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 128 
 129 # From Peter Ilieve (1994-07-06):
 130 #
 131 # On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about
 132 # historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo
 133 # and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph
 134 # of the text said:
 135 #
 136 # 'An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands
 137 # beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude
 138 # was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed
 139 # this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They
 140 # made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,
 141 # but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking
 142 # along the towpath within a few yards of it.'
 143 #
 144 # I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's
 145 # position is 51° 28' 30" N, 0° 18' 45" W. The longitude should
 146 # be within about ±2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.
 147 #
 148 # [This yields STDOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]
 149 
 150 # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
 151 #
 152 # Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.
 153 # The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,
 154 # and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.
 155 # The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828)
 156 # and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903).
 157 # The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway
 158 # in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most
 159 # (though not all) railways used London time.  On 1847-09-22 the
 160 # Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be
 161 # adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it.
 162 # The transition occurred on 12-01 for the L&NW, the Caledonian,
 163 # and presumably other railways; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many
 164 # railways as using GMT.  By 1855 the vast majority of public
 165 # clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock
 166 # on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands,
 167 # one for local time and one for GMT).  The last major holdout was the legal
 168 # system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading


 506 # The British Standard Time Act, 1968
 507 #       (no summer time)
 508 # The Summer Time Act, 1972
 509 Rule    GB-Eire 1972    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 510 Rule    GB-Eire 1972    1980    -       Oct     Sun>=23      2:00s   0       GMT
 511 # Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089)
 512 # Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673)
 513 # Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223)
 514 # Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931)
 515 Rule    GB-Eire 1981    1995    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00u   1:00    BST
 516 Rule    GB-Eire 1981    1989    -       Oct     Sun>=23      1:00u   0       GMT
 517 # Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985)
 518 # Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729)
 519 # Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798)
 520 Rule    GB-Eire 1990    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=22      1:00u   0       GMT
 521 # Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982)
 522 # See EU for rules starting in 1996.
 523 #
 524 # Use Europe/London for Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man.
 525 
 526 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 527 Zone    Europe/London   -0:01:15 -      LMT     1847 Dec  1  0:00s
 528                          0:00   GB-Eire %s      1968 Oct 27
 529                          1:00   -       BST     1971 Oct 31  2:00u
 530                          0:00   GB-Eire %s      1996
 531                          0:00   EU      GMT/BST
 532 Link    Europe/London   Europe/Jersey
 533 Link    Europe/London   Europe/Guernsey
 534 Link    Europe/London   Europe/Isle_of_Man
 535 
 536 # From Paul Eggert (2018-02-15):
 537 # In January 2018 we discovered that the negative SAVE values in the
 538 # Eire rules cause problems with tests for ICU:
 539 # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-January/025825.html
 540 # and with tests for OpenJDK:
 541 # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-January/025822.html
 542 #
 543 # To work around this problem, the build procedure can translate the
 544 # following data into two forms, one with negative SAVE values and the
 545 # other form with a traditional approximation for Irish timestamps
 546 # after 1971-10-31 02:00 UTC; although this approximation has tm_isdst
 547 # flags that are reversed, its UTC offsets are correct and this often
 548 # suffices.  This source file currently uses only nonnegative SAVE
 549 # values, but this is intended to change and downstream code should
 550 # not rely on it.
 551 #
 552 # The following is like GB-Eire and EU, except with standard time in
 553 # summer and negative daylight saving time in winter.  It is for when
 554 # negative SAVE values are used.
 555 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 556 Rule    Eire    1971    only    -       Oct     31       2:00u  -1:00   -
 557 Rule    Eire    1972    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16       2:00u  0       -
 558 Rule    Eire    1972    1980    -       Oct     Sun>=23       2:00u  -1:00   -
 559 Rule    Eire    1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 560 Rule    Eire    1981    1989    -       Oct     Sun>=23       1:00u  -1:00   -
 561 Rule    Eire    1990    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=22       1:00u  -1:00   -
 562 Rule    Eire    1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  -1:00   -
 563 
 564 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 565 Zone    Europe/Dublin   -0:25:00 -      LMT     1880 Aug  2
 566                         -0:25:21 -      DMT     1916 May 21  2:00s
 567                         -0:25:21 1:00   IST     1916 Oct  1  2:00s
 568                          0:00   GB-Eire %s      1921 Dec  6 # independence
 569                          0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25  2:00s
 570                          0:00   1:00    IST     1946 Oct  6  2:00s
 571                          0:00   -       GMT     1947 Mar 16  2:00s
 572                          0:00   1:00    IST     1947 Nov  2  2:00s
 573                          0:00   -       GMT     1948 Apr 18  2:00s
 574                          0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1968 Oct 27
 575 # The next line is for when negative SAVE values are used.
 576                          1:00   Eire    IST/GMT
 577 # These three lines are for when SAVE values are always nonnegative.
 578 #                        1:00   -       IST     1971 Oct 31  2:00u
 579 #                        0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996
 580 #                        0:00   EU      GMT/IST
 581 
 582 
 583 ###############################################################################
 584 
 585 # Europe
 586 
 587 # The following rules are for the European Union and for its
 588 # predecessor organization, the European Communities.
 589 # For brevity they are called "EU rules" elsewhere in this file.
 590 
 591 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 592 Rule    EU      1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1        1:00u  1:00    S
 593 Rule    EU      1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 594 Rule    EU      1978    only    -       Oct      1       1:00u  0       -
 595 Rule    EU      1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 596 Rule    EU      1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  1:00    S
 597 Rule    EU      1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 598 # The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002.  See:
 599 # Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
 600 # of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements.


 743 # of March at 2 hours and moved backwards on last Sunday of September
 744 # at 3 hours.  It was amended in 1996 to replace September with October.
 745 
 746 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-06-14):
 747 # According to Kremlin press service, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
 748 # signed a federal law "On calculation of time" on June 9, 2011.
 749 # According to the law Russia is abolishing daylight saving time.
 750 #
 751 # Medvedev signed a law "On the Calculation of Time" (in russian):
 752 # http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583
 753 #
 754 # Medvedev signed a law on the calculation of the time (in russian):
 755 # https://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html
 756 
 757 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
 758 # Take "abolishing daylight saving time" to mean that time is now considered
 759 # to be standard.
 760 
 761 # These are for backward compatibility with older versions.
 762 
 763 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 764 Zone    WET             0:00    EU      WE%sT
 765 Zone    CET             1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT
 766 Zone    MET             1:00    C-Eur   ME%sT
 767 Zone    EET             2:00    EU      EE%sT
 768 
 769 # Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST
 770 # for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage.
 771 
 772 # From Markus Kuhn (1996-07-12):
 773 # The official German names ... are
 774 #
 775 #       Mitteleuropäische Zeit (MEZ)         = UTC+01:00
 776 #       Mitteleuropäische Sommerzeit (MESZ)  = UTC+02:00
 777 #
 778 # as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz über die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),
 779 # 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111)....
 780 # I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution
 781 #
 782 #       Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
 783 #       Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit"


 803 Rule    Albania 1974    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
 804 Rule    Albania 1975    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
 805 Rule    Albania 1975    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
 806 Rule    Albania 1976    only    -       May      2      0:00    1:00    S
 807 Rule    Albania 1976    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
 808 Rule    Albania 1977    only    -       May      8      0:00    1:00    S
 809 Rule    Albania 1977    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
 810 Rule    Albania 1978    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    S
 811 Rule    Albania 1978    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 812 Rule    Albania 1979    only    -       May      5      0:00    1:00    S
 813 Rule    Albania 1979    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
 814 Rule    Albania 1980    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    S
 815 Rule    Albania 1980    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       -
 816 Rule    Albania 1981    only    -       Apr     26      0:00    1:00    S
 817 Rule    Albania 1981    only    -       Sep     27      0:00    0       -
 818 Rule    Albania 1982    only    -       May      2      0:00    1:00    S
 819 Rule    Albania 1982    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
 820 Rule    Albania 1983    only    -       Apr     18      0:00    1:00    S
 821 Rule    Albania 1983    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 822 Rule    Albania 1984    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
 823 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 824 Zone    Europe/Tirane   1:19:20 -       LMT     1914
 825                         1:00    -       CET     1940 Jun 16
 826                         1:00    Albania CE%sT   1984 Jul
 827                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 828 
 829 # Andorra
 830 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 831 Zone    Europe/Andorra  0:06:04 -       LMT     1901
 832                         0:00    -       WET     1946 Sep 30
 833                         1:00    -       CET     1985 Mar 31  2:00
 834                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 835 
 836 # Austria
 837 
 838 # Milne says Vienna time was 1:05:21.
 839 
 840 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): Shanks & Pottenger give 1918-06-16 and
 841 # 1945-11-18, but the Austrian Federal Office of Metrology and
 842 # Surveying (BEV) gives 1918-09-16 and for Vienna gives the "alleged"
 843 # date of 1945-04-12 with no time.  For the 1980-04-06 transition
 844 # Shanks & Pottenger give 02:00, the BEV 00:00.  Go with the BEV,
 845 # and guess 02:00 for 1945-04-12.
 846 
 847 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 848 Rule    Austria 1920    only    -       Apr      5      2:00s   1:00    S
 849 Rule    Austria 1920    only    -       Sep     13      2:00s   0       -
 850 Rule    Austria 1946    only    -       Apr     14      2:00s   1:00    S
 851 Rule    Austria 1946    1948    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 852 Rule    Austria 1947    only    -       Apr      6      2:00s   1:00    S
 853 Rule    Austria 1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
 854 Rule    Austria 1980    only    -       Apr      6      0:00    1:00    S
 855 Rule    Austria 1980    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
 856 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 857 Zone    Europe/Vienna   1:05:21 -       LMT     1893 Apr
 858                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1920
 859                         1:00    Austria CE%sT   1940 Apr  1  2:00s
 860                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00s
 861                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1945 Apr 12  2:00s
 862                         1:00    -       CET     1946
 863                         1:00    Austria CE%sT   1981
 864                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 865 
 866 # Belarus
 867 #
 868 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-07-02):
 869 # http://www.lawbelarus.com/repub/sub30/texf9611.htm
 870 # (Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus from
 871 # 1992-03-25 No. 157) ... says clocks were to be moved forward at 2:00
 872 # on last Sunday of March and backward at 3:00 on last Sunday of September
 873 # (the same as previous USSR and contemporary Russian regulations).
 874 #
 875 # From Yauhen Kharuzhy (2011-09-16):
 876 # By latest Belarus government act Europe/Minsk timezone was changed to
 877 # GMT+3 without DST (was GMT+2 with DST).
 878 #
 879 # Sources (Russian language):
 880 # http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html
 881 # http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/
 882 # https://news.tut.by/society/250578.html
 883 #
 884 # From Alexander Bokovoy (2014-10-09):
 885 # Belarussian government decided against changing to winter time....
 886 # http://eng.belta.by/all_news/society/Belarus-decides-against-adjusting-time-in-Russias-wake_i_76335.html
 887 #
 888 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 889 Zone    Europe/Minsk    1:50:16 -       LMT     1880
 890                         1:50    -       MMT     1924 May  2 # Minsk Mean Time
 891                         2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
 892                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jun 28
 893                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Jul  3
 894                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
 895                         3:00    -       MSK     1991 Mar 31  2:00s
 896                         2:00    Russia  EE%sT   2011 Mar 27  2:00s
 897                         3:00    -       +03
 898 
 899 # Belgium
 900 #
 901 # From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02):
 902 # Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from:
 903 #       Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique,
 904 #       Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe année, 1991
 905 #       (Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC),
 906 #       pp 8-9.
 907 # LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium:
 908 #       Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121.


