyrau and Oral] 1919 decree
 # (http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia-1919-02-08.html
 # and in Byalokoz) lists Ural river (plus 10 versts on its left bank) in
 # the third time belt (before 1930 this means +03).
 
-# From Alexander Konzurovski (2018-12-20):
-# Qyzyolrda Region (Asia/Qyzylorda) is changing its time zone from
-# UTC+6 to UTC+5 effective December 21st, 2018. The legal document is
-# located here: http://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/P1800000817 (russian language).
+# From Paul Eggert (2016-12-06):
+# The tables below reflect Golosunov's remarks, with exceptions as noted.
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 #
 # Almaty (formerly Alma-Ata), representing most locations in Kazakhstan
 # This includes KZ-AKM, KZ-ALA, KZ-ALM, KZ-AST, KZ-BAY, KZ-VOS, KZ-ZHA,
 # KZ-KAR, KZ-SEV, KZ-PAV, and KZ-YUZ.
 Zone    Asia/Almaty     5:07:48 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Alma-Ata

@@ -2231,36 +2017,37 @@
                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
                         6:00    -       +06
 # Qyzylorda (aka Kyzylorda, Kizilorda, Kzyl-Orda, etc.) (KZ-KZY)
+# This currently includes Qostanay (aka Kostanay, Kustanay) (KZ-KUS);
+# see comments below.
 Zone    Asia/Qyzylorda  4:21:52 -       LMT     1924 May  2
                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1991 Sep 29  2:00s
                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1992 Mar 29  2:00s
                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
-                        6:00    -       +06     2018 Dec 21  0:00
-                        5:00    -       +05
-#
-# Qostanay (aka Kostanay, Kustanay) (KZ-KUS)
-# The 1991/2 rules are unclear partly because of the 1997 Turgai
-# reorganization.
-Zone    Asia/Qostanay   4:14:28 -       LMT     1924 May  2
-                        4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
-                        5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
-                        5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
-                        6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
-                        5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
-                        4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
-                        5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
                         6:00    -       +06
-
+# The following zone is like Asia/Qyzylorda except for being one
+# hour earlier from 1991-09-29 to 1992-03-29.  The 1991/2 rules for
+# Qostanay are unclear partly because of the 1997 Turgai
+# reorganization, so this zone is commented out for now.
+#Zone   Asia/Qostanay   4:14:20 -       LMT     1924 May  2
+#                       4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
+#                       5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
+#                       5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
+#                       6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1
+#                       5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
+#                       4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
+#                       5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 2004 Oct 31  2:00s
+#                       6:00    -       +06
+#
 # Aqtöbe (aka Aktobe, formerly Aktyubinsk) (KZ-AKT)
 Zone    Asia/Aqtobe     3:48:40 -       LMT     1924 May  2
                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1

@@ -2321,11 +2108,11 @@
 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 Rule    Kyrgyz  1992    1996    -       Apr     Sun>=7  0:00s   1:00    -
 Rule    Kyrgyz  1992    1996    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
 Rule    Kyrgyz  1997    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:30    1:00    -
 Rule    Kyrgyz  1997    2004    -       Oct     lastSun 2:30    0       -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Bishkek    4:58:24 -       LMT     1924 May  2
                         5:00    -       +05     1930 Jun 21
                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Aug 31  2:00
                         5:00    Kyrgyz  +05/+06 2005 Aug 12

@@ -2350,47 +2137,25 @@
 # newspapers in Korean, all articles correspond with data in Wikipedia.
 # For example, the article in 1948 (Korean Language) proved that DST
 # started at June 1 in that year.  For another example, the article in
 # 1988 said that DST started at 2:00 AM in that year.
 
