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  31 # Notes are at the end of this file
  32 
  33 ###############################################################################
  34 
  35 # Australia
  36 
  37 # Please see the notes below for the controversy about "EST" versus "AEST" etc.
  38 
  39 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  40 Rule    Aus     1917    only    -       Jan      1      0:01    1:00    D
  41 Rule    Aus     1917    only    -       Mar     25      2:00    0       S
  42 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Jan      1      2:00    1:00    D
  43 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Mar     29      2:00    0       S
  44 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Sep     27      2:00    1:00    D
  45 Rule    Aus     1943    1944    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       S
  46 Rule    Aus     1943    only    -       Oct      3      2:00    1:00    D
  47 # Go with Whitman and the Australian National Standards Commission, which
  48 # says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944.  Ignore Whitman's claim that
  49 # 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944.
  50 
  51 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
  52 # Northern Territory
  53 Zone Australia/Darwin    8:43:20 -      LMT     1895 Feb
  54                          9:00   -       ACST    1899 May
  55                          9:30   Aus     AC%sT
  56 # Western Australia
  57 #
  58 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  59 Rule    AW      1974    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
  60 Rule    AW      1975    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
  61 Rule    AW      1983    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
  62 Rule    AW      1984    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
  63 Rule    AW      1991    only    -       Nov     17      2:00s   1:00    D
  64 Rule    AW      1992    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
  65 Rule    AW      2006    only    -       Dec      3      2:00s   1:00    D
  66 Rule    AW      2007    2009    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
  67 Rule    AW      2007    2008    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
  68 Zone Australia/Perth     7:43:24 -      LMT     1895 Dec
  69                          8:00   Aus     AW%sT   1943 Jul
  70                          8:00   AW      AW%sT
  71 Zone Australia/Eucla     8:35:28 -      LMT     1895 Dec


 108                         10:00   AQ      AE%sT   1992 Jul
 109                         10:00   Holiday AE%sT
 110 
 111 # South Australia
 112 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 113 Rule    AS      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 114 Rule    AS      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00s   1:00    D
 115 Rule    AS      1987    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 116 Rule    AS      1972    only    -       Feb     27      2:00s   0       S
 117 Rule    AS      1973    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 118 Rule    AS      1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 119 Rule    AS      1991    only    -       Mar     3       2:00s   0       S
 120 Rule    AS      1992    only    -       Mar     22      2:00s   0       S
 121 Rule    AS      1993    only    -       Mar     7       2:00s   0       S
 122 Rule    AS      1994    only    -       Mar     20      2:00s   0       S
 123 Rule    AS      1995    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 124 Rule    AS      2006    only    -       Apr     2       2:00s   0       S
 125 Rule    AS      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 126 Rule    AS      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 127 Rule    AS      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 128 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 129 Zone Australia/Adelaide 9:14:20 -       LMT     1895 Feb
 130                         9:00    -       ACST    1899 May
 131                         9:30    Aus     AC%sT   1971
 132                         9:30    AS      AC%sT
 133 
 134 # Tasmania
 135 #
 136 # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16):
 137 # http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml
 138 # says King Island didn't observe DST from WWII until late 1971.
 139 #
 140 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 141 Rule    AT      1967    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 142 Rule    AT      1968    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 143 Rule    AT      1968    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 144 Rule    AT      1969    1971    -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00s   0       S
 145 Rule    AT      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 146 Rule    AT      1973    1981    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 147 Rule    AT      1982    1983    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 148 Rule    AT      1984    1986    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 149 Rule    AT      1986    only    -       Oct     Sun>=15      2:00s   1:00    D
 150 Rule    AT      1987    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 151 Rule    AT      1987    only    -       Oct     Sun>=22      2:00s   1:00    D
 152 Rule    AT      1988    1990    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 153 Rule    AT      1991    1999    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 154 Rule    AT      1991    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 155 Rule    AT      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 156 Rule    AT      2001    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 157 Rule    AT      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 158 Rule    AT      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 159 Rule    AT      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 160 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 161 Zone Australia/Hobart   9:49:16 -       LMT     1895 Sep
 162                         10:00   -       AEST    1916 Oct  1  2:00
 163                         10:00   1:00    AEDT    1917 Feb
 164                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1967
 165                         10:00   AT      AE%sT
 166 Zone Australia/Currie   9:35:28 -       LMT     1895 Sep
 167                         10:00   -       AEST    1916 Oct  1  2:00
 168                         10:00   1:00    AEDT    1917 Feb
 169                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971 Jul
 170                         10:00   AT      AE%sT
 171 
 172 # Victoria
 173 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 174 Rule    AV      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 175 Rule    AV      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 176 Rule    AV      1973    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 177 Rule    AV      1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 178 Rule    AV      1986    1987    -       Oct     Sun>=15      2:00s   1:00    D
 179 Rule    AV      1988    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 180 Rule    AV      1991    1994    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 181 Rule    AV      1995    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 182 Rule    AV      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 183 Rule    AV      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 184 Rule    AV      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 185 Rule    AV      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 186 Rule    AV      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 187 Rule    AV      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 188 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 189 Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 -      LMT     1895 Feb
 190                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971
 191                         10:00   AV      AE%sT
 192 
 193 # New South Wales
 194 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 195 Rule    AN      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 196 Rule    AN      1972    only    -       Feb     27      2:00s   0       S
 197 Rule    AN      1973    1981    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 198 Rule    AN      1982    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 199 Rule    AN      1983    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 200 Rule    AN      1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 201 Rule    AN      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00s   1:00    D
 202 Rule    AN      1987    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 203 Rule    AN      1990    1995    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 204 Rule    AN      1996    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 205 Rule    AN      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 206 Rule    AN      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 207 Rule    AN      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 208 Rule    AN      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 209 Rule    AN      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 210 Rule    AN      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 211 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 212 Zone Australia/Sydney   10:04:52 -      LMT     1895 Feb
 213                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971
 214                         10:00   AN      AE%sT
 215 Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 -    LMT     1895 Feb
 216                         10:00   -       AEST    1896 Aug 23
 217                         9:00    -       ACST    1899 May
 218                         9:30    Aus     AC%sT   1971
 219                         9:30    AN      AC%sT   2000
 220                         9:30    AS      AC%sT
 221 
 222 # Lord Howe Island
 223 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 224 Rule    LH      1981    1984    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    -
 225 Rule    LH      1982    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00    0       -
 226 Rule    LH      1985    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    -
 227 Rule    LH      1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00    0       -
 228 Rule    LH      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00    0:30    -
 229 Rule    LH      1987    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    -
 230 Rule    LH      1990    1995    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00    0       -
 231 Rule    LH      1996    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       -


 262 # We got these changes from the Australian Antarctic Division:
 263 # - Macquarie Island will stay on UTC+11 for winter and therefore not
 264 # switch back from daylight savings time when other parts of Australia do
 265 # on 4 April.
 266 #
 267 # From Arthur David Olson (2013-05-23):
 268 # The 1919 transition is overspecified below so pre-2013 zics
 269 # will produce a binary file with an [A]EST-type as the first 32-bit type;
 270 # this is required for correct handling of times before 1916 by
 271 # pre-2013 versions of localtime.
 272 Zone Antarctica/Macquarie 0     -       -00     1899 Nov
 273                         10:00   -       AEST    1916 Oct  1  2:00
 274                         10:00   1:00    AEDT    1917 Feb
 275                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1919 Apr  1  0:00s
 276                         0       -       -00     1948 Mar 25
 277                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1967
 278                         10:00   AT      AE%sT   2010 Apr  4  3:00
 279                         11:00   -       +11
 280 
 281 # Christmas
 282 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 283 Zone Indian/Christmas   7:02:52 -       LMT     1895 Feb
 284                         7:00    -       +07
 285 
 286 # Cocos (Keeling) Is
 287 # These islands were ruled by the Ross family from about 1830 to 1978.
 288 # We don't know when standard time was introduced; for now, we guess 1900.
 289 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 290 Zone    Indian/Cocos    6:27:40 -       LMT     1900
 291                         6:30    -       +0630
 292 
 293 
 294 # Fiji
 295 
 296 # Milne gives 11:55:44 for Suva.
 297 
 298 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-11-10):
 299 # According to Fiji Broadcasting Corporation,  Fiji plans to re-introduce DST
 300 # from November 29th 2009  to April 25th 2010.
 301 #
 302 # "Daylight savings to commence this month"
 303 # http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719
 304 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html
 305 
 306 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-11-10):
 307 # The Fiji Government has posted some more details about the approved
 308 # amendments:
 309 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml


 392 # ... The daylight saving period will end at 3am on Sunday January 13, 2019.
 393 #
 394 # From Paul Eggert (2018-07-15):
 395 # For now, guess DST from 02:00 the first Sunday in November to 03:00
 396 # the first Sunday on or after January 13.  January transitions reportedly
 397 # depend on when school terms start.  Although the guess is ad hoc, it matches
 398 # transitions since late 2014 and seems more likely to match future
 399 # practice than guessing no DST.
 400 
 401 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 402 Rule    Fiji    1998    1999    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    -
 403 Rule    Fiji    1999    2000    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       -
 404 Rule    Fiji    2009    only    -       Nov     29      2:00    1:00    -
 405 Rule    Fiji    2010    only    -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    0       -
 406 Rule    Fiji    2010    2013    -       Oct     Sun>=21      2:00    1:00    -
 407 Rule    Fiji    2011    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       -
 408 Rule    Fiji    2012    2013    -       Jan     Sun>=18      3:00    0       -
 409 Rule    Fiji    2014    only    -       Jan     Sun>=18      2:00    0       -
 410 Rule    Fiji    2014    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    -
 411 Rule    Fiji    2015    max     -       Jan     Sun>=13      3:00    0       -
 412 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 413 Zone    Pacific/Fiji    11:55:44 -      LMT     1915 Oct 26 # Suva
 414                         12:00   Fiji    +12/+13
 415 
 416 # French Polynesia
 417 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 418 Zone    Pacific/Gambier  -8:59:48 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Rikitea
 419                          -9:00  -       -09
 420 Zone    Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 -    LMT     1912 Oct
 421                          -9:30  -       -0930
 422 Zone    Pacific/Tahiti   -9:58:16 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Papeete
 423                         -10:00  -       -10
 424 # Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia;
 425 # it is uninhabited.
 426 
 427 # Guam
 428 
 429 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 430 # http://guamlegislature.com/Public_Laws_5th/PL05-025.pdf
 431 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-59-7-Guam-Daylight-Savings-Time-May-6-1959.pdf
 432 Rule    Guam    1959    only    -       Jun     27      2:00    1:00    D
 433 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-61-5-Revocation-of-Daylight-Saving-Time-and-Restoratio.pdf
 434 Rule    Guam    1961    only    -       Jan     29      2:00    0       S
 435 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-67-13-Guam-Daylight-Savings-Time.pdf
 436 Rule    Guam    1967    only    -       Sep      1      2:00    1:00    D
 437 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-69-2-Repeal-of-Guam-Daylight-Saving-Time.pdf
 438 Rule    Guam    1969    only    -       Jan     26      0:01    0       S
 439 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-69-10-Guam-Daylight-Saving-Time.pdf
 440 Rule    Guam    1969    only    -       Jun     22      2:00    1:00    D
 441 Rule    Guam    1969    only    -       Aug     31      2:00    0       S
 442 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-70-10-Guam-Daylight-Saving-Time.pdf
 443 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-70-30-End-of-Guam-Daylight-Saving-Time.pdf
 444 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-71-5-Guam-Daylight-Savings-Time.pdf
 445 Rule    Guam    1970    1971    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
 446 Rule    Guam    1970    1971    -       Sep     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
 447 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-73-28.-Guam-Day-light-Saving-Time.pdf
 448 Rule    Guam    1973    only    -       Dec     16      2:00    1:00    D
 449 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-74-7-Guam-Daylight-Savings-Time-Rescinded.pdf
 450 Rule    Guam    1974    only    -       Feb     24      2:00    0       S
 451 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-76-13-Daylight-Savings-Time.pdf
 452 Rule    Guam    1976    only    -       May     26      2:00    1:00    D
 453 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-76-25-Revocation-of-E.O.-76-13.pdf
 454 Rule    Guam    1976    only    -       Aug     22      2:01    0       S
 455 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-77-4-Daylight-Savings-Time.pdf
 456 Rule    Guam    1977    only    -       Apr     24      2:00    1:00    D
 457 # http://documents.guam.gov/wp-content/uploads/E.O.-77-18-Guam-Standard-Time.pdf
 458 Rule    Guam    1977    only    -       Aug     28      2:00    0       S
 459 
 460 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 461 Zone    Pacific/Guam    -14:21:00 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
 462                          9:39:00 -      LMT     1901        # Agana
 463                         10:00   -       GST     1941 Dec 10 # Guam
 464                          9:00   -       +09     1944 Jul 31
 465                         10:00   Guam    G%sT    2000 Dec 23
 466                         10:00   -       ChST    # Chamorro Standard Time
 467 Link Pacific/Guam Pacific/Saipan # N Mariana Is
 468 
 469 # Kiribati
 470 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 471 Zone Pacific/Tarawa      11:32:04 -     LMT     1901 # Bairiki
 472                          12:00  -       +12
 473 Zone Pacific/Enderbury  -11:24:20 -     LMT     1901
 474                         -12:00  -       -12     1979 Oct
 475                         -11:00  -       -11     1994 Dec 31
 476                          13:00  -       +13
 477 Zone Pacific/Kiritimati -10:29:20 -     LMT     1901
 478                         -10:40  -       -1040   1979 Oct
 479                         -10:00  -       -10     1994 Dec 31
 480                          14:00  -       +14
 481 
 482 # N Mariana Is
 483 # See Pacific/Guam.
 484 
 485 # Marshall Is
 486 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 487 Zone Pacific/Majuro      11:24:48 -     LMT     1901
 488                          11:00  -       +11     1914 Oct
 489                           9:00  -       +09     1919 Feb  1
 490                          11:00  -       +11     1937
 491                          10:00  -       +10     1941 Apr  1
 492                           9:00  -       +09     1944 Jan 30
 493                          11:00  -       +11     1969 Oct
 494                          12:00  -       +12
 495 Zone Pacific/Kwajalein   11:09:20 -     LMT     1901
 496                          11:00  -       +11     1937
 497                          10:00  -       +10     1941 Apr  1
 498                           9:00  -       +09     1944 Feb  6
 499                          11:00  -       +11     1969 Oct
 500                         -12:00  -       -12     1993 Aug 20 24:00
 501                          12:00  -       +12
 502 
 503 # Micronesia
 504 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 505 Zone Pacific/Chuuk      -13:52:52 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
 506                          10:07:08 -     LMT     1901
 507                          10:00  -       +10     1914 Oct
 508                           9:00  -       +09     1919 Feb  1
 509                          10:00  -       +10     1941 Apr  1
 510                           9:00  -       +09     1945 Aug
 511                          10:00  -       +10
 512 Zone Pacific/Pohnpei    -13:27:08 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31     # Kolonia
 513                          10:32:52 -     LMT     1901
 514                          11:00  -       +11     1914 Oct
 515                           9:00  -       +09     1919 Feb  1
 516                          11:00  -       +11     1937
 517                          10:00  -       +10     1941 Apr  1
 518                           9:00  -       +09     1945 Aug
 519                          11:00  -       +11
 520 Zone Pacific/Kosrae     -13:08:04 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
 521                          10:51:56 -     LMT     1901
 522                          11:00  -       +11     1914 Oct
 523                           9:00  -       +09     1919 Feb  1
 524                          11:00  -       +11     1937
 525                          10:00  -       +10     1941 Apr  1
 526                           9:00  -       +09     1945 Aug
 527                          11:00  -       +11     1969 Oct
 528                          12:00  -       +12     1999
 529                          11:00  -       +11
 530 
 531 # Nauru
 532 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 533 Zone    Pacific/Nauru   11:07:40 -      LMT     1921 Jan 15 # Uaobe
 534                         11:30   -       +1130   1942 Aug 29
 535                          9:00   -       +09     1945 Sep  8
 536                         11:30   -       +1130   1979 Feb 10  2:00
 537                         12:00   -       +12
 538 
 539 # New Caledonia
 540 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 541 Rule    NC      1977    1978    -       Dec     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    -
 542 Rule    NC      1978    1979    -       Feb     27      0:00    0       -
 543 Rule    NC      1996    only    -       Dec      1      2:00s   1:00    -
 544 # Shanks & Pottenger say the following was at 2:00; go with IATA.
 545 Rule    NC      1997    only    -       Mar      2      2:00s   0       -
 546 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 547 Zone    Pacific/Noumea  11:05:48 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13 # Nouméa
 548                         11:00   NC      +11/+12
 549 
 550 
 551 ###############################################################################
 552 
 553 # New Zealand
 554 
 555 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 556 Rule    NZ      1927    only    -       Nov      6      2:00    1:00    S
 557 Rule    NZ      1928    only    -       Mar      4      2:00    0       M
 558 Rule    NZ      1928    1933    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:00    0:30    S
 559 Rule    NZ      1929    1933    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00    0       M
 560 Rule    NZ      1934    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    0       M
 561 Rule    NZ      1934    1940    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0:30    S
 562 Rule    NZ      1946    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       S
 563 # Since 1957 Chatham has been 45 minutes ahead of NZ, but until 2018a
 564 # there was no documented single notation for the date and time of this
 565 # transition.  Duplicate the Rule lines for now, to give the 2018a change
 566 # time to percolate out.
 567 Rule    NZ      1974    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 568 Rule    Chatham 1974    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:45s   1:00    -
 569 Rule    NZ      1975    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 570 Rule    Chatham 1975    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:45s   0       -
 571 Rule    NZ      1975    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 572 Rule    Chatham 1975    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:45s   1:00    -
 573 Rule    NZ      1976    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 574 Rule    Chatham 1976    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:45s   0       -
 575 Rule    NZ      1989    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:00s   1:00    D
 576 Rule    Chatham 1989    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:45s   1:00    -
 577 Rule    NZ      1990    2006    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 578 Rule    Chatham 1990    2006    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:45s   1:00    -
 579 Rule    NZ      1990    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 580 Rule    Chatham 1990    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:45s   0       -
 581 Rule    NZ      2007    max     -       Sep     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 582 Rule    Chatham 2007    max     -       Sep     lastSun 2:45s   1:00    -
 583 Rule    NZ      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 584 Rule    Chatham 2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:45s   0       -
 585 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 586 Zone Pacific/Auckland   11:39:04 -      LMT     1868 Nov  2
 587                         11:30   NZ      NZ%sT   1946 Jan  1
 588                         12:00   NZ      NZ%sT
 589 Zone Pacific/Chatham    12:13:48 -      LMT     1868 Nov  2
 590                         12:15   -       +1215   1946 Jan  1
 591                         12:45   Chatham +1245/+1345
 592 
 593 Link Pacific/Auckland Antarctica/McMurdo
 594 
 595 # Auckland Is
 596 # uninhabited; Māori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers,
 597 # and scientific personnel have wintered
 598 
 599 # Campbell I
 600 # minor whaling stations operated 1909/1914
 601 # scientific station operated 1941/1995;
 602 # previously whalers, sealers, pastoralists, and scientific personnel wintered
 603 # was probably like Pacific/Auckland
 604 
 605 # Cook Is
 606 # From Shanks & Pottenger:
 607 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 608 Rule    Cook    1978    only    -       Nov     12      0:00    0:30    -
 609 Rule    Cook    1979    1991    -       Mar     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
 610 Rule    Cook    1979    1990    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0:30    -
 611 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 612 Zone Pacific/Rarotonga  -10:39:04 -     LMT     1901        # Avarua
 613                         -10:30  -       -1030   1978 Nov 12
 614                         -10:00  Cook    -10/-0930
 615 
 616 ###############################################################################
 617 
 618 
 619 # Niue
 620 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 621 Zone    Pacific/Niue    -11:19:40 -     LMT     1901        # Alofi
 622                         -11:20  -       -1120   1951
 623                         -11:30  -       -1130   1978 Oct  1
 624                         -11:00  -       -11
 625 
 626 # Norfolk
 627 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 628 Zone    Pacific/Norfolk 11:11:52 -      LMT     1901 # Kingston
 629                         11:12   -       +1112   1951
 630                         11:30   -       +1130   1974 Oct 27 02:00
 631                         11:30   1:00    +1230   1975 Mar  2 02:00
 632                         11:30   -       +1130   2015 Oct  4 02:00
 633                         11:00   -       +11
 634 
 635 # Palau (Belau)
 636 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 637 Zone Pacific/Palau      -15:02:04 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31     # Koror
 638                           8:57:56 -     LMT     1901
 639                           9:00  -       +09
 640 
 641 # Papua New Guinea
 642 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 643 Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 -     LMT     1880
 644                         9:48:32 -       PMMT    1895 # Port Moresby Mean Time
 645                         10:00   -       +10
 646 #
 647 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-13):
 648 # Base the Bougainville entry on the Arawa-Kieta region, which appears to have
 649 # the most people even though it was devastated in the Bougainville Civil War.
 650 #
 651 # Although Shanks gives 1942-03-15 / 1943-11-01 for UT +09, these dates
 652 # are apparently rough guesswork from the starts of military campaigns.
 653 # The World War II entries below are instead based on Arawa-Kieta.
 654 # The Japanese occupied Kieta in July 1942,
 655 # according to the Pacific War Online Encyclopedia
 656 # https://pwencycl.kgbudge.com/B/o/Bougainville.htm
 657 # and seem to have controlled it until their 1945-08-21 surrender.
 658 #
 659 # The Autonomous Region of Bougainville switched from UT +10 to +11
 660 # on 2014-12-28 at 02:00.  They call +11 "Bougainville Standard Time".
 661 # See:
 662 # http://www.bougainville24.com/bougainville-issues/bougainville-gets-own-timezone/
 663 #
 664 Zone Pacific/Bougainville 10:22:16 -    LMT     1880
 665                          9:48:32 -      PMMT    1895
 666                         10:00   -       +10     1942 Jul
 667                          9:00   -       +09     1945 Aug 21
 668                         10:00   -       +10     2014 Dec 28  2:00
 669                         11:00   -       +11
 670 
 671 # Pitcairn
 672 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 673 Zone Pacific/Pitcairn   -8:40:20 -      LMT     1901        # Adamstown
 674                         -8:30   -       -0830   1998 Apr 27  0:00
 675                         -8:00   -       -08
 676 
 677 # American Samoa
 678 Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago   12:37:12 -     LMT     1892 Jul  5
 679                         -11:22:48 -     LMT     1911
 680                         -11:00  -       SST                 # S=Samoa
 681 Link Pacific/Pago_Pago Pacific/Midway # in US minor outlying islands
 682 
 683 # Samoa (formerly and also known as Western Samoa)
 684 
 685 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-16):
 686 # We have been in contact with the government of Samoa again, and received
 687 # the following info:
 688 #
 689 # "Cabinet has now approved Daylight Saving to be effected next year
 690 # commencing from the last Sunday of September 2010 and conclude first
 691 # Sunday of April 2011."
 692 #