 932 Rule    Belgium 1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S
 933 Rule    Belgium 1928    1938    -       Oct     Sun>=2        2:00s  0       -
 934 Rule    Belgium 1929    only    -       Apr     21       2:00s  1:00    S
 935 Rule    Belgium 1930    only    -       Apr     13       2:00s  1:00    S
 936 Rule    Belgium 1931    only    -       Apr     19       2:00s  1:00    S
 937 Rule    Belgium 1932    only    -       Apr      3       2:00s  1:00    S
 938 Rule    Belgium 1933    only    -       Mar     26       2:00s  1:00    S
 939 Rule    Belgium 1934    only    -       Apr      8       2:00s  1:00    S
 940 Rule    Belgium 1935    only    -       Mar     31       2:00s  1:00    S
 941 Rule    Belgium 1936    only    -       Apr     19       2:00s  1:00    S
 942 Rule    Belgium 1937    only    -       Apr      4       2:00s  1:00    S
 943 Rule    Belgium 1938    only    -       Mar     27       2:00s  1:00    S
 944 Rule    Belgium 1939    only    -       Apr     16       2:00s  1:00    S
 945 Rule    Belgium 1939    only    -       Nov     19       2:00s  0       -
 946 Rule    Belgium 1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00s  1:00    S
 947 Rule    Belgium 1944    only    -       Sep     17       2:00s  0       -
 948 Rule    Belgium 1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
 949 Rule    Belgium 1945    only    -       Sep     16       2:00s  0       -
 950 Rule    Belgium 1946    only    -       May     19       2:00s  1:00    S
 951 Rule    Belgium 1946    only    -       Oct      7       2:00s  0       -
 952 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 953 Zone    Europe/Brussels 0:17:30 -       LMT     1880
 954                         0:17:30 -       BMT     1892 May  1 12:00  # Brussels MT
 955                         0:00    -       WET     1914 Nov  8
 956                         1:00    -       CET     1916 May  1  0:00
 957                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 Nov 11 11:00u
 958                         0:00    Belgium WE%sT   1940 May 20  2:00s
 959                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep  3
 960                         1:00    Belgium CE%sT   1977
 961                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 962 
 963 # Bosnia and Herzegovina
 964 # See Europe/Belgrade.
 965 
 966 # Bulgaria
 967 #
 968 # From Plamen Simenov via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
 969 # A document of Government of Bulgaria (No. 94/1997) says:
 970 # EET -> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ...
 971 # EETDST -> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October
 972 #
 973 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 974 Rule    Bulg    1979    only    -       Mar     31      23:00   1:00    S
 975 Rule    Bulg    1979    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       -
 976 Rule    Bulg    1980    1982    -       Apr     Sat>=1       23:00   1:00    S
 977 Rule    Bulg    1980    only    -       Sep     29       1:00   0       -
 978 Rule    Bulg    1981    only    -       Sep     27       2:00   0       -
 979 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 980 Zone    Europe/Sofia    1:33:16 -       LMT     1880
 981                         1:56:56 -       IMT     1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT?
 982                         2:00    -       EET     1942 Nov  2  3:00
 983                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
 984                         1:00    -       CET     1945 Apr  2  3:00
 985                         2:00    -       EET     1979 Mar 31 23:00
 986                         2:00    Bulg    EE%sT   1982 Sep 26  3:00
 987                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1991
 988                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997
 989                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
 990 
 991 # Croatia
 992 # See Europe/Belgrade.
 993 
 994 # Cyprus
 995 # Please see the 'asia' file for Asia/Nicosia.
 996 
 997 # Czech Republic / Czechia
 998 #
 999 # From Paul Eggert (2018-04-15):
1000 # The source for Czech data is: Kdy začíná a končí letní čas. 2018-04-15.
1001 # https://kalendar.beda.cz/kdy-zacina-a-konci-letni-cas
1002 # We know of no English-language name for historical Czech winter time;
1003 # abbreviate it as "GMT", as it happened to be GMT.
1004 #
1005 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1006 Rule    Czech   1945    only    -       Apr     Mon>=1       2:00s   1:00    S
1007 Rule    Czech   1945    only    -       Oct      1      2:00s   0       -
1008 Rule    Czech   1946    only    -       May      6      2:00s   1:00    S
1009 Rule    Czech   1946    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
1010 Rule    Czech   1947    1948    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00s   1:00    S
1011 Rule    Czech   1949    only    -       Apr      9      2:00s   1:00    S
1012 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1013 Zone    Europe/Prague   0:57:44 -       LMT     1850
1014                         0:57:44 -       PMT     1891 Oct    # Prague Mean Time
1015                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 May  9
1016                         1:00    Czech   CE%sT   1946 Dec  1  3:00
1017 # Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST.
1018                         1:00    -1:00   GMT     1947 Feb 23  2:00
1019 # Rearguard section, for parsers that do not support negative DST.
1020 #                       0:00    -       GMT     1947 Feb 23  2:00
1021 # End of rearguard section.
1022                         1:00    Czech   CE%sT   1979
1023                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1024 # Use Europe/Prague also for Slovakia.
1025 
1026 # Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland
1027 
1028 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-04-26):
1029 # http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law
1030 # [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01....
1031 # The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL
1032 # confirms this, and states that the law was put forth 1893-03-29.
1033 #
1034 # The EU [actually, EEC and Euratom] treaty with effect from 1973:
1035 # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL
1036 #
1037 # This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes
1038 # in subsequent decrees with the law
1039 # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL
1040 #


1054 # The Herning Folkeblad (1980-09-26) reported that the night between
1055 # Saturday and Sunday the clock is set back from three to two.
1056 
1057 # From Paul Eggert (2005-06-11):
1058 # Hence the "02:00" of the 1980 law refers to standard time, not
1059 # wall-clock time, and so the EU rules were in effect in 1980.
1060 
1061 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1062 Rule    Denmark 1916    only    -       May     14      23:00   1:00    S
1063 Rule    Denmark 1916    only    -       Sep     30      23:00   0       -
1064 Rule    Denmark 1940    only    -       May     15       0:00   1:00    S
1065 Rule    Denmark 1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
1066 Rule    Denmark 1945    only    -       Aug     15       2:00s  0       -
1067 Rule    Denmark 1946    only    -       May      1       2:00s  1:00    S
1068 Rule    Denmark 1946    only    -       Sep      1       2:00s  0       -
1069 Rule    Denmark 1947    only    -       May      4       2:00s  1:00    S
1070 Rule    Denmark 1947    only    -       Aug     10       2:00s  0       -
1071 Rule    Denmark 1948    only    -       May      9       2:00s  1:00    S
1072 Rule    Denmark 1948    only    -       Aug      8       2:00s  0       -
1073 #
1074 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1075 Zone Europe/Copenhagen   0:50:20 -      LMT     1890
1076                          0:50:20 -      CMT     1894 Jan  1 # Copenhagen MT
1077                          1:00   Denmark CE%sT   1942 Nov  2  2:00s
1078                          1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
1079                          1:00   Denmark CE%sT   1980
1080                          1:00   EU      CE%sT
1081 Zone Atlantic/Faroe     -0:27:04 -      LMT     1908 Jan 11 # Tórshavn
1082                          0:00   -       WET     1981
1083                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
1084 #
1085 # From Paul Eggert (2004-10-31):
1086 # During World War II, Germany maintained secret manned weather stations in
1087 # East Greenland and Franz Josef Land, but we don't know their time zones.
1088 # My source for this is Wilhelm Dege's book mentioned under Svalbard.
1089 #
1090 # From Paul Eggert (2017-12-10):
1091 # Greenland joined the European Communities as part of Denmark,
1092 # obtained home rule on 1979-05-01, and left the European Communities
1093 # on 1985-02-01.  It therefore should have been using EU
1094 # rules at least through 1984.  Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthåb


1151 # the 1995 map as like Godthåb.
1152 # For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthåb before 1996.
1153 # startkart.no says Thule does not observe DST, but this is clearly an error,
1154 # so go with Shanks & Pottenger for Thule transitions until this year.
1155 # For 2007 on assume Thule will stay in sync with US DST rules.
1156 
1157 # From J William Piggott (2016-02-20):
1158 # "Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund" is officially named
1159 # "National Park" by Executive Order:
1160 # http://naalakkersuisut.gl/~/media/Nanoq/Files/Attached%20Files/Engelske-tekster/Legislation/Executive%20Order%20National%20Park.rtf
1161 # It is their only National Park.
1162 #
1163 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1164 Rule    Thule   1991    1992    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1165 Rule    Thule   1991    1992    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1166 Rule    Thule   1993    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1167 Rule    Thule   1993    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1168 Rule    Thule   2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1169 Rule    Thule   2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
1170 #
1171 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1172 Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 -    LMT     1916 Jul 28
1173                         -3:00   -       -03     1980 Apr  6  2:00
1174                         -3:00   EU      -03/-02 1996
1175                         0:00    -       GMT
1176 Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 -    LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit
1177                         -2:00   -       -02     1980 Apr  6  2:00
1178                         -2:00   C-Eur   -02/-01 1981 Mar 29
1179                         -1:00   EU      -01/+00
1180 Zone America/Godthab    -3:26:56 -      LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk
1181                         -3:00   -       -03     1980 Apr  6  2:00
1182                         -3:00   EU      -03/-02
1183 Zone America/Thule      -4:35:08 -      LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik air base
1184                         -4:00   Thule   A%sT
1185 
1186 # Estonia
1187 #
1188 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
1189 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
1190 #
1191 # From Peter Ilieve (1994-10-15):


1217 # via Steffen Thorsen:
1218 # This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time,
1219 # a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6....
1220 # But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European
1221 # Union are still unclear.  In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory
1222 # for all member states until 2001.  Brussels has yet to decide what to do
1223 # after that.
1224 
1225 # From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29):
1226 # Regulation No. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation
1227 # No. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all
1228 # the year round.  The regulation is effective 1999-11-01.
1229 
1230 # From Toomas Soome (2002-02-21):
1231 # The Estonian government has changed once again timezone politics.
1232 # Now we are using again EU rules.
1233 #
1234 # From Urmet Jänes (2002-03-28):
1235 # The legislative reference is Government decree No. 84 on 2002-02-21.
1236 
1237 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1238 Zone    Europe/Tallinn  1:39:00 -       LMT     1880
1239                         1:39:00 -       TMT     1918 Feb    # Tallinn Mean Time
1240                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1919 Jul
1241                         1:39:00 -       TMT     1921 May
1242                         2:00    -       EET     1940 Aug  6
1243                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Sep 15
1244                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep 22
1245                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
1246                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1989 Sep 24  2:00s
1247                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1998 Sep 22
1248                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   1999 Oct 31  4:00
1249                         2:00    -       EET     2002 Feb 21
1250                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1251 
1252 # Finland
1253 
1254 # From Hannu Strang (1994-09-25 06:03:37 UTC):
1255 # Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one,
1256 # and it's supposed to change at 4am...
1257 