-# From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
-# 1. According to official announcement from Korean government, the DST end
-# date in South Korea should be
-# 1955-09-08 without specifying time
-# http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027977557
-# 1956-09-29 without specifying time
-# http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027978341
-# 1957-09-21 24 o'clock
-# http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027979690#3
-# 1958-09-20 24 o'clock
-# http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027981189
-# 1959-09-19 24 o'clock
-# http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0027982974#2
-# 1960-09-17 24 o'clock
-# http://theme.archives.go.kr/next/common/viewEbook.do?singleData=N&archiveEventId=0028044104
-# ...
-# 2.... https://namu.wiki/w/대한민국%20표준시 ... [says]
-# when Korea was using GMT+8:30 as standard time, the international
-# aviation/marine/meteorological industry in the country refused to
-# follow and continued to use GMT+9:00 for interoperability.
-
-
 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
-Rule    ROK     1948    only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    D
-Rule    ROK     1948    only    -       Sep     12      24:00   0       S
-Rule    ROK     1949    only    -       Apr      3       0:00   1:00    D
-Rule    ROK     1949    1951    -       Sep     Sat>=7  24:00   0       S
-Rule    ROK     1950    only    -       Apr      1       0:00   1:00    D
-Rule    ROK     1951    only    -       May      6       0:00   1:00    D
-Rule    ROK     1955    only    -       May      5       0:00   1:00    D
-Rule    ROK     1955    only    -       Sep      8      24:00   0       S
-Rule    ROK     1956    only    -       May     20       0:00   1:00    D
-Rule    ROK     1956    only    -       Sep     29      24:00   0       S
-Rule    ROK     1957    1960    -       May     Sun>=1   0:00   1:00    D
-Rule    ROK     1957    1960    -       Sep     Sat>=17 24:00   0       S
-Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=8   2:00   1:00    D
-Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       Oct     Sun>=8   3:00   0       S
+Rule    ROK     1948    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    D
+Rule    ROK     1948    only    -       Sep     13      0:00    0       S
+Rule    ROK     1949    only    -       Apr      3      0:00    1:00    D
+Rule    ROK     1949    1951    -       Sep     Sun>=8  0:00    0       S
+Rule    ROK     1950    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    D
+Rule    ROK     1951    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    D
+Rule    ROK     1955    only    -       May      5      0:00    1:00    D
+Rule    ROK     1955    only    -       Sep      9      0:00    0       S
+Rule    ROK     1956    only    -       May     20      0:00    1:00    D
+Rule    ROK     1956    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       S
+Rule    ROK     1957    1960    -       May     Sun>=1  0:00    1:00    D
+Rule    ROK     1957    1960    -       Sep     Sun>=18 0:00    0       S
+Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       May     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D
+Rule    ROK     1987    1988    -       Oct     Sun>=8  3:00    0       S
 
 # From Paul Eggert (2016-08-23):
 # The Korean Wikipedia entry gives the following sources for UT offsets:
 #
 # 1908: Official Journal Article No. 3994 (decree No. 5)

@@ -2436,11 +2201,11 @@
 #
 # From Paul Eggert (2018-05-04):
 # The BBC reported that the transition was from 23:30 to 24:00 today.
 # https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-44010705
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Seoul      8:27:52 -       LMT     1908 Apr  1
                         8:30    -       KST     1912 Jan  1
                         9:00    -       JST     1945 Sep  8
                         9:00    -       KST     1954 Mar 21
                         8:30    ROK     K%sT    1961 Aug 10

@@ -2485,11 +2250,11 @@
 Rule    Lebanon 1990    1992    -       May     1       0:00    1:00    S
 Rule    Lebanon 1992    only    -       Oct     4       0:00    0       -
 Rule    Lebanon 1993    max     -       Mar     lastSun 0:00    1:00    S
 Rule    Lebanon 1993    1998    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    0       -
 Rule    Lebanon 1999    max     -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Beirut     2:22:00 -       LMT     1880
                         2:00    Lebanon EE%sT
 
 # Malaysia
 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S

@@ -2497,11 +2262,11 @@
 Rule    NBorneo 1935    1941    -       Dec     14      0:00    0       -
 #
 # peninsular Malaysia
 # taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
 # http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone Asia/Kuala_Lumpur  6:46:46 -       LMT     1901 Jan  1
                         6:55:25 -       SMT     1905 Jun  1 # Singapore M.T.
                         7:00    -       +07     1933 Jan  1
                         7:00    0:20    +0720   1936 Jan  1
                         7:20    -       +0720   1941 Sep  1

@@ -2511,19 +2276,19 @@
                         8:00    -       +08
 # Sabah & Sarawak
 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-12):
 # The data entries here are mostly from Shanks & Pottenger, but the 1942, 1945
 # and 1982 transition dates are from Mok Ly Yng.
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone Asia/Kuching       7:21:20 -       LMT     1926 Mar
                         7:30    -       +0730   1933
                         8:00 NBorneo  +08/+0820 1942 Feb 16
                         9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep 12
                         8:00    -       +08
 