 737 #
 738 # Dateline Change skip Friday 30th Dec 2011
 739 # Thursday 29th December 2011   23:59:59 Hours
 740 # Saturday 31st December 2011   00:00:00 Hours
 741 #
 742 # From Nicholas Pereira (2012-09-10):
 743 # Daylight Saving Time commences on Sunday 30th September 2012 and
 744 # ends on Sunday 7th of April 2013....
 745 # http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html
 746 #
 747 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08):
 748 # That web page currently lists transitions for 2012/3 and 2013/4.
 749 # Assume the pattern instituted in 2012 will continue indefinitely.
 750 
 751 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 752 Rule    WS      2010    only    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1       -
 753 Rule    WS      2011    only    -       Apr     Sat>=1       4:00    0       -
 754 Rule    WS      2011    only    -       Sep     lastSat 3:00    1       -
 755 Rule    WS      2012    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       4:00    0       -
 756 Rule    WS      2012    max     -       Sep     lastSun 3:00    1       -
 757 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 758 Zone Pacific/Apia        12:33:04 -     LMT     1892 Jul  5
 759                         -11:26:56 -     LMT     1911
 760                         -11:30  -       -1130   1950
 761                         -11:00  WS      -11/-10 2011 Dec 29 24:00
 762                          13:00  WS      +13/+14
 763 
 764 # Solomon Is
 765 # excludes Bougainville, for which see Papua New Guinea
 766 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 767 Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Honiara
 768                         11:00   -       +11
 769 
 770 # Tokelau
 771 #
 772 # From Gwillim Law (2011-12-29)
 773 # A correspondent informed me that Tokelau, like Samoa, will be skipping
 774 # December 31 this year ...
 775 #
 776 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-07-25)
 777 # ... we double checked by calling hotels and offices based in Tokelau asking
 778 # about the time there, and they all told a time that agrees with UTC+13....
 779 # Shanks says UT-10 from 1901 [but] ... there is a good chance the change
 780 # actually was to UT-11 back then.
 781 #
 782 # From Paul Eggert (2012-07-25)
 783 # A Google Books snippet of Appendix to the Journals of the House of
 784 # Representatives of New Zealand, Session 1948,
 785 # <https://books.google.com/books?id=ZaVCAQAAIAAJ>, page 65, says Tokelau
 786 # was "11 hours slow on G.M.T."  Go with Thorsen and assume Shanks & Pottenger
 787 # are off by an hour starting in 1901.
 788 
 789 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 790 Zone    Pacific/Fakaofo -11:24:56 -     LMT     1901
 791                         -11:00  -       -11     2011 Dec 30
 792                         13:00   -       +13
 793 
 794 # Tonga
 795 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 796 Rule    Tonga   1999    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   1:00    -
 797 Rule    Tonga   2000    only    -       Mar     19      2:00s   0       -
 798 Rule    Tonga   2000    2001    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    -
 799 Rule    Tonga   2001    2002    -       Jan     lastSun 2:00    0       -
 800 Rule    Tonga   2016    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    -
 801 Rule    Tonga   2017    only    -       Jan     Sun>=15      3:00    0       -
 802 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 803 Zone Pacific/Tongatapu  12:19:20 -      LMT     1901
 804                         12:20   -       +1220   1941
 805                         13:00   -       +13     1999
 806                         13:00   Tonga   +13/+14
 807 
 808 # Tuvalu
 809 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 810 Zone Pacific/Funafuti   11:56:52 -      LMT     1901
 811                         12:00   -       +12
 812 
 813 
 814 # US minor outlying islands
 815 
 816 # Howland, Baker
 817 # Howland was mined for guano by American companies 1857-1878 and British
 818 # 1886-1891; Baker was similar but exact dates are not known.
 819 # Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; U.S. military bases 1943-1944;
 820 # uninhabited thereafter.
 821 # Howland observed Hawaii Standard Time (UT -10:30) in 1937;
 822 # see page 206 of Elgen M. Long and Marie K. Long,
 823 # Amelia Earhart: the Mystery Solved, Simon & Schuster (2000).
 824 # So most likely Howland and Baker observed Hawaii Time from 1935
 825 # until they were abandoned after the war.
 826 
 827 # Jarvis
 828 # Mined for guano by American companies 1857-1879 and British 1883?-1891?.
 829 # Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; IGY scientific base 1957-1958;


 850 # which had a GMT offset of -11 hours.  This apparently applied to at least the
 851 # time from Operation Newsreel (Hardtack I/Teak shot, 1958-08-01) to the last
 852 # Operation Fishbowl shot (Tightrope, 1962-11-04).... [See] Herman Hoerlin,
 853 # "The United States High-Altitude Test Experience: A Review Emphasizing the
 854 # Impact on the Environment", Los Alamos LA-6405, Oct 1976.
 855 # https://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/docs1/00322994.pdf
 856 # See the table on page 4 where he lists GMT and local times for the tests; a
 857 # footnote for the JI tests reads that local time is "JI time = Hawaii Time
 858 # Minus One Hour".
 859 
 860 # Kingman
 861 # uninhabited
 862 
 863 # Midway
 864 # See Pacific/Pago_Pago.
 865 
 866 # Palmyra
 867 # uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
 868 
 869 # Wake
 870 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 871 Zone    Pacific/Wake    11:06:28 -      LMT     1901
 872                         12:00   -       +12
 873 
 874 
 875 # Vanuatu
 876 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 877 Rule    Vanuatu 1983    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    1:00    -
 878 Rule    Vanuatu 1984    1991    -       Mar     Sun>=23      0:00    0       -
 879 Rule    Vanuatu 1984    only    -       Oct     23      0:00    1:00    -
 880 Rule    Vanuatu 1985    1991    -       Sep     Sun>=23      0:00    1:00    -
 881 Rule    Vanuatu 1992    1993    -       Jan     Sun>=23      0:00    0       -
 882 Rule    Vanuatu 1992    only    -       Oct     Sun>=23      0:00    1:00    -
 883 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 884 Zone    Pacific/Efate   11:13:16 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13 # Vila
 885                         11:00   Vanuatu +11/+12
 886 
 887 # Wallis and Futuna
 888 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 889 Zone    Pacific/Wallis  12:15:20 -      LMT     1901
 890                         12:00   -       +12
 891 
 892 ###############################################################################
 893 
 894 # NOTES
 895 
 896 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
 897 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
 898 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
 899 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
 900 
 901 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
 902 #
 903 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
 904 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
 905 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
 906 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
 907 #
 908 # Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source
 909 # for time zone data was the International Air Transport
 910 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
 911 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
 912 # of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
 913 # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
 914 #
 915 # Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
 916 # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
 917 # I found in the UCLA library.
 918 #
 919 # For data circa 1899, a common source is:
 920 # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
 921 # https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
 922 #
 923 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
 924 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
 925 #
 926 # I invented the abbreviation marked "*".
 927 # The following abbreviations are from other sources.
 928 # Corrections are welcome!
 929 #               std     dst
 930 #               LMT             Local Mean Time
 931 #         8:00  AWST    AWDT    Western Australia
 932 #         9:30  ACST    ACDT    Central Australia
 933 #        10:00  AEST    AEDT    Eastern Australia
 934 #        10:00  GST     GDT*    Guam through 2000
 935 #        10:00  ChST            Chamorro
 936 #        11:30  NZMT    NZST    New Zealand through 1945
 937 #        12:00  NZST    NZDT    New Zealand 1946-present
 938 #       -11:00  SST             Samoa
 939 #       -10:00  HST             Hawaii
 940 #
 941 # See the 'northamerica' file for Hawaii.
 942 # See the 'southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galápagos Is.
 943 
 944 ###############################################################################
 945 
 946 # Australia
 947 
 948 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
 949 # Daylight saving time has long been controversial in Australia, pitting
 950 # region against region, rural against urban, and local against global.
 951 # For example, in her review of Graeme Davison's _The Unforgiving
 952 # Minute: how Australians learned to tell the time_ (1993), Perth native
 953 # Phillipa J Martyr wrote, "The section entitled 'Saving Daylight' was
 954 # very informative, but was (as can, sadly, only be expected from a


1254 # ... it was just on four years ago that I drove along the Eyre Highway,
1255 # which passes through eastern Western Australia close to the southern
1256 # coast of the continent.
1257 #
1258 # I paid particular attention to the time kept there. There can be no
1259 # dispute that UTC+08:45 was considered "the time" from the border
1260 # village just inside the border with South Australia to as far west
1261 # as just east of Caiguna. There can also be no dispute that Eucla is
1262 # the largest population centre in this zone....
1263 #
1264 # Now that Western Australia is observing daylight saving, the
1265 # question arose whether this part of the state would follow suit. I
1266 # just called the border village and confirmed that indeed they have,
1267 # meaning that they are now observing UTC+09:45.
1268 #
1269 # (2006-12-09):
1270 # I personally doubt that either experimentation with daylight saving
1271 # in WA or its introduction in SA had anything to do with the genesis
1272 # of this time zone.  My hunch is that it's been around since well
1273 # before 1975.  I remember seeing it noted on road maps decades ago.
1274 #
1275 # From Gilmore Davidson (2019-04-08):
1276 # https://www.abc.net.au/news/2019-04-08/this-remote-stretch-of-desert-has-its-own-custom-time-zone/10981000
1277 # ... include[s] a rough description of the geographical boundaries...
1278 # "The time zone exists for about 340 kilometres and takes in the tiny
1279 # roadhouse communities of Cocklebiddy, Madura, Eucla and Border Village."
1280 # ... and an indication that the zone has definitely been in existence
1281 # since before the 1970 cut-off of the database ...
1282 # From Paul Eggert (2019-05-17):
1283 # That ABC Esperance story by Christien de Garis also says:
1284 #    Although the Central Western Time Zone is not officially recognised (your
1285 #    phones won't automatically change), there is a sign instructing you which
1286 #    way to wind your clocks 45 minutes and scrawled underneath one of them in
1287 #    Texta is the word: 'Why'?
1288 #    "Good question," Mr Pike said.
1289 #    "I don't even know that, and it's been going for over 50 years."
1290 
1291 # From Paul Eggert (2006-12-15):
1292 # For lack of better info, assume the tradition dates back to the
1293 # introduction of standard time in 1895.
1294 
1295 
1296 # southeast Australia
1297 #
1298 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1299 # Starting autumn 2008 Victoria, NSW, South Australia, Tasmania and the ACT
1300 # end DST the first Sunday in April and start DST the first Sunday in October.
1301 # http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/daylight-savings-to-span-six-months/2007/06/27/1182623966703.html
1302 
1303 
1304 # South Australia
1305 
1306 # From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1307 # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1308 # ...South Australia...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
1309 # at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...