1280 # [Heikki Oja's book Aikakirja 2013]
1281 # https://almanakka.helsinki.fi/images/aikakirja/Aikakirja2013kokonaan.pdf
1282 # pages 104-105, including a scan from a newspaper published on Apr 2 1942
1283 # say that ... [o]n Apr 2 1942, 24 o'clock (which means Apr 3 1942,
1284 # 00:00), clocks were moved one hour forward. The newspaper
1285 # mentions "on the night from Thursday to Friday"....
1286 # On Oct 4 1942, clocks were moved at 1:00 one hour backwards.
1287 #
1288 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-14):
1289 # Go with Oja over Shanks.
1290 
1291 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1292 Rule    Finland 1942    only    -       Apr     2       24:00   1:00    S
1293 Rule    Finland 1942    only    -       Oct     4       1:00    0       -
1294 Rule    Finland 1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    S
1295 Rule    Finland 1981    1982    -       Sep     lastSun 3:00    0       -
1296 
1297 # Milne says Helsinki (Helsingfors) time was 1:39:49.2 (official document);
1298 # round to nearest.
1299 
1300 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1301 Zone    Europe/Helsinki 1:39:49 -       LMT     1878 May 31
1302                         1:39:49 -       HMT     1921 May    # Helsinki Mean Time
1303                         2:00    Finland EE%sT   1983
1304                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1305 
1306 # Åland Is
1307 Link    Europe/Helsinki Europe/Mariehamn
1308 
1309 
1310 # France
1311 
1312 # From Ciro Discepolo (2000-12-20):
1313 #
1314 # Henri Le Corre, Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, Éditions
1315 # Traditionnelles - Paris 2 books, 1993
1316 #
1317 # Gabriel, Traité de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Trédaniel,
1318 # Paris, 1991
1319 #
1320 # Françoise Gauquelin, Problèmes de l'heure résolus en astrologie,


1370 # but go with Denis Excoffier (1997-12-12),
1371 # who quotes the Ephémérides astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes
1372 # as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.
1373 Rule    France  1941    only    -       Oct      6       0:00   1:00    S
1374 Rule    France  1942    only    -       Mar      9       0:00   2:00    M
1375 Rule    France  1942    only    -       Nov      2       3:00   1:00    S
1376 Rule    France  1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00   2:00    M
1377 Rule    France  1943    only    -       Oct      4       3:00   1:00    S
1378 Rule    France  1944    only    -       Apr      3       2:00   2:00    M
1379 Rule    France  1944    only    -       Oct      8       1:00   1:00    S
1380 Rule    France  1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00   2:00    M
1381 Rule    France  1945    only    -       Sep     16       3:00   0       -
1382 # Shanks & Pottenger give Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00;
1383 # go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT.
1384 Rule    France  1976    only    -       Mar     28       1:00   1:00    S
1385 Rule    France  1976    only    -       Sep     26       1:00   0       -
1386 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman 0:09:05,
1387 # but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21.
1388 # Go with Howse.  Howse writes that the time in France was officially based
1389 # on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.
1390 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1391 Zone    Europe/Paris    0:09:21 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15  0:01
1392                         0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11  0:01 # Paris MT
1393 # Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre.
1394                         0:00    France  WE%sT   1940 Jun 14 23:00
1395 # Le Corre says Paris stuck with occupied-France time after the liberation;
1396 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1397                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug 25
1398                         0:00    France  WE%sT   1945 Sep 16  3:00
1399                         1:00    France  CE%sT   1977
1400                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1401 
1402 # Germany
1403 
1404 # From Markus Kuhn (1998-09-29):
1405 # The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische
1406 # Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916.
1407 # [See tz-link.html for the URL.]
1408 
1409 # From Jörg Schilling (2002-10-23):
1410 # In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by


1418 # this was equivalent to UT +03, not +04.
1419 
1420 
1421 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1422 Rule    Germany 1946    only    -       Apr     14      2:00s   1:00    S
1423 Rule    Germany 1946    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   0       -
1424 Rule    Germany 1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
1425 # http://www.ptb.de/de/org/4/44/441/salt.htm says the following transition
1426 # occurred at 3:00 MEZ, not the 2:00 MEZ given in Shanks & Pottenger.
1427 # Go with the PTB.
1428 Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       Apr      6      3:00s   1:00    S
1429 Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       May     11      2:00s   2:00    M
1430 Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       Jun     29      3:00    1:00    S
1431 Rule    Germany 1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
1432 Rule    Germany 1949    only    -       Apr     10      2:00s   1:00    S
1433 
1434 Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       May     24      2:00    2:00    M # Midsummer
1435 Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       Sep     24      3:00    1:00    S
1436 Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       Nov     18      2:00s   0       -
1437 
1438 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1439 Zone    Europe/Berlin   0:53:28 -       LMT     1893 Apr
1440                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 May 24  2:00
1441                         1:00 SovietZone CE%sT   1946
1442                         1:00    Germany CE%sT   1980
1443                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1444 
1445 # From Tobias Conradi (2011-09-12):
1446 # Büsingen <http://www.buesingen.de>, surrounded by the Swiss canton
1447 # Schaffhausen, did not start observing DST in 1980 as the rest of DE
1448 # (West Germany at that time) and DD (East Germany at that time) did.
1449 # DD merged into DE, the area is currently covered by code DE in ISO 3166-1,
1450 # which in turn is covered by the zone Europe/Berlin.
1451 #
1452 # Source for the time in Büsingen 1980:
1453 # http://www.srf.ch/player/video?id=c012c029-03b7-4c2b-9164-aa5902cd58d3
1454 
1455 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-03):
1456 # Büsingen and Zurich have shared clocks since 1970.
1457 
1458 Link    Europe/Zurich   Europe/Busingen
1459 
1460 # Georgia
1461 # Please see the "asia" file for Asia/Tbilisi.
1462 # Herodotus (Histories, IV.45) says Georgia north of the Phasis (now Rioni)
1463 # is in Europe.  Our reference location Tbilisi is in the Asian part.
1464 
1465 # Gibraltar
1466 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1467 Zone Europe/Gibraltar   -0:21:24 -      LMT     1880 Aug  2  0:00s
1468                         0:00    GB-Eire %s      1957 Apr 14  2:00
1469                         1:00    -       CET     1982
1470                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1471 
1472 # Greece
1473 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1474 # Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1475 Rule    Greece  1932    only    -       Jul      7      0:00    1:00    S
1476 Rule    Greece  1932    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    0       -
1477 # Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1478 Rule    Greece  1941    only    -       Apr      7      0:00    1:00    S
1479 # Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1480 Rule    Greece  1942    only    -       Nov      2      3:00    0       -
1481 Rule    Greece  1943    only    -       Mar     30      0:00    1:00    S
1482 Rule    Greece  1943    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       -
1483 # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1484 Rule    Greece  1952    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    S
1485 Rule    Greece  1952    only    -       Nov      2      0:00    0       -
1486 Rule    Greece  1975    only    -       Apr     12      0:00s   1:00    S
1487 Rule    Greece  1975    only    -       Nov     26      0:00s   0       -
1488 Rule    Greece  1976    only    -       Apr     11      2:00s   1:00    S
1489 Rule    Greece  1976    only    -       Oct     10      2:00s   0       -
1490 Rule    Greece  1977    1978    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    S
1491 Rule    Greece  1977    only    -       Sep     26      2:00s   0       -
1492 Rule    Greece  1978    only    -       Sep     24      4:00    0       -
1493 Rule    Greece  1979    only    -       Apr      1      9:00    1:00    S
1494 Rule    Greece  1979    only    -       Sep     29      2:00    0       -
1495 Rule    Greece  1980    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
1496 Rule    Greece  1980    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
1497 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1498 Zone    Europe/Athens   1:34:52 -       LMT     1895 Sep 14
1499                         1:34:52 -       AMT     1916 Jul 28  0:01 # Athens MT
1500                         2:00    Greece  EE%sT   1941 Apr 30
1501                         1:00    Greece  CE%sT   1944 Apr  4
1502                         2:00    Greece  EE%sT   1981
1503                         # Shanks & Pottenger say it switched to C-Eur in 1981;
1504                         # go with EU rules instead, since Greece joined Jan 1.
1505                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1506 
1507 # Hungary
1508 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15):
1509 # Dates for 1916-1945 are taken from:
1510 # Oross A. Jelen a múlt jövője: a nyári időszámítás Magyarországon 1916-1945.
1511 # National Archives of Hungary (2012-10-29).
1512 # http://mnl.gov.hu/a_het_dokumentuma/a_nyari_idoszamitas_magyarorszagon_19161945.html
1513 # This source does not always give times, which are taken from Shanks
1514 # & Pottenger (which disagree about the dates).
1515 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1516 Rule    Hungary 1918    only    -       Apr      1       3:00   1:00    S
1517 Rule    Hungary 1918    only    -       Sep     16       3:00   0       -
1518 Rule    Hungary 1919    only    -       Apr     15       3:00   1:00    S
1519 Rule    Hungary 1919    only    -       Nov     24       3:00   0       -
1520 Rule    Hungary 1945    only    -       May      1      23:00   1:00    S
1521 Rule    Hungary 1945    only    -       Nov      1       0:00   0       -
1522 Rule    Hungary 1946    only    -       Mar     31       2:00s  1:00    S
1523 Rule    Hungary 1946    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1        2:00s  0       -
1524 Rule    Hungary 1947    1949    -       Apr     Sun>=4        2:00s  1:00    S
1525 Rule    Hungary 1950    only    -       Apr     17       2:00s  1:00    S
1526 Rule    Hungary 1950    only    -       Oct     23       2:00s  0       -
1527 Rule    Hungary 1954    1955    -       May     23       0:00   1:00    S
1528 Rule    Hungary 1954    1955    -       Oct      3       0:00   0       -
1529 Rule    Hungary 1956    only    -       Jun     Sun>=1        0:00   1:00    S
1530 Rule    Hungary 1956    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
1531 Rule    Hungary 1957    only    -       Jun     Sun>=1        1:00   1:00    S
1532 Rule    Hungary 1957    only    -       Sep     lastSun  3:00   0       -
1533 Rule    Hungary 1980    only    -       Apr      6       1:00   1:00    S
1534 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1535 Zone    Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 -       LMT     1890 Oct
1536                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918
1537                         1:00    Hungary CE%sT   1941 Apr  8
1538                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
1539                         1:00    Hungary CE%sT   1980 Sep 28  2:00s
1540                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1541 
1542 # Iceland
1543 #
1544 # From Adam David (1993-11-06):
1545 # The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.
1546 #
1547 # (1993-12-05):
1548 # This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of
1549 # Iceland Almanak.
1550 #
1551 # From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour
1552 # behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts
1553 # of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavik mean solar time which
1554 # was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT.