 # Maldives
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Indian/Maldives 4:54:00 -       LMT     1880 # Malé
                         4:54:00 -       MMT     1960 # Malé Mean Time
                         5:00    -       +05
 
 # Mongolia

@@ -2662,11 +2427,11 @@
 Rule    Mongol  2001    2006    -       Sep     lastSat 2:00    0       -
 Rule    Mongol  2002    2006    -       Mar     lastSat 2:00    1:00    -
 Rule    Mongol  2015    2016    -       Mar     lastSat 2:00    1:00    -
 Rule    Mongol  2015    2016    -       Sep     lastSat 0:00    0       -
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 # Hovd, a.k.a. Chovd, Dund-Us, Dzhargalant, Khovd, Jirgalanta
 Zone    Asia/Hovd       6:06:36 -       LMT     1905 Aug
                         6:00    -       +06     1978
                         7:00    Mongol  +07/+08
 # Ulaanbaatar, a.k.a. Ulan Bataar, Ulan Bator, Urga

@@ -2680,11 +2445,11 @@
                         8:00    -       +08     1983 Apr
                         9:00    Mongol  +09/+10 2008 Mar 31
                         8:00    Mongol  +08/+09
 
 # Nepal
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Kathmandu  5:41:16 -       LMT     1920
                         5:30    -       +0530   1986
                         5:45    -       +0545
 
 # Oman

@@ -2830,11 +2595,11 @@
 Rule Pakistan   2002    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2  0:00    0       -
 Rule Pakistan   2008    only    -       Jun     1       0:00    1:00    S
 Rule Pakistan   2008    2009    -       Nov     1       0:00    0       -
 Rule Pakistan   2009    only    -       Apr     15      0:00    1:00    S
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Karachi    4:28:12 -       LMT     1907
                         5:30    -       +0530   1942 Sep
                         5:30    1:00    +0630   1945 Oct 15
                         5:30    -       +0530   1951 Sep 30
                         5:00    -       +05     1971 Mar 26

@@ -3115,27 +2880,13 @@
 # Palestine summer time will start on Mar 24th 2018 by advancing the
 # clock by 60 minutes as per Palestinian cabinet decision published on
 # the official website, though the decree did not specify the exact
 # time of the time shift.
 # http://www.palestinecabinet.gov.ps/Website/AR/NDecrees/ViewFile.ashx?ID=e7a42ab7-ee23-435a-b9c8-a4f7e81f3817
-
-# From Even Scharning (2019-03-23):
-# http://pnn.ps/news/401130
-# http://palweather.ps/ar/node/50136.html
-#
-# From Sharif Mustafa (2019-03-26):
-# The Palestinian cabinet announced today that the switch to DST will
-# be on Fri Mar 29th 2019 by advancing the clock by 60 minutes.
-# The decree signing date is Mar 12th but it was not published till today.
-# The decree does not specify the exact time of switch.
-# http://palestinecabinet.gov.ps/Website/AR/NDecrees/ViewFile.ashx?ID=e54e9ea1-50ee-4137-84df-0d6c78da259b
 #
-# From Even Scharning (2019-04-10):
-# Our source in Palestine said it happened Friday 29 at 00:00 local time....
-#
-# From Paul Eggert (2019-04-10):
-# For now, guess spring-ahead transitions are March's last Friday at 00:00.
+# From Paul Eggert (2018-03-16):
+# For 2016 on, predict spring transitions on March's fourth Saturday at 01:00.
 