1588 # first Sunday in April.  The changes take effect this year, meaning
1589 # that DST will begin on 2007-09-30 2008-04-06.
1590 # http://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/wpg_URL/Services-Daylight-Saving-Daylight-saving-to-be-extended
1591 
1592 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-14):
1593 # Chatham Island time was formally standardized on 1957-01-01 by
1594 # New Zealand's Standard Time Amendment Act 1956 (1956-10-26).
1595 # https://www.austlii.edu.au/nz/legis/hist_act/staa19561956n100244.pdf
1596 # According to Google Books snippet view, a speaker in the New Zealand
1597 # parliamentary debates in 1956 said "Clause 78 makes provision for standard
1598 # time in the Chatham Islands.  The time there is 45 minutes in advance of New
1599 # Zealand time.  I understand that is the time they keep locally, anyhow."
1600 # For now, assume this practice goes back to the introduction of standard time
1601 # in New Zealand, as this would make Chatham Islands time almost exactly match
1602 # LMT back when New Zealand was at UT +11:30; also, assume Chatham Islands did
1603 # not observe New Zealand's prewar DST.
1604 
1605 ###############################################################################
1606 
1607 
1608 # Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands and Marcus Island (Minami-Tori-shima)
1609 
1610 # From Wakaba (2019-01-28) via Phake Nick:
1611 # National Diet Library of Japan has several reports by Japanese Government
1612 # officers that describe the time used in islands when they visited there.
1613 # According to them (and other sources such as newspapers), standard time UTC
1614 # + 10 (JST + 1) and DST UTC + 11 (JST + 2) was used until its return to Japan
1615 # at 1968-06-26 00:00 JST.  The exact periods of DST are still unknown.
1616 # I guessed Guam, Mariana, and Bonin and Marcus districts might have
1617 # synchronized their DST periods, but reports imply they had their own
1618 # decisions, i.e. there were three or more different time zones....
1619 #
1620 # https://wiki.suikawiki.org/n/小笠原諸島の標準時
1621 
1622 # From Phake Nick (2019-02-12):
1623 # Because their last time change to return to Japanese time when they returned
1624 # to Japanese rule was right before 1970, ... per the current tz database
1625 # rule, the information doesn't warrant creation of a new timezone for Bonin
1626 # Islands itself and is thus as an anecdotal note for interest purpose only.
1627 # ... [The abovementioned link] described some special timekeeping phenomenon
1628 # regarding Marcus island, another remote island currently owned by Japanese
1629 # in the same administrative unit as Bonin Islands.  Many reports claim that
1630 # the American coastal guard on the American quarter of the island use its own
1631 # coastal guard time, and most sources describe the time as UTC+11, being two
1632 # hours faster than JST used by some Japanese personnel on the island.  Some
1633 # sites describe it as same as Wake Island/Guam time although it would be
1634 # incorrect to be same as Guam.  And then in a few Japanese governmental
1635 # report from 1980s (from National Institute of Information and Communications
1636 # Technology) regarding the construction of VLBI facility on the Marcus
1637 # Island, it claimed that there are three time standards being used on the
1638 # island at the time which include not just JST (UTC+9) or [US]CG time
1639 # (UTC+11) but also a JMSDF time (UTC+10) (Japan Maritime Self-Defense
1640 # Force).  Unfortunately there are no other sources that mentioned such time
1641 # and there are also no information on things like how the time was used.
1642 
1643 
1644 # Fiji
1645 
1646 # Howse writes (p 153) that in 1879 the British governor of Fiji
1647 # enacted an ordinance standardizing the islands on Antipodean Time
1648 # instead of the American system (which was one day behind).
1649 
1650 # From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):
1651 # Fiji will introduce DST effective 0200 local time, 1998-11-01
1652 # until 0300 local time 1999-02-28.  Each year the DST period will
1653 # be from the first Sunday in November until the last Sunday in February.
1654 
1655 # From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08):
1656 # IATA SSIM (1999-09) says DST ends 0100 local time.  Go with McDow.
1657 
1658 # From the BBC World Service in
1659 # http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/205226.stm (1998-10-31 16:03 UTC):
1660 # The Fijian government says the main reasons for the time change is to
1661 # improve productivity and reduce road accidents.... [T]he move is also
1662 # intended to boost Fiji's ability to attract tourists to witness the dawning
1663 # of the new millennium.


1665 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/press/2000_09/2000_09_13-05.shtml (2000-09-13)
1666 # reports that Fiji has discontinued DST.
1667 
1668 
1669 # Kiribati
1670 
1671 # From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
1672 # Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati
1673 # "declared it the same day [throughout] the country as of Jan. 1, 1995"
1674 # as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century.
1675 
1676 # From Kerry Shetline (2018-02-03):
1677 # December 31 was the day that was skipped, so that the transition
1678 # would be from Friday December 30, 1994 to Sunday January 1, 1995.
1679 # From Paul Eggert (2018-02-04):
1680 # One source for this is page 202 of: Bartky IR. One Time Fits All:
1681 # The Campaigns for Global Uniformity (2007).
1682 
1683 # Kwajalein
1684 
1685 # From an AP article (1993-08-22):
1686 # "The nearly 3,000 Americans living on this remote Pacific atoll have a good
1687 # excuse for not remembering Saturday night: there wasn't one.  Residents were
1688 # going to bed Friday night and waking up Sunday morning because at midnight
1689 # -- 8 A.M. Eastern daylight time on Saturday -- Kwajalein was jumping from
1690 # one side of the international date line to the other."
1691 # "In Marshall Islands, Friday is followed by Sunday", NY Times. 1993-08-22.
1692 # https://www.nytimes.com/1993/08/22/world/in-marshall-islands-friday-is-followed-by-sunday.html
1693 
1694 # From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
1695 # <https://wiki.suikawiki.org/n/南洋群島の標準時> ... pointed out that
1696 # currently tzdata say Pacific/Kwajalein switched from GMT+11 to GMT-12 in
1697 # 1969 October without explanation, however an 1993 article from NYT say it
1698 # synchorized its day with US mainland about 40 years ago and thus the switch
1699 # should occur at around 1950s instead.
1700 #
1701 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
1702 # The NYT (actually, AP) article is vague and possibly wrong about this.
1703 # The article says the earlier switch was "40 years ago when the United States
1704 # Army established a missile test range here".  However, the Kwajalein Test
1705 # Center was established on 1960-10-01 and was run by the US Navy.  It was
1706 # transferred to the US Army on 1964-07-01.  See "Seize the High Ground"
1707 # <https://history.army.mil/html/books/070/70-88-1/cmhPub_70-88-1.pdf>.
1708 # Given that Shanks was right on the money about the 1993 change, I'm inclined
1709 # to take Shanks's word for the 1969 change unless we find better evidence.
1710 
1711 
1712 # N Mariana Is, Guam
1713 
1714 # From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
1715 # Guam Island was briefly annexed by Japan during ... year 1941-1944 ...
1716 # however there are no detailed information about what time it use during that
1717 # period.  It would probably be reasonable to assume Guam use GMT+9 during
1718 # that period of time like the surrounding area.
1719 
1720 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
1721 # Howse writes (p 153) "The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the
1722 # Philippines and the Ladrones from America," and implies that the Ladrones
1723 # (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time.
1724 # For now, we assume the Ladrones switched at the same time as the Philippines;
1725 # see Asia/Manila.
1726 #
1727 # Use 1941-12-10 and 1944-07-31 for Guam WWII transitions, as the rough start
1728 # and end of Japanese control of Agana.  We don't know whether the Northern
1729 # Marianas followed Guam's DST rules from 1959 through 1977; for now, assume
1730 # they did as that avoids the need for a separate zone due to our 1970 cutoff.
1731 #
1732 # US Public Law 106-564 (2000-12-23) made UT +10 the official standard time,
1733 # under the name "Chamorro Standard Time".  There is no official abbreviation,
1734 # but Congressman Robert A. Underwood, author of the bill that became law,
1735 # wrote in a press release (2000-12-27) that he will seek the use of "ChST".
1736 
1737 # See also the commentary for Micronesia.
1738 
1739 
1740 # Marshall Is
1741 # See the commentary for Micronesia.
1742 
1743 
1744 # Micronesia (and nearby)
1745 
1746 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
1747 # Like the Ladrones (see Guam commentary), assume the Spanish East Indies
1748 # kept American time until the Philippines switched at the end of 1844.
1749 
1750 # Alan Eugene Davis writes (1996-03-16),
1751 # "I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that 'Truk'
1752 # (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10."
1753 #
1754 # Shanks & Pottenger write that Truk switched from UT +10 to +11
1755 # on 1978-10-01; ignore this for now.
1756 
1757 # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29):
1758 # The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in
1759 # The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information (1999-01-26)
1760 # http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html
1761 # that Truk and Yap are UT +10, and Ponape and Kosrae are +11.
1762 # We don't know when Kosrae switched from +12; assume January 1 for now.
1763 
1764 # From Phake Nick (2018-10-27):
1765 #
1766 # From a Japanese wiki site https://wiki.suikawiki.org/n/南洋群島の標準時
1767 # ...
1768 # For "Southern Islands" (modern region of Mariana + Palau + Federation of
1769 # Micronesia + Marshall Islands):
1770 #
1771 # A 1906 Japanese magazine shown the Caroline Islands and Mariana Islands
1772 # who was occupied by Germany at the time as GMT+10, together with the like
1773 # of German New Guinea.  However there is a marking saying it have not been
1774 # implemented (yet).  No further information after that were found.
1775 #
1776 # Japan invaded those islands in 1914, and records shows that they were
1777 # instructed to use JST at the time.
1778 #
1779 # 1915 January telecommunication record on the Jaluit Atoll shows they use
1780 # the meridian of 170E as standard time (GMT+11:20), which is similar to the
1781 # longitude of the atoll.
1782 # 1915 February record say the 170E standard time is to be used until
1783 # February 9 noon, and after February 9 noon they are to use JST.
1784 # However these are time used within the Japanese Military at the time and
1785 # probably does not reflect the time used by local resident at the time (that
1786 # is if they keep their own time back then)
1787 #
1788 # In January 1919 the occupying force issued a command that split the area
1789 # into three different timezone with meridian of 135E, 150E, 165E (JST+0, +1,
1790 # +2), and the command was to become effective from February 1 of the same
1791 # year.  Despite the target of the command is still only for the occupying
1792 # force itself, further publication have described the time as the standard
1793 # time for the occupied area and thus it can probably be seen as such.
1794 #  * Area that use meridian of 135E: Palau and Yap civil administration area
1795 #    (Southern Islands Western Standard Time)
1796 #  * Area that use meridian of 150E: Truk (Chuuk) and Saipan civil
1797 #    administration area (Southern Islands Central Standard Time)
1798 #  * Area that use meridian of 165E: Ponape (Pohnpei) and Jaluit civil
1799 #    administration area (Southern Islands Eastern Standard Time).
1800 #  * In the next few years Japanese occupation of those islands have been
1801 #    formalized via League of Nation Mandate (South Pacific Mandate) and formal
1802 #    governance structure have been established, these district [become
1803 #    subprefectures] and timezone classification have been inherited as standard
1804 #    time of the area.
1805 #  * Saipan subprefecture include Mariana islands (exclude Guam which was
1806 #    occupied by America at the time), Palau and Yap subprefecture rule the
1807 #    Western Caroline Islands with 137E longitude as border, Truk and Ponape
1808 #    subprefecture rule the Eastern Caroline Islands with 154E as border, Ponape
1809 #    subprefecture also rule part of Marshall Islands to the west of 164E
1810 #    starting from (1918?) and Jaluit subprefecture rule the rest of the
1811 #    Marshall Islands.
1812 #
1813 # And then in year 1937, an announcement was made to change the time in the
1814 # area into 2 timezones:
1815 #  * Area that use meridian of 135E: area administered by Palau, Yap and
1816 #    Saipan subprefecture (Southern Islands Western Standard Time)
1817 #  * Area that use meridian of 150E: area administered by Truk (Chuuk),
1818 #    Ponape (Pohnpei) and Jaluit subprefecture (Southern Islands Eastern
1819 #    Standard Time)
1820 #
1821 # Another announcement issued in 1941 say that on April 1 that year,
1822 # standard time of the Southern Islands would be changed to use the meridian
1823 # of 135E (GMT+9), and thus abolishing timezone different within the area.
1824 #
1825 # Then Pacific theater of WWII started and Japan slowly lose control on the
1826 # island.  The webpage I linked above contain no information during this
1827 # period of time....
1828 #
1829 # After the end of WWII, in 1946 February, a document written by the
1830 # (former?) Japanese military personnel describe there are 3 hours time
1831 # different between Caroline islands time/Wake island time and the Chungking
1832 # time, which would mean the time being used there at the time was GMT+10.
1833 #
1834 # After that, the area become Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands
1835 # under American administration from year 1947.  The site listed some
1836 # American/International books/maps/publications about time used in those
1837 # area during this period of time but they doesn't seems to be reliable
1838 # information so it would be the best if someone know where can more reliable
1839 # information can be found.
1840 #
1841 #
1842 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-18):
1843 #
1844 # For the above, use vague dates like "1914" and "1945" for transitions that
1845 # plausibly exist but for which the details are not known.  The information
1846 # for Wake is too sketchy to act on.
1847 #
1848 # The 1906 GMT+10 info about German-controlled islands might not have been
1849 # done, so omit it from the data for now.
1850 #
1851 # The Jaluit info governs Kwajalein.
1852 
1853 
1854 # Midway
1855 
1856 # From Charles T O'Connor, KMTH DJ (1956),
1857 # quoted in the KTMH section of the Radio Heritage Collection
1858 # <http://radiodx.com/spdxr/KMTH.htm> (2002-12-31):
1859 # For the past two months we've been on what is known as Daylight
1860 # Saving Time.  This time has put us on air at 5am in the morning,
1861 # your time down there in New Zealand.  Starting September 2, 1956
1862 # we'll again go back to Standard Time.  This'll mean that we'll go to
1863 # air at 6am your time.
1864 #
1865 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1866 # We don't know the date of that quote, but we'll guess they
1867 # started DST on June 3.  Possibly DST was observed other years
1868 # in Midway, but we have no record of it.
1869 
1870 # Nauru
1871 
1872 # From Phake Nick (2018-10-31):
1873 # Currently, the tz database say Nauru use LMT until 1921, and then
1874 # switched to GMT+11:30 for the next two decades.
1875 # However, a number of timezone map published in America/Japan back then
1876 # showed its timezone as GMT+11 per https://wiki.suikawiki.org/n/ナウルの標準時
1877 # And it would also be nice if the 1921 transition date could be sourced.
1878 # ...
1879 # The "Nauru Standard Time Act 1978 Time Change"
1880 # http://ronlaw.gov.nr/nauru_lpms/files/gazettes/4b23a17d2030150404db7a5fa5872f52.pdf#page=3
1881 # based on "Nauru Standard Time Act 1978 Time Change"
1882 # http://www.paclii.org/nr/legis/num_act/nsta1978207/ defined that "Nauru
1883 # Alternative Time" (GMT+12) should be in effect from 1979 Feb.
1884 #
1885 # From Paul Eggert (2018-11-19):
1886 # The 1921-01-15 introduction of standard time is in Shanks; it is also in
1887 # "Standard Time Throughout the World", US National Bureau of Standards (1935),
1888 # page 3, which does not give the UT offset.  In response to a comment by
1889 # Phake Nick I set the Nauru time of occupation by Japan to
1890 # 1942-08-29/1945-09-08 by using dates from:
1891 # https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_occupation_of_Nauru
1892 
1893 # Norfolk
1894 
1895 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2015-09-23):
1896 # Norfolk Island will change ... from +1130 to +1100:
1897 # https://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2015L01483/Explanatory%20Statement/Text
1898 # ... at 12.30 am (by legal time in New South Wales) on 4 October 2015.
1899 # http://www.norfolkisland.gov.nf/nia/MediaRelease/Media%20Release%20Norfolk%20Island%20Standard%20Time%20Change.pdf
1900 
1901 # From Paul Eggert (2015-09-23):
1902 # Transitions before 2015 are from timeanddate.com, which consulted
1903 # the Norfolk Island Museum and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's
1904 # Norfolk Island station, and found no record of Norfolk observing DST
1905 # other than in 1974/5.  See:
1906 # https://www.timeanddate.com/time/australia/norfolk-island.html
1907 
1908 # Palau
1909 # See commentary for Micronesia.
1910 
1911 # Pitcairn
1912 
1913 # From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):
1914 # A Proclamation was signed by the Governor of Pitcairn on the 27th March 1998
1915 # with regard to Pitcairn Standard Time.  The Proclamation is as follows.
1916 #
1917 #       The local time for general purposes in the Islands shall be
1918 #       Co-ordinated Universal time minus 8 hours and shall be known
1919 #       as Pitcairn Standard Time.
1920 #
1921 # ... I have also seen Pitcairn listed as UTC minus 9 hours in several
1922 # references, and can only assume that this was an error in interpretation
1923 # somehow in light of this proclamation.
1924 
1925 # From Rives McDow (1999-11-09):
1926 # The Proclamation regarding Pitcairn time came into effect on 27 April 1998
1927 # ... at midnight.
1928 
1929 # From Howie Phelps (1999-11-10), who talked to a Pitcairner via shortwave:
1930 # Betty Christian told me yesterday that their local time is the same as