1575 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1576 Rule    Iceland 1917    1919    -       Feb     19      23:00   1:00    -
1577 Rule    Iceland 1917    only    -       Oct     21       1:00   0       -
1578 Rule    Iceland 1918    1919    -       Nov     16       1:00   0       -
1579 Rule    Iceland 1921    only    -       Mar     19      23:00   1:00    -
1580 Rule    Iceland 1921    only    -       Jun     23       1:00   0       -
1581 Rule    Iceland 1939    only    -       Apr     29      23:00   1:00    -
1582 Rule    Iceland 1939    only    -       Oct     29       2:00   0       -
1583 Rule    Iceland 1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00   1:00    -
1584 Rule    Iceland 1940    1941    -       Nov     Sun>=2        1:00s  0       -
1585 Rule    Iceland 1941    1942    -       Mar     Sun>=2        1:00s  1:00    -
1586 # 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter
1587 Rule    Iceland 1943    1946    -       Mar     Sun>=1        1:00s  1:00    -
1588 Rule    Iceland 1942    1948    -       Oct     Sun>=22       1:00s  0       -
1589 # 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter
1590 Rule    Iceland 1947    1967    -       Apr     Sun>=1        1:00s  1:00    -
1591 # 1949 and 1967 Oct transitions delayed by 1 week
1592 Rule    Iceland 1949    only    -       Oct     30       1:00s  0       -
1593 Rule    Iceland 1950    1966    -       Oct     Sun>=22       1:00s  0       -
1594 Rule    Iceland 1967    only    -       Oct     29       1:00s  0       -
1595 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1596 Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:28   -       LMT     1908
1597                         -1:00   Iceland -01/+00 1968 Apr  7  1:00s
1598                          0:00   -       GMT
1599 
1600 # Italy
1601 #
1602 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
1603 # Sicily and Sardinia each had their own time zones from 1866 to 1893,
1604 # called Palermo Time (+00:53:28) and Cagliari Time (+00:36:32).
1605 # During World War II, German-controlled Italy used German time.
1606 # But these events all occurred before the 1970 cutoff,
1607 # so record only the time in Rome.
1608 #
1609 # From Stephen Trainor (2019-05-06):
1610 # http://www.ac-ilsestante.it/MERIDIANE/ora_legale/ORA_LEGALE_ESTIVA_IN_ITALIA.htm
1611 # ... the [1866] law went into effect on 12 December 1866, rather than
1612 # the date of the decree (22 Sep 1866)
1613 # https://web.archive.org/web/20070824155341/http://www.iav.it/planetario/didastro/didastro/english.htm
1614 # ... "In Italy in 1866 there were 6 railway times (Torino, Verona, Firenze,
1615 # Roma, Napoli, Palermo). On that year it was decided to unify them, adopting
1616 # the average time of Rome (even if this city was not yet part of the
1617 # kingdom).  On the 12th December 1866, on the starting of the winter time
1618 # table, it took effect in the railways, the post office and the telegraph,
1619 # not only for the internal service but also for the public....  Milano set
1620 # the public watches on the Rome time on the same day (12th December 1866),
1621 # Torino and Bologna on the 1st January 1867, Venezia the 1st May 1880 and the
1622 # last city was Cagliari in 1886."
1623 #
1624 # From Luigi Rosa (2019-05-07):
1625 # this is the scan of the decree:
1626 # http://www.radiomarconi.com/marconi/filopanti/1866c.jpg
1627 #
1628 # From Michael Deckers (2016-10-24):
1629 # http://www.ac-ilsestante.it/MERIDIANE/ora_legale quotes a law of 1893-08-10
1630 # ... [translated as] "The preceding dispositions will enter into
1631 # force at the instant at which, according to the time specified in
1632 # the 1st article, the 1st of November 1893 will begin...."
1633 #
1634 # From Pierpaolo Bernardi (2016-10-20):
1635 # The authoritative source for time in Italy is the national metrological
1636 # institute, which has a summary page of historical DST data at
1637 # http://www.inrim.it/res/tf/ora_legale_i.shtml
1638 # [now at http://oldsite.inrim.it/res/tf/ora_legale_i.shtml as of 2017]
1639 # (2016-10-24):
1640 # http://www.renzobaldini.it/le-ore-legali-in-italia/
1641 # has still different data for 1944.  It divides Italy in two, as
1642 # there were effectively two governments at the time, north of Gothic
1643 # Line German controlled territory, official government RSI, and south
1644 # of the Gothic Line, controlled by allied armies.
1645 #
1646 # From Brian Inglis (2016-10-23):
1647 # Viceregal LEGISLATIVE DECREE. 14 September 1944, no. 219.
1648 # Restoration of Standard Time. (044U0219) (OJ 62 of 30.9.1944) ...
1649 # Given the R. law decreed on 1944-03-29, no. 92, by which standard time is
1650 # advanced to sixty minutes later starting at hour two on 1944-04-02; ...
1651 # Starting at hour three on the date 1944-09-17 standard time will be resumed.
1652 #
1653 # From Paul Eggert (2016-10-27):
1654 # Go with INRiM for DST rules, except as corrected by Inglis for 1944
1655 # for the Kingdom of Italy.  This is consistent with Renzo Baldini.
1656 # Model Rome's occupation by using C-Eur rules from 1943-09-10
1657 # to 1944-06-04; although Rome was an open city during this period, it
1658 # was effectively controlled by Germany.


1682 Rule    Italy   1948    only    -       Feb     29       2:00s  1:00    S
1683 Rule    Italy   1948    only    -       Oct      3       2:00s  0       -
1684 Rule    Italy   1966    1968    -       May     Sun>=22       0:00s  1:00    S
1685 Rule    Italy   1966    only    -       Sep     24      24:00   0       -
1686 Rule    Italy   1967    1969    -       Sep     Sun>=22       0:00s  0       -
1687 Rule    Italy   1969    only    -       Jun      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1688 Rule    Italy   1970    only    -       May     31       0:00s  1:00    S
1689 Rule    Italy   1970    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
1690 Rule    Italy   1971    1972    -       May     Sun>=22       0:00s  1:00    S
1691 Rule    Italy   1971    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
1692 Rule    Italy   1972    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       -
1693 Rule    Italy   1973    only    -       Jun      3       0:00s  1:00    S
1694 Rule    Italy   1973    1974    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
1695 Rule    Italy   1974    only    -       May     26       0:00s  1:00    S
1696 Rule    Italy   1975    only    -       Jun      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1697 Rule    Italy   1975    1977    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
1698 Rule    Italy   1976    only    -       May     30       0:00s  1:00    S
1699 Rule    Italy   1977    1979    -       May     Sun>=22       0:00s  1:00    S
1700 Rule    Italy   1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       -
1701 Rule    Italy   1979    only    -       Sep     30       0:00s  0       -
1702 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1703 Zone    Europe/Rome     0:49:56 -       LMT     1866 Dec 12
1704                         0:49:56 -       RMT     1893 Oct 31 23:49:56 # Rome Mean
1705                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1943 Sep 10
1706                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Jun  4
1707                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1980
1708                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1709 
1710 Link    Europe/Rome     Europe/Vatican
1711 Link    Europe/Rome     Europe/San_Marino
1712 
1713 # Latvia
1714 
1715 # From Liene Kanepe (1998-09-17):
1716 
1717 # I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy
1718 # of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the
1719 # correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about
1720 # changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981....
1721 #
1722 # Act No. 35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ...
1723 # according to the Act No. 925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24


1758 # (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow:
1759 # The Latvian government on 2 January decided that the country will
1760 # institute daylight-saving time this spring, LETA reported.
1761 # Last February the three Baltic states decided not to turn back their
1762 # clocks one hour in the spring....
1763 # Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvītis noted that Latvia had too few
1764 # daylight hours and thus decided to comply with a draft European
1765 # Commission directive that provides for instituting daylight-saving
1766 # time in EU countries between 2002 and 2006. The Latvian government
1767 # urged Lithuania and Estonia to adopt a similar time policy, but it
1768 # appears that they will not do so....
1769 
1770 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1771 Rule    Latvia  1989    1996    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
1772 Rule    Latvia  1989    1996    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
1773 
1774 # Milne 1899 says Riga was 1:36:28 (Polytechnique House time).
1775 # Byalokoz 1919 says Latvia was 1:36:34.
1776 # Go with Byalokoz.
1777 
1778 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1779 Zone    Europe/Riga     1:36:34 -       LMT     1880
1780                         1:36:34 -       RMT     1918 Apr 15  2:00 # Riga MT
1781                         1:36:34 1:00    LST     1918 Sep 16  3:00 # Latvian ST
1782                         1:36:34 -       RMT     1919 Apr  1  2:00
1783                         1:36:34 1:00    LST     1919 May 22  3:00
1784                         1:36:34 -       RMT     1926 May 11
1785                         2:00    -       EET     1940 Aug  5
1786                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jul
1787                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct 13
1788                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun  2:00s
1789                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1989 Sep lastSun  2:00s
1790                         2:00    Latvia  EE%sT   1997 Jan 21
1791                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2000 Feb 29
1792                         2:00    -       EET     2001 Jan  2
1793                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1794 
1795 # Liechtenstein
1796 
1797 # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-09):
1798 # Shanks & Pottenger say Vaduz is like Zurich.


1828 # Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours)
1829 # to be valid here starting from October 31,
1830 # as decided by the national government on Wednesday....
1831 # The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a
1832 # motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was
1833 # already done by Estonia.
1834 
1835 # From the Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism
1836 # <http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm> (2000-03-27):
1837 # Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving.
1838 
1839 # From a user via Klaus Marten (2003-02-07):
1840 # As a candidate for membership of the European Union, Lithuania will
1841 # observe Summer Time in 2003, changing its clocks at the times laid
1842 # down in EU Directive 2000/84 of 19.I.01 (i.e. at the same times as its
1843 # neighbour Latvia). The text of the Lithuanian government Order of
1844 # 7.XI.02 to this effect can be found at
1845 # http://www.lrvk.lt/nut/11/n1749.htm
1846 
1847 
1848 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1849 Zone    Europe/Vilnius  1:41:16 -       LMT     1880
1850                         1:24:00 -       WMT     1917        # Warsaw Mean Time
1851                         1:35:36 -       KMT     1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time
1852                         1:00    -       CET     1920 Jul 12
1853                         2:00    -       EET     1920 Oct  9
1854                         1:00    -       CET     1940 Aug  3
1855                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jun 24
1856                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug
1857                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
1858                         2:00    Russia  EE%sT   1991 Sep 29  2:00s
1859                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1998
1860                         2:00    -       EET     1998 Mar 29  1:00u
1861                         1:00    EU      CE%sT   1999 Oct 31  1:00u
1862                         2:00    -       EET     2003 Jan  1
1863                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1864 
1865 # Luxembourg
1866 # Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways;
1867 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1868 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S