 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 Rule EgyptAsia  1957    only    -       May     10      0:00    1:00    S
 Rule EgyptAsia  1957    1958    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 Rule EgyptAsia  1958    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S

@@ -3162,15 +2913,14 @@
 Rule Palestine  2012    2014    -       Mar     lastThu 24:00   1:00    S
 Rule Palestine  2012    only    -       Sep     21      1:00    0       -
 Rule Palestine  2013    only    -       Sep     Fri>=21 0:00    0       -
 Rule Palestine  2014    2015    -       Oct     Fri>=21 0:00    0       -
 Rule Palestine  2015    only    -       Mar     lastFri 24:00   1:00    S
-Rule Palestine  2016    2018    -       Mar     Sat>=24 1:00    1:00    S
+Rule Palestine  2016    max     -       Mar     Sat>=22 1:00    1:00    S
 Rule Palestine  2016    max     -       Oct     lastSat 1:00    0       -
-Rule Palestine  2019    max     -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Gaza       2:17:52 -       LMT     1900 Oct
                         2:00    Zion    EET/EEST 1948 May 15
                         2:00 EgyptAsia  EE%sT   1967 Jun  5
                         2:00    Zion    I%sT    1996
                         2:00    Jordan  EE%sT   1999

@@ -3191,15 +2941,10 @@
 
 # Paracel Is
 # no information
 
 # Philippines
-
-# From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
-# The Spanish initially used American (west-of-Greenwich) time.
-# It is unknown what time Manila kept when the British occupied it from
-# 1762-10-06 through 1764-04; for now assume it kept American time.
 # On 1844-08-16, Narciso Clavería, governor-general of the
 # Philippines, issued a proclamation announcing that 1844-12-30 was to
 # be immediately followed by 1845-01-01; see R.H. van Gent's
 # History of the International Date Line
 # https://www.staff.science.uu.nl/~gent0113/idl/idl_philippines.htm

@@ -3240,19 +2985,19 @@
 Rule    Phil    1937    only    -       Feb     1       0:00    0       S
 Rule    Phil    1954    only    -       Apr     12      0:00    1:00    D
 Rule    Phil    1954    only    -       Jul     1       0:00    0       S
 Rule    Phil    1978    only    -       Mar     22      0:00    1:00    D
 Rule    Phil    1978    only    -       Sep     21      0:00    0       S
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Manila     -15:56:00 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
                         8:04:00 -       LMT     1899 May 11
                         8:00    Phil    P%sT    1942 May
                         9:00    -       JST     1944 Nov
                         8:00    Phil    P%sT
 
 # Qatar
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Qatar      3:26:08 -       LMT     1920     # Al Dawhah / Doha
                         4:00    -       +04     1972 Jun
                         3:00    -       +03
 Link Asia/Qatar Asia/Bahrain
 

@@ -3281,12 +3026,12 @@
 # assembled his staff and laid down the law. 'I've had enough of this,' he
 # shrieked. 'It is now 12 o'clock Higgins Time, and from now on this station is
 # going to run on Higgins Time.' And so, until last year, it did."  See:
 # Antar E. Dinner at When? Saudi Aramco World, 1969 March/April. 2-3.
 # http://archive.aramcoworld.com/issue/196902/dinner.at.when.htm
-# Also see: Antar EN. Arabian flying is confusing.
-# Port Angeles (WA) Evening News. 1965-03-10. page 3.
+# newspapers.com says a similar story about Higgins was published in the Port
+# Angeles (WA) Evening News, 1965-03-10, page 5, but I lack access to the text.
 #
 # The TZ database cannot represent quasi-solar time; airline time is the best
 # we can do.  The 1946 foreign air news digest of the U.S. Civil Aeronautics
 # Board (OCLC 42299995) reported that the "... Arabian Government, inaugurated
 # a weekly Dhahran-Cairo service, via the Saudi Arabian cities of Riyadh and

@@ -3296,20 +3041,20 @@
 # Shanks & Pottenger also state that until 1968-05-01 Saudi Arabia had two
 # time zones; the other zone, at UT +04, was in the far eastern part of
 # the country.  Presumably this is documenting airline time.  Ignore this,
 # as it's before our 1970 cutoff.
 #
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Riyadh     3:06:52 -       LMT     1947 Mar 14
                         3:00    -       +03
 Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Aden      # Yemen
 Link Asia/Riyadh Asia/Kuwait
 
 # Singapore
 # taken from Mok Ly Yng (2003-10-30)
 # http://www.math.nus.edu.sg/aslaksen/teaching/timezone.html
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Singapore  6:55:25 -       LMT     1901 Jan  1
                         6:55:25 -       SMT     1905 Jun  1 # Singapore M.T.
                         7:00    -       +07     1933 Jan  1
                         7:00    0:20    +0720   1936 Jan  1
                         7:20    -       +0720   1941 Sep  1