2054 # From Paul Eggert (2017-10-18):
2055 # For now, guess that DST is discontinued.  That's what the IATA is guessing.
2056 
2057 
2058 # Wake
2059 
2060 # From Vernice Anderson, Personal Secretary to Philip Jessup,
2061 # US Ambassador At Large (oral history interview, 1971-02-02):
2062 #
2063 # Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] - ...  The time was all the
2064 # more confusing at that point, because we had crossed the
2065 # International Date Line, thus getting two Sundays.  Furthermore, we
2066 # discovered that Wake Island had two hours of daylight saving time
2067 # making calculation of time in Washington difficult if not almost
2068 # impossible.
2069 #
2070 # https://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/andrsonv.htm
2071 
2072 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
2073 # We have no other report of DST in Wake Island, so omit this info for now.
2074 
2075 # See also the commentary for Micronesia.
2076 
2077 
2078 ###############################################################################
2079 
2080 # The International Date Line
2081 
2082 # From Gwillim Law (2000-01-03):
2083 #
2084 # The International Date Line is not defined by any international standard,
2085 # convention, or treaty.  Mapmakers are free to draw it as they please.
2086 # Reputable mapmakers will simply ensure that every point of land appears on
2087 # the correct side of the IDL, according to the date legally observed there.
2088 #
2089 # When Kiribati adopted a uniform date in 1995, thereby moving the Phoenix and
2090 # Line Islands to the west side of the IDL (or, if you prefer, moving the IDL
2091 # to the east side of the Phoenix and Line Islands), I suppose that most
2092 # mapmakers redrew the IDL following the boundary of Kiribati.  Even that line
2093 # has a rather arbitrary nature.  The straight-line boundaries between Pacific
2094 # island nations that are shown on many maps are based on an international
2095 # convention, but are not legally binding national borders.... The date is
2096 # governed by the IDL; therefore, even on the high seas, there may be some




  31 # Notes are at the end of this file
  32 
  33 ###############################################################################
  34 
  35 # Australia
  36 
  37 # Please see the notes below for the controversy about "EST" versus "AEST" etc.
  38 
  39 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  40 Rule    Aus     1917    only    -       Jan      1      0:01    1:00    D
  41 Rule    Aus     1917    only    -       Mar     25      2:00    0       S
  42 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Jan      1      2:00    1:00    D
  43 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Mar     29      2:00    0       S
  44 Rule    Aus     1942    only    -       Sep     27      2:00    1:00    D
  45 Rule    Aus     1943    1944    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       S
  46 Rule    Aus     1943    only    -       Oct      3      2:00    1:00    D
  47 # Go with Whitman and the Australian National Standards Commission, which
  48 # says W Australia didn't use DST in 1943/1944.  Ignore Whitman's claim that
  49 # 1944/1945 was just like 1943/1944.
  50 
  51 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
  52 # Northern Territory
  53 Zone Australia/Darwin    8:43:20 -      LMT     1895 Feb
  54                          9:00   -       ACST    1899 May
  55                          9:30   Aus     AC%sT
  56 # Western Australia
  57 #
  58 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
  59 Rule    AW      1974    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
  60 Rule    AW      1975    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
  61 Rule    AW      1983    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
  62 Rule    AW      1984    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
  63 Rule    AW      1991    only    -       Nov     17      2:00s   1:00    D
  64 Rule    AW      1992    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
  65 Rule    AW      2006    only    -       Dec      3      2:00s   1:00    D
  66 Rule    AW      2007    2009    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
  67 Rule    AW      2007    2008    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
  68 Zone Australia/Perth     7:43:24 -      LMT     1895 Dec
  69                          8:00   Aus     AW%sT   1943 Jul
  70                          8:00   AW      AW%sT
  71 Zone Australia/Eucla     8:35:28 -      LMT     1895 Dec


 108                         10:00   AQ      AE%sT   1992 Jul
 109                         10:00   Holiday AE%sT
 110 
 111 # South Australia
 112 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 113 Rule    AS      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 114 Rule    AS      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00s   1:00    D
 115 Rule    AS      1987    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 116 Rule    AS      1972    only    -       Feb     27      2:00s   0       S
 117 Rule    AS      1973    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 118 Rule    AS      1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 119 Rule    AS      1991    only    -       Mar     3       2:00s   0       S
 120 Rule    AS      1992    only    -       Mar     22      2:00s   0       S
 121 Rule    AS      1993    only    -       Mar     7       2:00s   0       S
 122 Rule    AS      1994    only    -       Mar     20      2:00s   0       S
 123 Rule    AS      1995    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 124 Rule    AS      2006    only    -       Apr     2       2:00s   0       S
 125 Rule    AS      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 126 Rule    AS      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 127 Rule    AS      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 128 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 129 Zone Australia/Adelaide 9:14:20 -       LMT     1895 Feb
 130                         9:00    -       ACST    1899 May
 131                         9:30    Aus     AC%sT   1971
 132                         9:30    AS      AC%sT
 133 
 134 # Tasmania
 135 #
 136 # From Paul Eggert (2005-08-16):
 137 # http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/averages/tables/dst_times.shtml
 138 # says King Island didn't observe DST from WWII until late 1971.
 139 #
 140 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 141 Rule    AT      1967    only    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 142 Rule    AT      1968    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 143 Rule    AT      1968    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 144 Rule    AT      1969    1971    -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00s   0       S
 145 Rule    AT      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 146 Rule    AT      1973    1981    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 147 Rule    AT      1982    1983    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 148 Rule    AT      1984    1986    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 149 Rule    AT      1986    only    -       Oct     Sun>=15      2:00s   1:00    D
 150 Rule    AT      1987    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 151 Rule    AT      1987    only    -       Oct     Sun>=22      2:00s   1:00    D
 152 Rule    AT      1988    1990    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 153 Rule    AT      1991    1999    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 154 Rule    AT      1991    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 155 Rule    AT      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 156 Rule    AT      2001    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 157 Rule    AT      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 158 Rule    AT      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 159 Rule    AT      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 160 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 161 Zone Australia/Hobart   9:49:16 -       LMT     1895 Sep
 162                         10:00   -       AEST    1916 Oct  1  2:00
 163                         10:00   1:00    AEDT    1917 Feb
 164                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1967
 165                         10:00   AT      AE%sT
 166 Zone Australia/Currie   9:35:28 -       LMT     1895 Sep
 167                         10:00   -       AEST    1916 Oct  1  2:00
 168                         10:00   1:00    AEDT    1917 Feb
 169                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971 Jul
 170                         10:00   AT      AE%sT
 171 
 172 # Victoria
 173 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 174 Rule    AV      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 175 Rule    AV      1972    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 176 Rule    AV      1973    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 177 Rule    AV      1986    1990    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 178 Rule    AV      1986    1987    -       Oct     Sun>=15      2:00s   1:00    D
 179 Rule    AV      1988    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 180 Rule    AV      1991    1994    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 181 Rule    AV      1995    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 182 Rule    AV      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 183 Rule    AV      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 184 Rule    AV      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 185 Rule    AV      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 186 Rule    AV      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 187 Rule    AV      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 188 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 189 Zone Australia/Melbourne 9:39:52 -      LMT     1895 Feb
 190                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971
 191                         10:00   AV      AE%sT
 192 
 193 # New South Wales
 194 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 195 Rule    AN      1971    1985    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 196 Rule    AN      1972    only    -       Feb     27      2:00s   0       S
 197 Rule    AN      1973    1981    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 198 Rule    AN      1982    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 199 Rule    AN      1983    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 200 Rule    AN      1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 201 Rule    AN      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00s   1:00    D
 202 Rule    AN      1987    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 203 Rule    AN      1990    1995    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 204 Rule    AN      1996    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 205 Rule    AN      2000    only    -       Aug     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 206 Rule    AN      2001    2007    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 207 Rule    AN      2006    only    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 208 Rule    AN      2007    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 209 Rule    AN      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 210 Rule    AN      2008    max     -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 211 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 212 Zone Australia/Sydney   10:04:52 -      LMT     1895 Feb
 213                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1971
 214                         10:00   AN      AE%sT
 215 Zone Australia/Broken_Hill 9:25:48 -    LMT     1895 Feb
 216                         10:00   -       AEST    1896 Aug 23
 217                         9:00    -       ACST    1899 May
 218                         9:30    Aus     AC%sT   1971
 219                         9:30    AN      AC%sT   2000
 220                         9:30    AS      AC%sT
 221 
 222 # Lord Howe Island
 223 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 224 Rule    LH      1981    1984    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    1:00    -
 225 Rule    LH      1982    1985    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00    0       -
 226 Rule    LH      1985    only    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    -
 227 Rule    LH      1986    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00    0       -
 228 Rule    LH      1986    only    -       Oct     19      2:00    0:30    -
 229 Rule    LH      1987    1999    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0:30    -
 230 Rule    LH      1990    1995    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00    0       -
 231 Rule    LH      1996    2005    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    0       -