1872 Rule    Lux     1917    only    -       Sep     17       1:00   0       -
1873 Rule    Lux     1918    only    -       Apr     Mon>=15       2:00s  1:00    S
1874 Rule    Lux     1918    only    -       Sep     Mon>=15       2:00s  0       -
1875 Rule    Lux     1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00   1:00    S
1876 Rule    Lux     1919    only    -       Oct      5       3:00   0       -
1877 Rule    Lux     1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00   1:00    S
1878 Rule    Lux     1920    only    -       Oct     24       2:00   0       -
1879 Rule    Lux     1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00   1:00    S
1880 Rule    Lux     1921    only    -       Oct     26       2:00   0       -
1881 Rule    Lux     1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00   1:00    S
1882 Rule    Lux     1922    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2        1:00   0       -
1883 Rule    Lux     1923    only    -       Apr     21      23:00   1:00    S
1884 Rule    Lux     1923    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2        2:00   0       -
1885 Rule    Lux     1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00   1:00    S
1886 Rule    Lux     1924    1928    -       Oct     Sun>=2        1:00   0       -
1887 Rule    Lux     1925    only    -       Apr      5      23:00   1:00    S
1888 Rule    Lux     1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00   1:00    S
1889 Rule    Lux     1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00   1:00    S
1890 Rule    Lux     1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00   1:00    S
1891 Rule    Lux     1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00   1:00    S
1892 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1893 Zone Europe/Luxembourg  0:24:36 -       LMT     1904 Jun
1894                         1:00    Lux     CE%sT   1918 Nov 25
1895                         0:00    Lux     WE%sT   1929 Oct  6  2:00s
1896                         0:00    Belgium WE%sT   1940 May 14  3:00
1897                         1:00    C-Eur   WE%sT   1944 Sep 18  3:00
1898                         1:00    Belgium CE%sT   1977
1899                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1900 
1901 # North Macedonia
1902 # See Europe/Belgrade.
1903 
1904 # Malta
1905 #
1906 # From Paul Eggert (2016-10-21):
1907 # Assume 1900-1972 was like Rome, overriding Shanks.
1908 #
1909 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1910 Rule    Malta   1973    only    -       Mar     31      0:00s   1:00    S
1911 Rule    Malta   1973    only    -       Sep     29      0:00s   0       -
1912 Rule    Malta   1974    only    -       Apr     21      0:00s   1:00    S
1913 Rule    Malta   1974    only    -       Sep     16      0:00s   0       -
1914 Rule    Malta   1975    1979    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00    1:00    S
1915 Rule    Malta   1975    1980    -       Sep     Sun>=15      2:00    0       -
1916 Rule    Malta   1980    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S
1917 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1918 Zone    Europe/Malta    0:58:04 -       LMT     1893 Nov  2  0:00s # Valletta
1919                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1973 Mar 31
1920                         1:00    Malta   CE%sT   1981
1921                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1922 
1923 # Moldova
1924 
1925 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
1926 # the act of the government of the Republic of Moldova Nr. 132 from 1990-05-04
1927 # http://lex.justice.md/viewdoc.php?action=view&view=doc&id=298782&lang=2
1928 # ... says that since 1990-05-06 on the territory of the Moldavian SSR
1929 # time would be calculated as the standard time of the second time belt
1930 # plus one hour of the "summer" time. To implement that clocks would be
1931 # adjusted one hour backwards at 1990-05-06 2:00. After that "summer"
1932 # time would be cancelled last Sunday of September at 3:00 and
1933 # reintroduced last Sunday of March at 2:00.
1934 
1935 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1936 # A previous version of this database followed Shanks & Pottenger, who write
1937 # that Tiraspol switched to Moscow time on 1992-01-19 at 02:00.


1966 # As of today, Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)- Tiraspol reversed its own
1967 # decision to abolish DST this winter.
1968 # Following Moldova and neighboring Ukraine- Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)-
1969 # Tiraspol will go back to winter time on October 30, 2011.
1970 # News from Moldova (in russian):
1971 # https://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html
1972 
1973 # From Roman Tudos (2015-07-02):
1974 # http://lex.justice.md/index.php?action=view&view=doc&lang=1&id=355077
1975 # From Paul Eggert (2015-07-01):
1976 # The abovementioned official link to IGO1445-868/2014 states that
1977 # 2014-10-26's fallback transition occurred at 03:00 local time.  Also,
1978 # https://www.trm.md/en/social/la-30-martie-vom-trece-la-ora-de-vara
1979 # says the 2014-03-30 spring-forward transition was at 02:00 local time.
1980 # Guess that since 1997 Moldova has switched one hour before the EU.
1981 
1982 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1983 Rule    Moldova 1997    max     -       Mar     lastSun  2:00   1:00    S
1984 Rule    Moldova 1997    max     -       Oct     lastSun  3:00   0       -
1985 
1986 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1987 Zone    Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 -       LMT     1880
1988                         1:55    -       CMT     1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT
1989                         1:44:24 -       BMT     1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
1990                         2:00    Romania EE%sT   1940 Aug 15
1991                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1941 Jul 17
1992                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug 24
1993                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990 May  6  2:00
1994                         2:00    Russia  EE%sT   1992
1995                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997
1996 # See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules.
1997                         2:00    Moldova EE%sT
1998 
1999 # Monaco
2000 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
2001 # more precise 0:09:21.
2002 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2003 Zone    Europe/Monaco   0:29:32 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15
2004                         0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
2005                         0:00    France  WE%sT   1945 Sep 16  3:00
2006                         1:00    France  CE%sT   1977
2007                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
2008 
2009 # Montenegro
2010 # See Europe/Belgrade.
2011 
2012 # Netherlands
2013 
2014 # Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940,
2015 # but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time.
2016 
2017 # However, Robert H. van Gent writes (2001-04-01):
2018 # Howse's statement is only correct up to 1909. From 1909-05-01 (00:00:00
2019 # Amsterdam mean time) onwards, the whole of the Netherlands (including
2020 # the Dutch railways) was required by law to observe Amsterdam mean time
2021 # (19 minutes 32.13 seconds ahead of GMT). This had already been the
2022 # common practice (except for the railways) for many decades but it was


2057 Rule    Neth    1918    1921    -       Apr     Mon>=1       2:00s   1:00    NST
2058 Rule    Neth    1918    1921    -       Sep     lastMon 2:00s   0       AMT
2059 Rule    Neth    1922    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    NST
2060 Rule    Neth    1922    1936    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       AMT
2061 Rule    Neth    1923    only    -       Jun     Fri>=1       2:00s   1:00    NST
2062 Rule    Neth    1924    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    NST
2063 Rule    Neth    1925    only    -       Jun     Fri>=1       2:00s   1:00    NST
2064 # From 1926 through 1939 DST began 05-15, except that it was delayed by a week
2065 # in years when 05-15 fell in the Pentecost weekend.
2066 Rule    Neth    1926    1931    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    NST
2067 Rule    Neth    1932    only    -       May     22      2:00s   1:00    NST
2068 Rule    Neth    1933    1936    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    NST
2069 Rule    Neth    1937    only    -       May     22      2:00s   1:00    NST
2070 Rule    Neth    1937    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    S
2071 Rule    Neth    1937    1939    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       -
2072 Rule    Neth    1938    1939    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    S
2073 Rule    Neth    1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00s   1:00    S
2074 Rule    Neth    1945    only    -       Sep     16      2:00s   0       -
2075 #
2076 # Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13, but the .13 is omitted
2077 # below because the current format requires STDOFF to be an integer.
2078 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2079 Zone Europe/Amsterdam   0:19:32 -       LMT     1835
2080                         0:19:32 Neth    %s      1937 Jul  1
2081                         0:20    Neth +0020/+0120 1940 May 16  0:00
2082                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
2083                         1:00    Neth    CE%sT   1977
2084                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
2085 
2086 # Norway
2087 # http://met.no/met/met_lex/q_u/sommertid.html (2004-01) agrees with Shanks &
2088 # Pottenger.
2089 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2090 Rule    Norway  1916    only    -       May     22      1:00    1:00    S
2091 Rule    Norway  1916    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
2092 Rule    Norway  1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00s   1:00    S
2093 Rule    Norway  1945    only    -       Oct      1      2:00s   0       -
2094 Rule    Norway  1959    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   1:00    S
2095 Rule    Norway  1959    1965    -       Sep     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       -
2096 Rule    Norway  1965    only    -       Apr     25      2:00s   1:00    S
2097 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2098 Zone    Europe/Oslo     0:43:00 -       LMT     1895 Jan  1
2099                         1:00    Norway  CE%sT   1940 Aug 10 23:00
2100                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
2101                         1:00    Norway  CE%sT   1980
2102                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
2103 
2104 # Svalbard & Jan Mayen
2105 
2106 # From Steffen Thorsen (2001-05-01):
2107 # Although I could not find it explicitly, it seems that Jan Mayen and
2108 # Svalbard have been using the same time as Norway at least since the
2109 # time they were declared as parts of Norway.  Svalbard was declared
2110 # as a part of Norway by law of 1925-07-17 no 11, section 4 and Jan
2111 # Mayen by law of 1930-02-27 no 2, section 2. (From
2112 # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html> and
2113 # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html>).  The law/regulation
2114 # for normal/standard time in Norway is from 1894-06-29 no 1 (came
2115 # into operation on 1895-01-01) and Svalbard/Jan Mayen seem to be a
2116 # part of this law since 1925/1930. (From
2117 # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html>) I have not been


2168 # Toruń Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U.,
2169 # https://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1
2170 # Thanks to Przemysław Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference.
2171 # He also gives these further references:
2172 # Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm>
2173 # Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf>
2174 Rule    Poland  1946    only    -       Apr     14      0:00s   1:00    S
2175 Rule    Poland  1946    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   0       -
2176 Rule    Poland  1947    only    -       May      4      2:00s   1:00    S
2177 Rule    Poland  1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
2178 Rule    Poland  1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
2179 Rule    Poland  1949    only    -       Apr     10      2:00s   1:00    S
2180 Rule    Poland  1957    only    -       Jun      2      1:00s   1:00    S
2181 Rule    Poland  1957    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
2182 Rule    Poland  1958    only    -       Mar     30      1:00s   1:00    S
2183 Rule    Poland  1959    only    -       May     31      1:00s   1:00    S
2184 Rule    Poland  1959    1961    -       Oct     Sun>=1       1:00s   0       -
2185 Rule    Poland  1960    only    -       Apr      3      1:00s   1:00    S
2186 Rule    Poland  1961    1964    -       May     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S
2187 Rule    Poland  1962    1964    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
2188 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2189 Zone    Europe/Warsaw   1:24:00 -       LMT     1880
2190                         1:24:00 -       WMT     1915 Aug  5 # Warsaw Mean Time
2191                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 Sep 16  3:00
2192                         2:00    Poland  EE%sT   1922 Jun
2193                         1:00    Poland  CE%sT   1940 Jun 23  2:00
2194                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct
2195                         1:00    Poland  CE%sT   1977
2196                         1:00    W-Eur   CE%sT   1988
2197                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
2198 
2199 # Portugal
2200 
2201 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-11), after a heads-up from Stephen Colebourne:
2202 # According to a Portuguese decree (1911-05-26)
2203 # https://dre.pt/application/dir/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf
2204 # Lisbon was at -0:36:44.68, but switched to GMT on 1912-01-01 at 00:00.
2205 # Round the old offset to -0:36:45.  This agrees with Willett....
2206 #
2207 # From Michael Deckers (2018-02-15):
2208 # article 5 [of the 1911 decree; Deckers's translation] ...:


2273 Rule    Port    1943    only    -       Apr     17      22:00s  2:00    M
2274 Rule    Port    1943    1945    -       Aug     Sat>=25      22:00s  1:00    S
2275 Rule    Port    1944    1945    -       Apr     Sat>=21      22:00s  2:00    M
2276 Rule    Port    1946    only    -       Apr     Sat>=1       23:00s  1:00    S
2277 Rule    Port    1946    only    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
2278 Rule    Port    1947    1949    -       Apr     Sun>=1        2:00s  1:00    S
2279 Rule    Port    1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1        2:00s  0       -
2280 # Shanks & Pottenger say DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman.
2281 # Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2282 Rule    Port    1951    1965    -       Apr     Sun>=1        2:00s  1:00    S
2283 Rule    Port    1951    1965    -       Oct     Sun>=1        2:00s  0       -
2284 Rule    Port    1977    only    -       Mar     27       0:00s  1:00    S
2285 Rule    Port    1977    only    -       Sep     25       0:00s  0       -
2286 Rule    Port    1978    1979    -       Apr     Sun>=1        0:00s  1:00    S
2287 Rule    Port    1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       -
2288 Rule    Port    1979    1982    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
2289 Rule    Port    1980    only    -       Mar     lastSun  0:00s  1:00    S
2290 Rule    Port    1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun  1:00s  1:00    S
2291 Rule    Port    1983    only    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
2292 #
2293 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2294 Zone    Europe/Lisbon   -0:36:45 -      LMT     1884
2295                         -0:36:45 -      LMT     1912 Jan  1  0:00u # Lisbon MT
2296                          0:00   Port    WE%sT   1966 Apr  3  2:00
2297                          1:00   -       CET     1976 Sep 26  1:00
2298                          0:00   Port    WE%sT   1983 Sep 25  1:00s
2299                          0:00   W-Eur   WE%sT   1992 Sep 27  1:00s
2300                          1:00   EU      CE%sT   1996 Mar 31  1:00u
2301                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
2302 # This Zone can be simplified once we assume zic %z.
2303 Zone Atlantic/Azores    -1:42:40 -      LMT     1884        # Ponta Delgada
2304                         -1:54:32 -      HMT     1912 Jan  1  2:00u # Horta MT
2305                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1942 Apr 25 22:00s
2306                         -2:00   Port    +00     1942 Aug 15 22:00s
2307                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1943 Apr 17 22:00s
2308                         -2:00   Port    +00     1943 Aug 28 22:00s
2309                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1944 Apr 22 22:00s
2310                         -2:00   Port    +00     1944 Aug 26 22:00s
2311                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1945 Apr 21 22:00s
2312                         -2:00   Port    +00     1945 Aug 25 22:00s
2313                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1966 Apr  3  2:00


2332 
2333 # Romania
2334 #
2335 # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07):
2336 # Nine O'clock <http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html>
2337 # (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at
2338 # 04:00 local time in fall 1998.  For lack of better info,
2339 # assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997,
2340 # the same year as Bulgaria.
2341 #
2342 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2343 Rule    Romania 1932    only    -       May     21       0:00s  1:00    S
2344 Rule    Romania 1932    1939    -       Oct     Sun>=1        0:00s  0       -
2345 Rule    Romania 1933    1939    -       Apr     Sun>=2        0:00s  1:00    S
2346 Rule    Romania 1979    only    -       May     27       0:00   1:00    S
2347 Rule    Romania 1979    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
2348 Rule    Romania 1980    only    -       Apr      5      23:00   1:00    S
2349 Rule    Romania 1980    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       -
2350 Rule    Romania 1991    1993    -       Mar     lastSun  0:00s  1:00    S
2351 Rule    Romania 1991    1993    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
2352 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2353 Zone Europe/Bucharest   1:44:24 -       LMT     1891 Oct
2354                         1:44:24 -       BMT     1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
2355                         2:00    Romania EE%sT   1981 Mar 29  2:00s
2356                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1991
2357                         2:00    Romania EE%sT   1994
2358                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997
2359                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
2360 
2361 
2362 # Russia
2363 
2364 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-15):
2365 # Based on last Russian Government Decree No. 725 on August 31, 2011
2366 # (Government document
2367 # http://www.government.ru/gov/results/16355/print/
2368 # in Russian)
2369 # there are few corrections have to be made for some Russian time zones...
2370 # All updated Russian Time Zones were placed in table and translated to English
2371 # by WorldTimeZone.com at the link below:
2372 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia36.htm


3371 
3372 
3373 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3374 # Asia/Anadyr covers...
3375 # 87    RU-CHU  Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
3376 
3377 Zone Asia/Anadyr        11:49:56 -      LMT     1924 May  2
3378                         12:00   -       +12     1930 Jun 21
3379                         13:00   Russia  +13/+14 1982 Apr  1  0:00s
3380                         12:00   Russia  +12/+13 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3381                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3382                         12:00   Russia  +12/+13 2010 Mar 28  2:00s
3383                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3384                         12:00   -       +12
3385 
3386 
3387 # San Marino
3388 # See Europe/Rome.
3389 
3390 # Serbia
3391 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3392 Zone    Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 -       LMT     1884
3393                         1:00    -       CET     1941 Apr 18 23:00
3394                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
3395                         1:00    -       CET     1945 May  8  2:00s
3396                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1945 Sep 16  2:00s
3397 # Metod Koželj reports that the legal date of
3398 # transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time.
3399 # Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Koželj.
3400                         1:00    -       CET     1982 Nov 27
3401                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
3402 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana   # Slovenia
3403 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Podgorica   # Montenegro
3404 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo    # Bosnia and Herzegovina
3405 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje      # North Macedonia
3406 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb      # Croatia
3407 
3408 # Slovakia
3409 Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava
3410 
3411 # Slovenia
3412 # See Europe/Belgrade.
3413 
3414 # Spain
3415 #
3416 # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-14):
3417 #
3418 # The source for Europe/Madrid before 2013 is:
3419 # Planesas P. La hora oficial en España y sus cambios.
3420 # Anuario del Observatorio Astronómico de Madrid (2013, in Spanish).
3421 # http://astronomia.ign.es/rknowsys-theme/images/webAstro/paginas/documentos/Anuario/lahoraoficialenespana.pdf
3422 # As this source says that historical time in the Canaries is obscure,
3423 # and it does not discuss Ceuta, stick with Shanks for now for that data.
3424 #
3425 # In the 1918 and 1919 fallback transitions in Spain, the clock for


3477 Rule    Spain   1976    only    -       Mar     27      23:00   1:00    S
3478 Rule    Spain   1976    1977    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       -
3479 Rule    Spain   1977    only    -       Apr      2      23:00   1:00    S
3480 Rule    Spain   1978    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
3481 Rule    Spain   1978    only    -       Oct      1       2:00s  0       -
3482 # Nationalist Spain during the civil war
3483 #Rule NatSpain  1937    only    -       May     22      23:00   1:00    S
3484 #Rule NatSpain  1937    1938    -       Oct     Sat>=1       24:00s  0       -
3485 #Rule NatSpain  1938    only    -       Mar     26      23:00   1:00    S
3486 # The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978,
3487 # except with "S" letters.
3488 Rule SpainAfrica 1967   only    -       Jun      3      12:00   1:00    S
3489 Rule SpainAfrica 1967   only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
3490 Rule SpainAfrica 1974   only    -       Jun     24       0:00   1:00    S
3491 Rule SpainAfrica 1974   only    -       Sep      1       0:00   0       -
3492 Rule SpainAfrica 1976   1977    -       May      1       0:00   1:00    S
3493 Rule SpainAfrica 1976   only    -       Aug      1       0:00   0       -
3494 Rule SpainAfrica 1977   only    -       Sep     28       0:00   0       -
3495 Rule SpainAfrica 1978   only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    S
3496 Rule SpainAfrica 1978   only    -       Aug      4       0:00   0       -
3497 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3498 Zone    Europe/Madrid   -0:14:44 -      LMT     1900 Dec 31 23:45:16
3499                          0:00   Spain   WE%sT   1940 Mar 16 23:00
3500                          1:00   Spain   CE%sT   1979
3501                          1:00   EU      CE%sT
3502 Zone    Africa/Ceuta    -0:21:16 -      LMT     1900 Dec 31 23:38:44
3503                          0:00   -       WET     1918 May  6 23:00
3504                          0:00   1:00    WEST    1918 Oct  7 23:00
3505                          0:00   -       WET     1924
3506                          0:00   Spain   WE%sT   1929
3507                          0:00   -       WET     1967 # Help zishrink.awk.
3508                          0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16
3509                          1:00   -       CET     1986
3510                          1:00   EU      CE%sT
3511 Zone    Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 -      LMT     1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
3512                         -1:00   -       -01     1946 Sep 30  1:00
3513                          0:00   -       WET     1980 Apr  6  0:00s
3514                          0:00   1:00    WEST    1980 Sep 28  1:00u
3515                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
3516 # IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u.
3517 # Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.


3545 # Further the law says, that "1916-09-30 is considered to end one hour later".
3546 #
3547 # The laws regulating [DST] are available on the site of the Swedish
3548 # Parliament beginning with 1985 - the laws regulating 1980/1984 are
3549 # not available on the site (to my knowledge they are only available
3550 # in Swedish): <http://www.riksdagen.se/english/work/sfst.asp> (type
3551 # "sommartid" without the quotes in the field "Fritext" and then click
3552 # the Sök-button).
3553 #
3554 # (2001-05-13):
3555 #
3556 # I have now found a newspaper stating that at 1916-10-01 01:00
3557 # summertime the church-clocks etc were set back one hour to show
3558 # 1916-10-01 00:00 standard time.  The article also reports that some
3559 # people thought the switch to standard time would take place already
3560 # at 1916-10-01 00:00 summer time, but they had to wait for another
3561 # hour before the event took place.
3562 #
3563 # Source: The newspaper "Dagens Nyheter", 1916-10-01, page 7 upper left.
3564 
3565 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3566 Zone Europe/Stockholm   1:12:12 -       LMT     1879 Jan  1
3567                         1:00:14 -       SET     1900 Jan  1 # Swedish Time
3568                         1:00    -       CET     1916 May 14 23:00
3569                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1916 Oct  1  1:00
3570                         1:00    -       CET     1980
3571                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
3572 
3573 # Switzerland
3574 # From Howse:
3575 # By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace
3576 # and their performance improved enormously.  Communities began to keep
3577 # mean time in preference to apparent time - Geneva from 1780 ....
3578 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3579 # From Whitman (who writes "Midnight?"):
3580 # Rule  Swiss   1940    only    -       Nov      2      0:00    1:00    S
3581 # Rule  Swiss   1940    only    -       Dec     31      0:00    0       -
3582 # From Shanks & Pottenger:
3583 # Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    S
3584 # Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
3585 


3648 #
3649 #       Jakob Messerli. Gleichmässig, pünktlich, schnell. Zeiteinteilung und
3650 #       Zeitgebrauch in der Schweiz im 19. Jahrhundert. Chronos, Zurich 1995,
3651 #       ISBN 3-905311-68-2, OCLC 717570797.
3652 #
3653 # suggests that the transition was more gradual, and that the Swiss did not
3654 # agree about civil time during the transition.  The timekeeping it gives the
3655 # most detail for is postal and telegraph time: here, federal legislation (the
3656 # "Bundesgesetz über die Erstellung von elektrischen Telegraphen") passed on
3657 # 1851-11-23, and an official implementation notice was published 1853-07-16
3658 # (Bundesblatt 1853, Bd. II, S. 859).  On p 72 Messerli writes that in
3659 # practice since July 1853 Bernese time was used in "all postal and telegraph
3660 # offices in Switzerland from Geneva to St. Gallen and Basel to Chiasso"
3661 # (Google translation).  For now, model this transition as occurring on
3662 # 1853-07-16, though it probably occurred at some other date in Zurich, and
3663 # legal civil time probably changed at still some other transition date.
3664 
3665 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3666 Rule    Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Mon>=1       1:00    1:00    S
3667 Rule    Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Mon>=1       2:00    0       -
3668 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3669 Zone    Europe/Zurich   0:34:08 -       LMT     1853 Jul 16 # See above comment.
3670                         0:29:46 -       BMT     1894 Jun    # Bern Mean Time
3671                         1:00    Swiss   CE%sT   1981
3672                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
3673 
3674 # Turkey
3675 
3676 # From Kıvanç Yazan (2016-09-25):
3677 # 1) For 1986-2006, DST started at 01:00 local and ended at 02:00 local, with
3678 #    no exceptions.
3679 # 2) 1994's lastSun was overridden with Mar 20 ...
3680 # Here are official papers:
3681 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19032.pdf  - page 2 for 1986
3682 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19400.pdf  - page 4 for 1987
3683 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19752.pdf  - page 15 for 1988
3684 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/20102.pdf  - page 6 for 1989
3685 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/20464.pdf  - page 1 for 1990 - 1992
3686 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/21531.pdf  - page 15 for 1993 - 1995
3687 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/21879.pdf  - page 1 for overriding 1994
3688 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/22588.pdf  - page 1 for 1996, 1997