@@ -3369,11 +3114,11 @@
 # since then (though there has been a lot of cricket) and nothing in
 # other English-language news sources.  Our old abbreviation "LKT" is
 # even worse.  For now, let's use a numeric abbreviation; we can
 # switch to "SLST" if it catches on.
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Colombo    5:19:24 -       LMT     1880
                         5:19:32 -       MMT     1906        # Moratuwa Mean Time
                         5:30    -       +0530   1942 Jan  5
                         5:30    0:30    +06     1942 Sep
                         5:30    1:00    +0630   1945 Oct 16  2:00

@@ -3539,49 +3284,49 @@
 Rule    Syria   2009    only    -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
 Rule    Syria   2010    2011    -       Apr     Fri>=1  0:00    1:00    S
 Rule    Syria   2012    max     -       Mar     lastFri 0:00    1:00    S
 Rule    Syria   2009    max     -       Oct     lastFri 0:00    0       -
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Damascus   2:25:12 -       LMT     1920 # Dimashq
                         2:00    Syria   EE%sT
 
 # Tajikistan
 # From Shanks & Pottenger.
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Dushanbe   4:35:12 -       LMT     1924 May  2
                         5:00    -       +05     1930 Jun 21
                         6:00 RussiaAsia +06/+07 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
                         5:00    1:00    +05/+06 1991 Sep  9  2:00s
                         5:00    -       +05
 
 # Thailand
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Bangkok    6:42:04 -       LMT     1880
                         6:42:04 -       BMT     1920 Apr # Bangkok Mean Time
                         7:00    -       +07
 Link Asia/Bangkok Asia/Phnom_Penh       # Cambodia
 Link Asia/Bangkok Asia/Vientiane        # Laos
 
 # Turkmenistan
 # From Shanks & Pottenger.
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Ashgabat   3:53:32 -       LMT     1924 May  2 # or Ashkhabad
                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
                         5:00 RussiaAsia +05/+06 1991 Mar 31  2:00
                         4:00 RussiaAsia +04/+05 1992 Jan 19  2:00
                         5:00    -       +05
 
 # United Arab Emirates
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Dubai      3:41:12 -       LMT     1920
                         4:00    -       +04
 Link Asia/Dubai Asia/Muscat     # Oman
 
 # Uzbekistan
 # Byalokoz 1919 says Uzbekistan was 4:27:53.
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Asia/Samarkand  4:27:53 -       LMT     1924 May  2
                         4:00    -       +04     1930 Jun 21
                         5:00    -       +05     1981 Apr  1
                         5:00    1:00    +06     1981 Oct  1
                         6:00    -       +06     1982 Apr  1

@@ -3643,11 +3388,11 @@
 # NXB Thống kê, Hanoi, 2000.
 #
 # Lê Thành Lân: "Lịch hai thế kỷ (1802-2010) và các lịch vĩnh cửu",
 # NXB Thuận Hoá, Huế, 1995.
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone Asia/Ho_Chi_Minh   7:06:40 -       LMT     1906 Jul  1
                         7:06:30 -       PLMT    1911 May  1 # Phù Liễn MT
                         7:00    -       +07     1942 Dec 31 23:00
                         8:00    -       +08     1945 Mar 14 23:00
                         9:00    -       +09     1945 Sep  2

@@ -3655,19 +3400,7 @@
                         8:00    -       +08     1955 Jul  1
                         7:00    -       +07     1959 Dec 31 23:00
                         8:00    -       +08     1975 Jun 13
                         7:00    -       +07
 
-# From Paul Eggert (2019-02-19):
-#
-# The Ho Chi Minh entry suffices for most purposes as it agrees with all of
-# Vietnam since 1975-06-13.  Presumably clocks often changed in south Vietnam
-# in the early 1970s as locations changed hands during the war; however the
-# details are unknown and would likely be too voluminous for this database.
-#
-# For timestamps in north Vietnam back to 1970 (the tzdb cutoff),
-# use Asia/Bangkok; see the VN entries in the file zone1970.tab.
-# For timestamps before 1970, see Asia/Hanoi in the file 'backzone'.
-
-
 # Yemen
 # See Asia/Riyadh.
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