 262 # We got these changes from the Australian Antarctic Division:
 263 # - Macquarie Island will stay on UTC+11 for winter and therefore not
 264 # switch back from daylight savings time when other parts of Australia do
 265 # on 4 April.
 266 #
 267 # From Arthur David Olson (2013-05-23):
 268 # The 1919 transition is overspecified below so pre-2013 zics
 269 # will produce a binary file with an [A]EST-type as the first 32-bit type;
 270 # this is required for correct handling of times before 1916 by
 271 # pre-2013 versions of localtime.
 272 Zone Antarctica/Macquarie 0     -       -00     1899 Nov
 273                         10:00   -       AEST    1916 Oct  1  2:00
 274                         10:00   1:00    AEDT    1917 Feb
 275                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1919 Apr  1  0:00s
 276                         0       -       -00     1948 Mar 25
 277                         10:00   Aus     AE%sT   1967
 278                         10:00   AT      AE%sT   2010 Apr  4  3:00
 279                         11:00   -       +11
 280 
 281 # Christmas
 282 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 283 Zone Indian/Christmas   7:02:52 -       LMT     1895 Feb
 284                         7:00    -       +07
 285 
 286 # Cocos (Keeling) Is
 287 # These islands were ruled by the Ross family from about 1830 to 1978.
 288 # We don't know when standard time was introduced; for now, we guess 1900.
 289 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 290 Zone    Indian/Cocos    6:27:40 -       LMT     1900
 291                         6:30    -       +0630
 292 
 293 
 294 # Fiji
 295 
 296 # Milne gives 11:55:44 for Suva.
 297 
 298 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2009-11-10):
 299 # According to Fiji Broadcasting Corporation,  Fiji plans to re-introduce DST
 300 # from November 29th 2009  to April 25th 2010.
 301 #
 302 # "Daylight savings to commence this month"
 303 # http://www.radiofiji.com.fj/fullstory.php?id=23719
 304 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_fiji01.html
 305 
 306 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-11-10):
 307 # The Fiji Government has posted some more details about the approved
 308 # amendments:
 309 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/publish/page_16198.shtml


 392 # ... The daylight saving period will end at 3am on Sunday January 13, 2019.
 393 #
 394 # From Paul Eggert (2018-07-15):
 395 # For now, guess DST from 02:00 the first Sunday in November to 03:00
 396 # the first Sunday on or after January 13.  January transitions reportedly
 397 # depend on when school terms start.  Although the guess is ad hoc, it matches
 398 # transitions since late 2014 and seems more likely to match future
 399 # practice than guessing no DST.
 400 
 401 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 402 Rule    Fiji    1998    1999    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    -
 403 Rule    Fiji    1999    2000    -       Feb     lastSun 3:00    0       -
 404 Rule    Fiji    2009    only    -       Nov     29      2:00    1:00    -
 405 Rule    Fiji    2010    only    -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    0       -
 406 Rule    Fiji    2010    2013    -       Oct     Sun>=21      2:00    1:00    -
 407 Rule    Fiji    2011    only    -       Mar     Sun>=1       3:00    0       -
 408 Rule    Fiji    2012    2013    -       Jan     Sun>=18      3:00    0       -
 409 Rule    Fiji    2014    only    -       Jan     Sun>=18      2:00    0       -
 410 Rule    Fiji    2014    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    -
 411 Rule    Fiji    2015    max     -       Jan     Sun>=13      3:00    0       -
 412 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 413 Zone    Pacific/Fiji    11:55:44 -      LMT     1915 Oct 26 # Suva
 414                         12:00   Fiji    +12/+13
 415 
 416 # French Polynesia
 417 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 418 Zone    Pacific/Gambier  -8:59:48 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Rikitea
 419                          -9:00  -       -09
 420 Zone    Pacific/Marquesas -9:18:00 -    LMT     1912 Oct
 421                          -9:30  -       -0930
 422 Zone    Pacific/Tahiti   -9:58:16 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Papeete
 423                         -10:00  -       -10
 424 # Clipperton (near North America) is administered from French Polynesia;
 425 # it is uninhabited.
 426 
 427 # Guam
 428 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
































 429 Zone    Pacific/Guam    -14:21:00 -     LMT     1844 Dec 31
 430                          9:39:00 -      LMT     1901        # Agana
 431                         10:00   -       GST     2000 Dec 23 # Guam


 432                         10:00   -       ChST    # Chamorro Standard Time
 433 Link Pacific/Guam Pacific/Saipan # N Mariana Is
 434 
 435 # Kiribati
 436 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 437 Zone Pacific/Tarawa      11:32:04 -     LMT     1901 # Bairiki
 438                          12:00  -       +12
 439 Zone Pacific/Enderbury  -11:24:20 -     LMT     1901
 440                         -12:00  -       -12     1979 Oct
 441                         -11:00  -       -11     1994 Dec 31
 442                          13:00  -       +13
 443 Zone Pacific/Kiritimati -10:29:20 -     LMT     1901
 444                         -10:40  -       -1040   1979 Oct
 445                         -10:00  -       -10     1994 Dec 31
 446                          14:00  -       +14
 447 
 448 # N Mariana Is
 449 # See Pacific/Guam.
 450 
 451 # Marshall Is
 452 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 453 Zone Pacific/Majuro     11:24:48 -      LMT     1901
 454                         11:00   -       +11     1969 Oct
 455                         12:00   -       +12
 456 Zone Pacific/Kwajalein  11:09:20 -      LMT     1901
 457                         11:00   -       +11     1969 Oct
 458                         -12:00  -       -12     1993 Aug 20
 459                         12:00   -       +12








 460 
 461 # Micronesia
 462 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 463 Zone Pacific/Chuuk      10:07:08 -      LMT     1901
 464                         10:00   -       +10
 465 Zone Pacific/Pohnpei    10:32:52 -      LMT     1901 # Kolonia
 466                         11:00   -       +11
 467 Zone Pacific/Kosrae     10:51:56 -      LMT     1901
 468                         11:00   -       +11     1969 Oct
 469                         12:00   -       +12     1999
 470                         11:00   -       +11

















 471 
 472 # Nauru
 473 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 474 Zone    Pacific/Nauru   11:07:40 -      LMT     1921 Jan 15 # Uaobe
 475                         11:30   -       +1130   1942 Mar 15
 476                         9:00    -       +09     1944 Aug 15
 477                         11:30   -       +1130   1979 May
 478                         12:00   -       +12
 479 
 480 # New Caledonia
 481 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 482 Rule    NC      1977    1978    -       Dec     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    -
 483 Rule    NC      1978    1979    -       Feb     27      0:00    0       -
 484 Rule    NC      1996    only    -       Dec      1      2:00s   1:00    -
 485 # Shanks & Pottenger say the following was at 2:00; go with IATA.
 486 Rule    NC      1997    only    -       Mar      2      2:00s   0       -
 487 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 488 Zone    Pacific/Noumea  11:05:48 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13 # Nouméa
 489                         11:00   NC      +11/+12
 490 
 491 
 492 ###############################################################################
 493 
 494 # New Zealand
 495 
 496 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 497 Rule    NZ      1927    only    -       Nov      6      2:00    1:00    S
 498 Rule    NZ      1928    only    -       Mar      4      2:00    0       M
 499 Rule    NZ      1928    1933    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:00    0:30    S
 500 Rule    NZ      1929    1933    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00    0       M
 501 Rule    NZ      1934    1940    -       Apr     lastSun 2:00    0       M
 502 Rule    NZ      1934    1940    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0:30    S
 503 Rule    NZ      1946    only    -       Jan      1      0:00    0       S
 504 # Since 1957 Chatham has been 45 minutes ahead of NZ, but until 2018a
 505 # there was no documented single notation for the date and time of this
 506 # transition.  Duplicate the Rule lines for now, to give the 2018a change
 507 # time to percolate out.
 508 Rule    NZ      1974    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 509 Rule    Chatham 1974    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:45s   1:00    -
 510 Rule    NZ      1975    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:00s   0       S
 511 Rule    Chatham 1975    only    -       Feb     lastSun 2:45s   0       -
 512 Rule    NZ      1975    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 513 Rule    Chatham 1975    1988    -       Oct     lastSun 2:45s   1:00    -
 514 Rule    NZ      1976    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 515 Rule    Chatham 1976    1989    -       Mar     Sun>=1       2:45s   0       -
 516 Rule    NZ      1989    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:00s   1:00    D
 517 Rule    Chatham 1989    only    -       Oct     Sun>=8       2:45s   1:00    -
 518 Rule    NZ      1990    2006    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    D
 519 Rule    Chatham 1990    2006    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:45s   1:00    -
 520 Rule    NZ      1990    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       S
 521 Rule    Chatham 1990    2007    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:45s   0       -
 522 Rule    NZ      2007    max     -       Sep     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    D
 523 Rule    Chatham 2007    max     -       Sep     lastSun 2:45s   1:00    -
 524 Rule    NZ      2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       S
 525 Rule    Chatham 2008    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:45s   0       -
 526 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 527 Zone Pacific/Auckland   11:39:04 -      LMT     1868 Nov  2
 528                         11:30   NZ      NZ%sT   1946 Jan  1
 529                         12:00   NZ      NZ%sT
 530 Zone Pacific/Chatham    12:13:48 -      LMT     1868 Nov  2
 531                         12:15   -       +1215   1946 Jan  1
 532                         12:45   Chatham +1245/+1345
 533 
 534 Link Pacific/Auckland Antarctica/McMurdo
 535 
 536 # Auckland Is
 537 # uninhabited; Māori and Moriori, colonial settlers, pastoralists, sealers,
 538 # and scientific personnel have wintered
 539 
 540 # Campbell I
 541 # minor whaling stations operated 1909/1914
 542 # scientific station operated 1941/1995;
 543 # previously whalers, sealers, pastoralists, and scientific personnel wintered
 544 # was probably like Pacific/Auckland
 545 
 546 # Cook Is
 547 # From Shanks & Pottenger:
 548 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 549 Rule    Cook    1978    only    -       Nov     12      0:00    0:30    -
 550 Rule    Cook    1979    1991    -       Mar     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
 551 Rule    Cook    1979    1990    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0:30    -
 552 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 553 Zone Pacific/Rarotonga  -10:39:04 -     LMT     1901        # Avarua
 554                         -10:30  -       -1030   1978 Nov 12
 555                         -10:00  Cook    -10/-0930
 556 
 557 ###############################################################################
 558 
 559 
 560 # Niue
 561 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 562 Zone    Pacific/Niue    -11:19:40 -     LMT     1901        # Alofi
 563                         -11:20  -       -1120   1951
 564                         -11:30  -       -1130   1978 Oct  1
 565                         -11:00  -       -11
 566 
 567 # Norfolk
 568 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 569 Zone    Pacific/Norfolk 11:11:52 -      LMT     1901 # Kingston
 570                         11:12   -       +1112   1951
 571                         11:30   -       +1130   1974 Oct 27 02:00
 572                         11:30   1:00    +1230   1975 Mar  2 02:00
 573                         11:30   -       +1130   2015 Oct  4 02:00
 574                         11:00   -       +11
 575 
 576 # Palau (Belau)
 577 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 578 Zone Pacific/Palau      8:57:56 -       LMT     1901 # Koror
 579                         9:00    -       +09