3798 Rule    Turkey  1973    only    -       Nov      4      3:00    0       -
3799 Rule    Turkey  1974    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S
3800 Rule    Turkey  1974    only    -       Nov      3      5:00    0       -
3801 Rule    Turkey  1975    only    -       Mar     30      0:00    1:00    S
3802 Rule    Turkey  1975    1976    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       -
3803 Rule    Turkey  1976    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    S
3804 Rule    Turkey  1977    1978    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    S
3805 Rule    Turkey  1977    only    -       Oct     16      0:00    0       -
3806 Rule    Turkey  1979    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1       3:00    1:00    S
3807 Rule    Turkey  1979    1982    -       Oct     Mon>=11      0:00    0       -
3808 Rule    Turkey  1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    1:00    S
3809 Rule    Turkey  1983    only    -       Jul     31      0:00    1:00    S
3810 Rule    Turkey  1983    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
3811 Rule    Turkey  1985    only    -       Apr     20      0:00    1:00    S
3812 Rule    Turkey  1985    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
3813 Rule    Turkey  1986    1993    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S
3814 Rule    Turkey  1986    1995    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
3815 Rule    Turkey  1994    only    -       Mar     20      1:00s   1:00    S
3816 Rule    Turkey  1995    2006    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S
3817 Rule    Turkey  1996    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
3818 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3819 Zone    Europe/Istanbul 1:55:52 -       LMT     1880
3820                         1:56:56 -       IMT     1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time?
3821                         2:00    Turkey  EE%sT   1978 Oct 15
3822                         3:00    Turkey  +03/+04 1985 Apr 20
3823                         2:00    Turkey  EE%sT   2007
3824                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2011 Mar 27  1:00u
3825                         2:00    -       EET     2011 Mar 28  1:00u
3826                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2014 Mar 30  1:00u
3827                         2:00    -       EET     2014 Mar 31  1:00u
3828                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2015 Oct 25  1:00u
3829                         2:00    1:00    EEST    2015 Nov  8  1:00u
3830                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2016 Sep  7
3831                         3:00    -       +03
3832 Link    Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul   # Istanbul is in both continents.
3833 
3834 # Ukraine
3835 #
3836 # From Igor Karpov, who works for the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice,
3837 # via Garrett Wollman (2003-01-27):
3838 # BTW, I've found the official document on this matter. It's government


3895 # This is an answer.
3896 #
3897 # Since 1992 they had normal DST procedure:
3898 #       03 29 1992 02:00 -02.00 1       DST started
3899 #       09 27 1992 03:00 -02.00 0       DST ended
3900 # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 20.03.1992, No. 139.
3901 # http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_8u/pg_grcasa.htm
3902 
3903 # From Paul Eggert (2018-10-03):
3904 # As is usual in tzdb, Ukrainian zones use the most common English spellings.
3905 # For example, tzdb uses Europe/Kiev, as "Kiev" is the most common spelling in
3906 # English for Ukraine's capital, even though it is certainly wrong as a
3907 # transliteration of the Ukrainian "Київ".  This is similar to tzdb's use of
3908 # Europe/Prague, which is certainly wrong as a transliteration of the Czech
3909 # "Praha".  ("Kiev" came from old Slavic via Russian to English, and "Prague"
3910 # came from old Slavic via French to English, so the two cases have something
3911 # in common.)  Admittedly English-language spelling of Ukrainian names is
3912 # controversial, and some day "Kyiv" may become substantially more popular in
3913 # English; in the meantime, stick with the traditional English "Kiev" as that
3914 # means less disruption for our users.








3915 
3916 # Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3917 # This represents most of Ukraine.  See above for the spelling of "Kiev".
3918 Zone Europe/Kiev        2:02:04 -       LMT     1880
3919                         2:02:04 -       KMT     1924 May  2 # Kiev Mean Time
3920                         2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
3921                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Sep 20
3922                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1943 Nov  6
3923                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990 Jul  1  2:00
3924                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1991 Sep 29  3:00
3925                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995
3926                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
3927 # Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991.
3928 # "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Rusyn/Ukrainian pronunciation, but
3929 # "Uzhgorod" is more common in English.
3930 Zone Europe/Uzhgorod    1:29:12 -       LMT     1890 Oct
3931                         1:00    -       CET     1940
3932                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct
3933                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1944 Oct 26
3934                         1:00    -       CET     1945 Jun 29
3935                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
3936                         3:00    -       MSK     1990 Jul  1  2:00




 128 
 129 # From Peter Ilieve (1994-07-06):
 130 #
 131 # On 17 Jan 1994 the Independent, a UK quality newspaper, had a piece about
 132 # historical vistas along the Thames in west London. There was a photo
 133 # and a sketch map showing some of the sightlines involved. One paragraph
 134 # of the text said:
 135 #
 136 # 'An old stone obelisk marking a forgotten terrestrial meridian stands
 137 # beside the river at Kew. In the 18th century, before time and longitude
 138 # was standardised by the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, scholars observed
 139 # this stone and the movement of stars from Kew Observatory nearby. They
 140 # made their calculations and set the time for the Horse Guards and Parliament,
 141 # but now the stone is obscured by scrubwood and can only be seen by walking
 142 # along the towpath within a few yards of it.'
 143 #
 144 # I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's
 145 # position is 51° 28' 30" N, 0° 18' 45" W. The longitude should
 146 # be within about ±2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.
 147 #
 148 # [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]
 149 
 150 # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
 151 #
 152 # Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.
 153 # The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,
 154 # and it was they who forced a uniform time on the country.
 155 # The original idea was credited to Dr. William Hyde Wollaston (1766-1828)
 156 # and was popularized by Abraham Follett Osler (1808-1903).
 157 # The first railway to adopt London time was the Great Western Railway
 158 # in November 1840; other railways followed suit, and by 1847 most
 159 # (though not all) railways used London time.  On 1847-09-22 the
 160 # Railway Clearing House, an industry standards body, recommended that GMT be
 161 # adopted at all stations as soon as the General Post Office permitted it.
 162 # The transition occurred on 12-01 for the L&NW, the Caledonian,
 163 # and presumably other railways; the January 1848 Bradshaw's lists many
 164 # railways as using GMT.  By 1855 the vast majority of public
 165 # clocks in Britain were set to GMT (though some, like the great clock
 166 # on Tom Tower at Christ Church, Oxford, were fitted with two minute hands,
 167 # one for local time and one for GMT).  The last major holdout was the legal
 168 # system, which stubbornly stuck to local time for many years, leading


 506 # The British Standard Time Act, 1968
 507 #       (no summer time)
 508 # The Summer Time Act, 1972
 509 Rule    GB-Eire 1972    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16      2:00s   1:00    BST
 510 Rule    GB-Eire 1972    1980    -       Oct     Sun>=23      2:00s   0       GMT
 511 # Summer Time Order, 1980 (S.I. 1980/1089)
 512 # Summer Time Order, 1982 (S.I. 1982/1673)
 513 # Summer Time Order, 1986 (S.I. 1986/223)
 514 # Summer Time Order, 1988 (S.I. 1988/931)
 515 Rule    GB-Eire 1981    1995    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00u   1:00    BST
 516 Rule    GB-Eire 1981    1989    -       Oct     Sun>=23      1:00u   0       GMT
 517 # Summer Time Order, 1989 (S.I. 1989/985)
 518 # Summer Time Order, 1992 (S.I. 1992/1729)
 519 # Summer Time Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2798)
 520 Rule    GB-Eire 1990    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=22      1:00u   0       GMT
 521 # Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982)
 522 # See EU for rules starting in 1996.
 523 #
 524 # Use Europe/London for Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man.
 525 
 526 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 527 Zone    Europe/London   -0:01:15 -      LMT     1847 Dec  1  0:00s
 528                          0:00   GB-Eire %s      1968 Oct 27
 529                          1:00   -       BST     1971 Oct 31  2:00u
 530                          0:00   GB-Eire %s      1996
 531                          0:00   EU      GMT/BST
 532 Link    Europe/London   Europe/Jersey
 533 Link    Europe/London   Europe/Guernsey
 534 Link    Europe/London   Europe/Isle_of_Man
 535 
 536 # From Paul Eggert (2018-02-15):
 537 # In January 2018 we discovered that the negative SAVE values in the
 538 # Eire rules cause problems with tests for ICU:
 539 # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-January/025825.html
 540 # and with tests for OpenJDK:
 541 # https://mm.icann.org/pipermail/tz/2018-January/025822.html
 542 #
 543 # To work around this problem, the build procedure can translate the
 544 # following data into two forms, one with negative SAVE values and the
 545 # other form with a traditional approximation for Irish timestamps
 546 # after 1971-10-31 02:00 UTC; although this approximation has tm_isdst
 547 # flags that are reversed, its UTC offsets are correct and this often
 548 # suffices.  This source file currently uses only nonnegative SAVE
 549 # values, but this is intended to change and downstream code should
 550 # not rely on it.
 551 #
 552 # The following is like GB-Eire and EU, except with standard time in
 553 # summer and negative daylight saving time in winter.  It is for when
 554 # negative SAVE values are used.
 555 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 556 #Rule   Eire    1971    only    -       Oct     31       2:00u  -1:00   -
 557 #Rule   Eire    1972    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16       2:00u  0       -
 558 #Rule   Eire    1972    1980    -       Oct     Sun>=23       2:00u  -1:00   -
 559 #Rule   Eire    1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 560 #Rule   Eire    1981    1989    -       Oct     Sun>=23       1:00u  -1:00   -
 561 #Rule   Eire    1990    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=22       1:00u  -1:00   -
 562 #Rule   Eire    1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  -1:00   -
 563 
 564 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 565 Zone    Europe/Dublin   -0:25:00 -      LMT     1880 Aug  2
 566                         -0:25:21 -      DMT     1916 May 21  2:00s
 567                         -0:25:21 1:00   IST     1916 Oct  1  2:00s
 568                          0:00   GB-Eire %s      1921 Dec  6 # independence
 569                          0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25  2:00s
 570                          0:00   1:00    IST     1946 Oct  6  2:00s
 571                          0:00   -       GMT     1947 Mar 16  2:00s
 572                          0:00   1:00    IST     1947 Nov  2  2:00s
 573                          0:00   -       GMT     1948 Apr 18  2:00s
 574                          0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1968 Oct 27
 575 # The next line is for when negative SAVE values are used.
 576 #                        1:00   Eire    IST/GMT
 577 # These three lines are for when SAVE values are always nonnegative.
 578                          1:00   -       IST     1971 Oct 31  2:00u
 579                          0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996
 580                          0:00   EU      GMT/IST
 581 
 582 
 583 ###############################################################################
 584 
 585 # Europe
 586 
 587 # The following rules are for the European Union and for its
 588 # predecessor organization, the European Communities.
 589 # For brevity they are called "EU rules" elsewhere in this file.
 590 
 591 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 592 Rule    EU      1977    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1        1:00u  1:00    S
 593 Rule    EU      1977    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 594 Rule    EU      1978    only    -       Oct      1       1:00u  0       -
 595 Rule    EU      1979    1995    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 596 Rule    EU      1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  1:00    S
 597 Rule    EU      1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
 598 # The most recent directive covers the years starting in 2002.  See:
 599 # Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council
 600 # of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements.