 580 
 581 # Papua New Guinea
 582 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 583 Zone Pacific/Port_Moresby 9:48:40 -     LMT     1880
 584                         9:48:32 -       PMMT    1895 # Port Moresby Mean Time
 585                         10:00   -       +10
 586 #
 587 # From Paul Eggert (2014-10-13):
 588 # Base the Bougainville entry on the Arawa-Kieta region, which appears to have
 589 # the most people even though it was devastated in the Bougainville Civil War.
 590 #
 591 # Although Shanks gives 1942-03-15 / 1943-11-01 for UT +09, these dates
 592 # are apparently rough guesswork from the starts of military campaigns.
 593 # The World War II entries below are instead based on Arawa-Kieta.
 594 # The Japanese occupied Kieta in July 1942,
 595 # according to the Pacific War Online Encyclopedia
 596 # https://pwencycl.kgbudge.com/B/o/Bougainville.htm
 597 # and seem to have controlled it until their 1945-08-21 surrender.
 598 #
 599 # The Autonomous Region of Bougainville switched from UT +10 to +11
 600 # on 2014-12-28 at 02:00.  They call +11 "Bougainville Standard Time".
 601 # See:
 602 # http://www.bougainville24.com/bougainville-issues/bougainville-gets-own-timezone/
 603 #
 604 Zone Pacific/Bougainville 10:22:16 -    LMT     1880
 605                          9:48:32 -      PMMT    1895
 606                         10:00   -       +10     1942 Jul
 607                          9:00   -       +09     1945 Aug 21
 608                         10:00   -       +10     2014 Dec 28  2:00
 609                         11:00   -       +11
 610 
 611 # Pitcairn
 612 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 613 Zone Pacific/Pitcairn   -8:40:20 -      LMT     1901        # Adamstown
 614                         -8:30   -       -0830   1998 Apr 27  0:00
 615                         -8:00   -       -08
 616 
 617 # American Samoa
 618 Zone Pacific/Pago_Pago   12:37:12 -     LMT     1892 Jul  5
 619                         -11:22:48 -     LMT     1911
 620                         -11:00  -       SST                 # S=Samoa
 621 Link Pacific/Pago_Pago Pacific/Midway # in US minor outlying islands
 622 
 623 # Samoa (formerly and also known as Western Samoa)
 624 
 625 # From Steffen Thorsen (2009-10-16):
 626 # We have been in contact with the government of Samoa again, and received
 627 # the following info:
 628 #
 629 # "Cabinet has now approved Daylight Saving to be effected next year
 630 # commencing from the last Sunday of September 2010 and conclude first
 631 # Sunday of April 2011."
 632 #


 677 #
 678 # Dateline Change skip Friday 30th Dec 2011
 679 # Thursday 29th December 2011   23:59:59 Hours
 680 # Saturday 31st December 2011   00:00:00 Hours
 681 #
 682 # From Nicholas Pereira (2012-09-10):
 683 # Daylight Saving Time commences on Sunday 30th September 2012 and
 684 # ends on Sunday 7th of April 2013....
 685 # http://www.mcil.gov.ws/mcil_publications.html
 686 #
 687 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-08):
 688 # That web page currently lists transitions for 2012/3 and 2013/4.
 689 # Assume the pattern instituted in 2012 will continue indefinitely.
 690 
 691 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 692 Rule    WS      2010    only    -       Sep     lastSun 0:00    1       -
 693 Rule    WS      2011    only    -       Apr     Sat>=1       4:00    0       -
 694 Rule    WS      2011    only    -       Sep     lastSat 3:00    1       -
 695 Rule    WS      2012    max     -       Apr     Sun>=1       4:00    0       -
 696 Rule    WS      2012    max     -       Sep     lastSun 3:00    1       -
 697 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 698 Zone Pacific/Apia        12:33:04 -     LMT     1892 Jul  5
 699                         -11:26:56 -     LMT     1911
 700                         -11:30  -       -1130   1950
 701                         -11:00  WS      -11/-10 2011 Dec 29 24:00
 702                          13:00  WS      +13/+14
 703 
 704 # Solomon Is
 705 # excludes Bougainville, for which see Papua New Guinea
 706 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 707 Zone Pacific/Guadalcanal 10:39:48 -     LMT     1912 Oct # Honiara
 708                         11:00   -       +11
 709 
 710 # Tokelau
 711 #
 712 # From Gwillim Law (2011-12-29)
 713 # A correspondent informed me that Tokelau, like Samoa, will be skipping
 714 # December 31 this year ...
 715 #
 716 # From Steffen Thorsen (2012-07-25)
 717 # ... we double checked by calling hotels and offices based in Tokelau asking
 718 # about the time there, and they all told a time that agrees with UTC+13....
 719 # Shanks says UT-10 from 1901 [but] ... there is a good chance the change
 720 # actually was to UT-11 back then.
 721 #
 722 # From Paul Eggert (2012-07-25)
 723 # A Google Books snippet of Appendix to the Journals of the House of
 724 # Representatives of New Zealand, Session 1948,
 725 # <https://books.google.com/books?id=ZaVCAQAAIAAJ>, page 65, says Tokelau
 726 # was "11 hours slow on G.M.T."  Go with Thorsen and assume Shanks & Pottenger
 727 # are off by an hour starting in 1901.
 728 
 729 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 730 Zone    Pacific/Fakaofo -11:24:56 -     LMT     1901
 731                         -11:00  -       -11     2011 Dec 30
 732                         13:00   -       +13
 733 
 734 # Tonga
 735 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 736 Rule    Tonga   1999    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   1:00    -
 737 Rule    Tonga   2000    only    -       Mar     19      2:00s   0       -
 738 Rule    Tonga   2000    2001    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    -
 739 Rule    Tonga   2001    2002    -       Jan     lastSun 2:00    0       -
 740 Rule    Tonga   2016    only    -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    -
 741 Rule    Tonga   2017    only    -       Jan     Sun>=15      3:00    0       -
 742 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 743 Zone Pacific/Tongatapu  12:19:20 -      LMT     1901
 744                         12:20   -       +1220   1941
 745                         13:00   -       +13     1999
 746                         13:00   Tonga   +13/+14
 747 
 748 # Tuvalu
 749 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 750 Zone Pacific/Funafuti   11:56:52 -      LMT     1901
 751                         12:00   -       +12
 752 
 753 
 754 # US minor outlying islands
 755 
 756 # Howland, Baker
 757 # Howland was mined for guano by American companies 1857-1878 and British
 758 # 1886-1891; Baker was similar but exact dates are not known.
 759 # Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; U.S. military bases 1943-1944;
 760 # uninhabited thereafter.
 761 # Howland observed Hawaii Standard Time (UT -10:30) in 1937;
 762 # see page 206 of Elgen M. Long and Marie K. Long,
 763 # Amelia Earhart: the Mystery Solved, Simon & Schuster (2000).
 764 # So most likely Howland and Baker observed Hawaii Time from 1935
 765 # until they were abandoned after the war.
 766 
 767 # Jarvis
 768 # Mined for guano by American companies 1857-1879 and British 1883?-1891?.
 769 # Inhabited by civilians 1935-1942; IGY scientific base 1957-1958;


 790 # which had a GMT offset of -11 hours.  This apparently applied to at least the
 791 # time from Operation Newsreel (Hardtack I/Teak shot, 1958-08-01) to the last
 792 # Operation Fishbowl shot (Tightrope, 1962-11-04).... [See] Herman Hoerlin,
 793 # "The United States High-Altitude Test Experience: A Review Emphasizing the
 794 # Impact on the Environment", Los Alamos LA-6405, Oct 1976.
 795 # https://www.fas.org/sgp/othergov/doe/lanl/docs1/00322994.pdf
 796 # See the table on page 4 where he lists GMT and local times for the tests; a
 797 # footnote for the JI tests reads that local time is "JI time = Hawaii Time
 798 # Minus One Hour".
 799 
 800 # Kingman
 801 # uninhabited
 802 
 803 # Midway
 804 # See Pacific/Pago_Pago.
 805 
 806 # Palmyra
 807 # uninhabited since World War II; was probably like Pacific/Kiritimati
 808 
 809 # Wake
 810 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 811 Zone    Pacific/Wake    11:06:28 -      LMT     1901
 812                         12:00   -       +12
 813 
 814 
 815 # Vanuatu
 816 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 817 Rule    Vanuatu 1983    only    -       Sep     25      0:00    1:00    -
 818 Rule    Vanuatu 1984    1991    -       Mar     Sun>=23      0:00    0       -
 819 Rule    Vanuatu 1984    only    -       Oct     23      0:00    1:00    -
 820 Rule    Vanuatu 1985    1991    -       Sep     Sun>=23      0:00    1:00    -
 821 Rule    Vanuatu 1992    1993    -       Jan     Sun>=23      0:00    0       -
 822 Rule    Vanuatu 1992    only    -       Oct     Sun>=23      0:00    1:00    -
 823 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 824 Zone    Pacific/Efate   11:13:16 -      LMT     1912 Jan 13 # Vila
 825                         11:00   Vanuatu +11/+12
 826 
 827 # Wallis and Futuna
 828 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 829 Zone    Pacific/Wallis  12:15:20 -      LMT     1901
 830                         12:00   -       +12
 831 
 832 ###############################################################################
 833 
 834 # NOTES
 835 
 836 # This file is by no means authoritative; if you think you know better,
 837 # go ahead and edit the file (and please send any changes to
 838 # tz@iana.org for general use in the future).  For more, please see
 839 # the file CONTRIBUTING in the tz distribution.
 840 
 841 # From Paul Eggert (2017-02-10):
 842 #
 843 # Unless otherwise specified, the source for data through 1990 is:
 844 # Thomas G. Shanks and Rique Pottenger, The International Atlas (6th edition),
 845 # San Diego: ACS Publications, Inc. (2003).
 846 # Unfortunately this book contains many errors and cites no sources.
 847 #
 848 # Many years ago Gwillim Law wrote that a good source
 849 # for time zone data was the International Air Transport
 850 # Association's Standard Schedules Information Manual (IATA SSIM),
 851 # published semiannually.  Law sent in several helpful summaries
 852 # of the IATA's data after 1990.  Except where otherwise noted,
 853 # IATA SSIM is the source for entries after 1990.
 854 #
 855 # Another source occasionally used is Edward W. Whitman, World Time Differences,
 856 # Whitman Publishing Co, 2 Niagara Av, Ealing, London (undated), which
 857 # I found in the UCLA library.
 858 #
 859 # For data circa 1899, a common source is:
 860 # Milne J. Civil time. Geogr J. 1899 Feb;13(2):173-94.
 861 # https://www.jstor.org/stable/1774359
 862 #
 863 # A reliable and entertaining source about time zones is
 864 # Derek Howse, Greenwich time and longitude, Philip Wilson Publishers (1997).
 865 #

 866 # The following abbreviations are from other sources.
 867 # Corrections are welcome!
 868 #               std     dst
 869 #               LMT             Local Mean Time
 870 #         8:00  AWST    AWDT    Western Australia
 871 #         9:30  ACST    ACDT    Central Australia
 872 #        10:00  AEST    AEDT    Eastern Australia
 873 #        10:00  GST             Guam through 2000
 874 #        10:00  ChST            Chamorro
 875 #        11:30  NZMT    NZST    New Zealand through 1945
 876 #        12:00  NZST    NZDT    New Zealand 1946-present
 877 #       -11:00  SST             Samoa
 878 #       -10:00  HST             Hawaii
 879 #
 880 # See the 'northamerica' file for Hawaii.
 881 # See the 'southamerica' file for Easter I and the Galápagos Is.
 882 
 883 ###############################################################################
 884 
 885 # Australia
 886 
 887 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-30):
 888 # Daylight saving time has long been controversial in Australia, pitting
 889 # region against region, rural against urban, and local against global.
 890 # For example, in her review of Graeme Davison's _The Unforgiving
 891 # Minute: how Australians learned to tell the time_ (1993), Perth native
 892 # Phillipa J Martyr wrote, "The section entitled 'Saving Daylight' was
 893 # very informative, but was (as can, sadly, only be expected from a


1193 # ... it was just on four years ago that I drove along the Eyre Highway,
1194 # which passes through eastern Western Australia close to the southern
1195 # coast of the continent.
1196 #
1197 # I paid particular attention to the time kept there. There can be no
1198 # dispute that UTC+08:45 was considered "the time" from the border
1199 # village just inside the border with South Australia to as far west
1200 # as just east of Caiguna. There can also be no dispute that Eucla is
1201 # the largest population centre in this zone....
1202 #
1203 # Now that Western Australia is observing daylight saving, the
1204 # question arose whether this part of the state would follow suit. I
1205 # just called the border village and confirmed that indeed they have,
1206 # meaning that they are now observing UTC+09:45.
1207 #
1208 # (2006-12-09):
1209 # I personally doubt that either experimentation with daylight saving
1210 # in WA or its introduction in SA had anything to do with the genesis
1211 # of this time zone.  My hunch is that it's been around since well
1212 # before 1975.  I remember seeing it noted on road maps decades ago.
















1213 
1214 # From Paul Eggert (2006-12-15):
1215 # For lack of better info, assume the tradition dates back to the
1216 # introduction of standard time in 1895.
1217 
1218 
1219 # southeast Australia
1220 #
1221 # From Paul Eggert (2007-07-23):
1222 # Starting autumn 2008 Victoria, NSW, South Australia, Tasmania and the ACT
1223 # end DST the first Sunday in April and start DST the first Sunday in October.
1224 # http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/daylight-savings-to-span-six-months/2007/06/27/1182623966703.html
1225 
1226 
1227 # South Australia
1228 
1229 # From Bradley White (1991-03-04):
1230 # A recent excerpt from an Australian newspaper...
1231 # ...South Australia...[has] agreed to end daylight saving
1232 # at 3am tomorrow (March 3)...


1511 # first Sunday in April.  The changes take effect this year, meaning
1512 # that DST will begin on 2007-09-30 2008-04-06.
1513 # http://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/wpg_URL/Services-Daylight-Saving-Daylight-saving-to-be-extended
1514 
1515 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-14):
1516 # Chatham Island time was formally standardized on 1957-01-01 by
1517 # New Zealand's Standard Time Amendment Act 1956 (1956-10-26).
1518 # https://www.austlii.edu.au/nz/legis/hist_act/staa19561956n100244.pdf
1519 # According to Google Books snippet view, a speaker in the New Zealand
1520 # parliamentary debates in 1956 said "Clause 78 makes provision for standard
1521 # time in the Chatham Islands.  The time there is 45 minutes in advance of New
1522 # Zealand time.  I understand that is the time they keep locally, anyhow."
1523 # For now, assume this practice goes back to the introduction of standard time
1524 # in New Zealand, as this would make Chatham Islands time almost exactly match
1525 # LMT back when New Zealand was at UT +11:30; also, assume Chatham Islands did
1526 # not observe New Zealand's prewar DST.
1527 
1528 ###############################################################################
1529 
1530 




































1531 # Fiji
1532 
1533 # Howse writes (p 153) that in 1879 the British governor of Fiji
1534 # enacted an ordinance standardizing the islands on Antipodean Time
1535 # instead of the American system (which was one day behind).
1536 
1537 # From Rives McDow (1998-10-08):
1538 # Fiji will introduce DST effective 0200 local time, 1998-11-01
1539 # until 0300 local time 1999-02-28.  Each year the DST period will
1540 # be from the first Sunday in November until the last Sunday in February.
1541 
1542 # From Paul Eggert (2000-01-08):
1543 # IATA SSIM (1999-09) says DST ends 0100 local time.  Go with McDow.
1544 
1545 # From the BBC World Service in
1546 # http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/205226.stm (1998-10-31 16:03 UTC):
1547 # The Fijian government says the main reasons for the time change is to
1548 # improve productivity and reduce road accidents.... [T]he move is also
1549 # intended to boost Fiji's ability to attract tourists to witness the dawning
1550 # of the new millennium.


1552 # http://www.fiji.gov.fj/press/2000_09/2000_09_13-05.shtml (2000-09-13)
1553 # reports that Fiji has discontinued DST.
1554 
1555 
1556 # Kiribati
1557 
1558 # From Paul Eggert (1996-01-22):
1559 # Today's _Wall Street Journal_ (page 1) reports that Kiribati
1560 # "declared it the same day [throughout] the country as of Jan. 1, 1995"
1561 # as part of the competition to be first into the 21st century.
1562 
1563 # From Kerry Shetline (2018-02-03):
1564 # December 31 was the day that was skipped, so that the transition
1565 # would be from Friday December 30, 1994 to Sunday January 1, 1995.
1566 # From Paul Eggert (2018-02-04):
1567 # One source for this is page 202 of: Bartky IR. One Time Fits All:
1568 # The Campaigns for Global Uniformity (2007).
1569 
1570 # Kwajalein
1571 
1572 # In comp.risks 14.87 (26 August 1993), Peter Neumann writes:
1573 # I wonder what happened in Kwajalein, where there was NO Friday,
1574 # 1993-08-20.  Thursday night at midnight Kwajalein switched sides with
1575 # respect to the International Date Line, to rejoin its fellow islands,
1576 # going from 11:59 p.m. Thursday to 12:00 m. Saturday in a blink.




















1577 
1578 
1579 # N Mariana Is, Guam
1580 







1581 # Howse writes (p 153) "The Spaniards, on the other hand, reached the
1582 # Philippines and the Ladrones from America," and implies that the Ladrones
1583 # (now called the Marianas) kept American date for quite some time.
1584 # For now, we assume the Ladrones switched at the same time as the Philippines;
1585 # see Asia/Manila.
1586 





1587 # US Public Law 106-564 (2000-12-23) made UT +10 the official standard time,
1588 # under the name "Chamorro Standard Time".  There is no official abbreviation,
1589 # but Congressman Robert A. Underwood, author of the bill that became law,
1590 # wrote in a press release (2000-12-27) that he will seek the use of "ChST".
1591 

1592 
1593 # Micronesia









1594 
1595 # Alan Eugene Davis writes (1996-03-16),
1596 # "I am certain, having lived there for the past decade, that 'Truk'
1597 # (now properly known as Chuuk) ... is in the time zone GMT+10."
1598 #
1599 # Shanks & Pottenger write that Truk switched from UT +10 to +11
1600 # on 1978-10-01; ignore this for now.
1601 
1602 # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-29):
1603 # The Federated States of Micronesia Visitors Board writes in
1604 # The Federated States of Micronesia - Visitor Information (1999-01-26)
1605 # http://www.fsmgov.org/info/clocks.html
1606 # that Truk and Yap are UT +10, and Ponape and Kosrae are +11.
1607 # We don't know when Kosrae switched from +12; assume January 1 for now.
1608 

























































































1609 
1610 # Midway
1611 
1612 # From Charles T O'Connor, KMTH DJ (1956),
1613 # quoted in the KTMH section of the Radio Heritage Collection
1614 # <http://radiodx.com/spdxr/KMTH.htm> (2002-12-31):
1615 # For the past two months we've been on what is known as Daylight
1616 # Saving Time.  This time has put us on air at 5am in the morning,
1617 # your time down there in New Zealand.  Starting September 2, 1956
1618 # we'll again go back to Standard Time.  This'll mean that we'll go to
1619 # air at 6am your time.
1620 #
1621 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1622 # We don't know the date of that quote, but we'll guess they
1623 # started DST on June 3.  Possibly DST was observed other years
1624 # in Midway, but we have no record of it.
1625 























1626 # Norfolk
1627 
1628 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2015-09-23):
1629 # Norfolk Island will change ... from +1130 to +1100:
1630 # https://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2015L01483/Explanatory%20Statement/Text
1631 # ... at 12.30 am (by legal time in New South Wales) on 4 October 2015.
1632 # http://www.norfolkisland.gov.nf/nia/MediaRelease/Media%20Release%20Norfolk%20Island%20Standard%20Time%20Change.pdf
1633 
1634 # From Paul Eggert (2015-09-23):
1635 # Transitions before 2015 are from timeanddate.com, which consulted
1636 # the Norfolk Island Museum and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's
1637 # Norfolk Island station, and found no record of Norfolk observing DST
1638 # other than in 1974/5.  See:
1639 # https://www.timeanddate.com/time/australia/norfolk-island.html
1640 



1641 # Pitcairn
1642 
1643 # From Rives McDow (1999-11-08):
1644 # A Proclamation was signed by the Governor of Pitcairn on the 27th March 1998
1645 # with regard to Pitcairn Standard Time.  The Proclamation is as follows.
1646 #
1647 #       The local time for general purposes in the Islands shall be
1648 #       Co-ordinated Universal time minus 8 hours and shall be known
1649 #       as Pitcairn Standard Time.
1650 #
1651 # ... I have also seen Pitcairn listed as UTC minus 9 hours in several
1652 # references, and can only assume that this was an error in interpretation
1653 # somehow in light of this proclamation.
1654 
1655 # From Rives McDow (1999-11-09):
1656 # The Proclamation regarding Pitcairn time came into effect on 27 April 1998
1657 # ... at midnight.
1658 
1659 # From Howie Phelps (1999-11-10), who talked to a Pitcairner via shortwave:
1660 # Betty Christian told me yesterday that their local time is the same as


1784 # From Paul Eggert (2017-10-18):
1785 # For now, guess that DST is discontinued.  That's what the IATA is guessing.
1786 
1787 
1788 # Wake
1789 
1790 # From Vernice Anderson, Personal Secretary to Philip Jessup,
1791 # US Ambassador At Large (oral history interview, 1971-02-02):
1792 #
1793 # Saturday, the 14th [of October, 1950] - ...  The time was all the
1794 # more confusing at that point, because we had crossed the
1795 # International Date Line, thus getting two Sundays.  Furthermore, we
1796 # discovered that Wake Island had two hours of daylight saving time
1797 # making calculation of time in Washington difficult if not almost
1798 # impossible.
1799 #
1800 # https://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/andrsonv.htm
1801 
1802 # From Paul Eggert (2003-03-23):
1803 # We have no other report of DST in Wake Island, so omit this info for now.



1804 
1805 ###############################################################################
1806 
1807 # The International Date Line
1808 
1809 # From Gwillim Law (2000-01-03):
1810 #
1811 # The International Date Line is not defined by any international standard,
1812 # convention, or treaty.  Mapmakers are free to draw it as they please.
1813 # Reputable mapmakers will simply ensure that every point of land appears on
1814 # the correct side of the IDL, according to the date legally observed there.
1815 #
1816 # When Kiribati adopted a uniform date in 1995, thereby moving the Phoenix and
1817 # Line Islands to the west side of the IDL (or, if you prefer, moving the IDL
1818 # to the east side of the Phoenix and Line Islands), I suppose that most
1819 # mapmakers redrew the IDL following the boundary of Kiribati.  Even that line
1820 # has a rather arbitrary nature.  The straight-line boundaries between Pacific
1821 # island nations that are shown on many maps are based on an international
1822 # convention, but are not legally binding national borders.... The date is
1823 # governed by the IDL; therefore, even on the high seas, there may be some


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