 743 # of March at 2 hours and moved backwards on last Sunday of September
 744 # at 3 hours.  It was amended in 1996 to replace September with October.
 745 
 746 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-06-14):
 747 # According to Kremlin press service, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
 748 # signed a federal law "On calculation of time" on June 9, 2011.
 749 # According to the law Russia is abolishing daylight saving time.
 750 #
 751 # Medvedev signed a law "On the Calculation of Time" (in russian):
 752 # http://bmockbe.ru/events/?ID=7583
 753 #
 754 # Medvedev signed a law on the calculation of the time (in russian):
 755 # https://www.regnum.ru/news/polit/1413906.html
 756 
 757 # From Arthur David Olson (2011-06-15):
 758 # Take "abolishing daylight saving time" to mean that time is now considered
 759 # to be standard.
 760 
 761 # These are for backward compatibility with older versions.
 762 
 763 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 764 Zone    WET             0:00    EU      WE%sT
 765 Zone    CET             1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT
 766 Zone    MET             1:00    C-Eur   ME%sT
 767 Zone    EET             2:00    EU      EE%sT
 768 
 769 # Previous editions of this database used abbreviations like MET DST
 770 # for Central European Summer Time, but this didn't agree with common usage.
 771 
 772 # From Markus Kuhn (1996-07-12):
 773 # The official German names ... are
 774 #
 775 #       Mitteleuropäische Zeit (MEZ)         = UTC+01:00
 776 #       Mitteleuropäische Sommerzeit (MESZ)  = UTC+02:00
 777 #
 778 # as defined in the German Time Act (Gesetz über die Zeitbestimmung (ZeitG),
 779 # 1978-07-25, Bundesgesetzblatt, Jahrgang 1978, Teil I, S. 1110-1111)....
 780 # I wrote ... to the German Federal Physical-Technical Institution
 781 #
 782 #       Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
 783 #       Laboratorium 4.41 "Zeiteinheit"


 803 Rule    Albania 1974    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
 804 Rule    Albania 1975    only    -       May      1      0:00    1:00    S
 805 Rule    Albania 1975    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
 806 Rule    Albania 1976    only    -       May      2      0:00    1:00    S
 807 Rule    Albania 1976    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
 808 Rule    Albania 1977    only    -       May      8      0:00    1:00    S
 809 Rule    Albania 1977    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
 810 Rule    Albania 1978    only    -       May      6      0:00    1:00    S
 811 Rule    Albania 1978    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 812 Rule    Albania 1979    only    -       May      5      0:00    1:00    S
 813 Rule    Albania 1979    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
 814 Rule    Albania 1980    only    -       May      3      0:00    1:00    S
 815 Rule    Albania 1980    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       -
 816 Rule    Albania 1981    only    -       Apr     26      0:00    1:00    S
 817 Rule    Albania 1981    only    -       Sep     27      0:00    0       -
 818 Rule    Albania 1982    only    -       May      2      0:00    1:00    S
 819 Rule    Albania 1982    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
 820 Rule    Albania 1983    only    -       Apr     18      0:00    1:00    S
 821 Rule    Albania 1983    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 822 Rule    Albania 1984    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
 823 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 824 Zone    Europe/Tirane   1:19:20 -       LMT     1914
 825                         1:00    -       CET     1940 Jun 16
 826                         1:00    Albania CE%sT   1984 Jul
 827                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 828 
 829 # Andorra
 830 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 831 Zone    Europe/Andorra  0:06:04 -       LMT     1901
 832                         0:00    -       WET     1946 Sep 30
 833                         1:00    -       CET     1985 Mar 31  2:00
 834                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 835 
 836 # Austria
 837 
 838 # Milne says Vienna time was 1:05:21.
 839 
 840 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22): Shanks & Pottenger give 1918-06-16 and
 841 # 1945-11-18, but the Austrian Federal Office of Metrology and
 842 # Surveying (BEV) gives 1918-09-16 and for Vienna gives the "alleged"
 843 # date of 1945-04-12 with no time.  For the 1980-04-06 transition
 844 # Shanks & Pottenger give 02:00, the BEV 00:00.  Go with the BEV,
 845 # and guess 02:00 for 1945-04-12.
 846 
 847 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 848 Rule    Austria 1920    only    -       Apr      5      2:00s   1:00    S
 849 Rule    Austria 1920    only    -       Sep     13      2:00s   0       -
 850 Rule    Austria 1946    only    -       Apr     14      2:00s   1:00    S
 851 Rule    Austria 1946    1948    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
 852 Rule    Austria 1947    only    -       Apr      6      2:00s   1:00    S
 853 Rule    Austria 1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
 854 Rule    Austria 1980    only    -       Apr      6      0:00    1:00    S
 855 Rule    Austria 1980    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
 856 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 857 Zone    Europe/Vienna   1:05:21 -       LMT     1893 Apr
 858                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1920
 859                         1:00    Austria CE%sT   1940 Apr  1  2:00s
 860                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00s
 861                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1945 Apr 12  2:00s
 862                         1:00    -       CET     1946
 863                         1:00    Austria CE%sT   1981
 864                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 865 
 866 # Belarus
 867 #
 868 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-07-02):
 869 # http://www.lawbelarus.com/repub/sub30/texf9611.htm
 870 # (Act of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus from
 871 # 1992-03-25 No. 157) ... says clocks were to be moved forward at 2:00
 872 # on last Sunday of March and backward at 3:00 on last Sunday of September
 873 # (the same as previous USSR and contemporary Russian regulations).
 874 #
 875 # From Yauhen Kharuzhy (2011-09-16):
 876 # By latest Belarus government act Europe/Minsk timezone was changed to
 877 # GMT+3 without DST (was GMT+2 with DST).
 878 #
 879 # Sources (Russian language):
 880 # http://www.belta.by/ru/all_news/society/V-Belarusi-otmenjaetsja-perexod-na-sezonnoe-vremja_i_572952.html
 881 # http://naviny.by/rubrics/society/2011/09/16/ic_articles_116_175144/
 882 # https://news.tut.by/society/250578.html
 883 #
 884 # From Alexander Bokovoy (2014-10-09):
 885 # Belarussian government decided against changing to winter time....
 886 # http://eng.belta.by/all_news/society/Belarus-decides-against-adjusting-time-in-Russias-wake_i_76335.html
 887 #
 888 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 889 Zone    Europe/Minsk    1:50:16 -       LMT     1880
 890                         1:50    -       MMT     1924 May  2 # Minsk Mean Time
 891                         2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
 892                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jun 28
 893                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Jul  3
 894                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
 895                         3:00    -       MSK     1991 Mar 31  2:00s
 896                         2:00    Russia  EE%sT   2011 Mar 27  2:00s
 897                         3:00    -       +03
 898 
 899 # Belgium
 900 #
 901 # From Paul Eggert (1997-07-02):
 902 # Entries from 1918 through 1991 are taken from:
 903 #       Annuaire de L'Observatoire Royal de Belgique,
 904 #       Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 BRUXELLES, CLVIIe année, 1991
 905 #       (Imprimerie HAYEZ, s.p.r.l., Rue Fin, 4, 1080 BRUXELLES, MCMXC),
 906 #       pp 8-9.
 907 # LMT before 1892 was 0:17:30, according to the official journal of Belgium:
 908 #       Moniteur Belge, Samedi 30 Avril 1892, N.121.


 932 Rule    Belgium 1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00s  1:00    S
 933 Rule    Belgium 1928    1938    -       Oct     Sun>=2        2:00s  0       -
 934 Rule    Belgium 1929    only    -       Apr     21       2:00s  1:00    S
 935 Rule    Belgium 1930    only    -       Apr     13       2:00s  1:00    S
 936 Rule    Belgium 1931    only    -       Apr     19       2:00s  1:00    S
 937 Rule    Belgium 1932    only    -       Apr      3       2:00s  1:00    S
 938 Rule    Belgium 1933    only    -       Mar     26       2:00s  1:00    S
 939 Rule    Belgium 1934    only    -       Apr      8       2:00s  1:00    S
 940 Rule    Belgium 1935    only    -       Mar     31       2:00s  1:00    S
 941 Rule    Belgium 1936    only    -       Apr     19       2:00s  1:00    S
 942 Rule    Belgium 1937    only    -       Apr      4       2:00s  1:00    S
 943 Rule    Belgium 1938    only    -       Mar     27       2:00s  1:00    S
 944 Rule    Belgium 1939    only    -       Apr     16       2:00s  1:00    S
 945 Rule    Belgium 1939    only    -       Nov     19       2:00s  0       -
 946 Rule    Belgium 1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00s  1:00    S
 947 Rule    Belgium 1944    only    -       Sep     17       2:00s  0       -
 948 Rule    Belgium 1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
 949 Rule    Belgium 1945    only    -       Sep     16       2:00s  0       -
 950 Rule    Belgium 1946    only    -       May     19       2:00s  1:00    S
 951 Rule    Belgium 1946    only    -       Oct      7       2:00s  0       -
 952 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 953 Zone    Europe/Brussels 0:17:30 -       LMT     1880
 954                         0:17:30 -       BMT     1892 May  1 12:00  # Brussels MT
 955                         0:00    -       WET     1914 Nov  8
 956                         1:00    -       CET     1916 May  1  0:00
 957                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 Nov 11 11:00u
 958                         0:00    Belgium WE%sT   1940 May 20  2:00s
 959                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep  3
 960                         1:00    Belgium CE%sT   1977
 961                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 962 
 963 # Bosnia and Herzegovina
 964 # See Europe/Belgrade.
 965 
 966 # Bulgaria
 967 #
 968 # From Plamen Simenov via Steffen Thorsen (1999-09-09):
 969 # A document of Government of Bulgaria (No. 94/1997) says:
 970 # EET -> EETDST is in 03:00 Local time in last Sunday of March ...
 971 # EETDST -> EET is in 04:00 Local time in last Sunday of October
 972 #
 973 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 974 Rule    Bulg    1979    only    -       Mar     31      23:00   1:00    S
 975 Rule    Bulg    1979    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       -
 976 Rule    Bulg    1980    1982    -       Apr     Sat>=1       23:00   1:00    S
 977 Rule    Bulg    1980    only    -       Sep     29       1:00   0       -
 978 Rule    Bulg    1981    only    -       Sep     27       2:00   0       -
 979 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 980 Zone    Europe/Sofia    1:33:16 -       LMT     1880
 981                         1:56:56 -       IMT     1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT?
 982                         2:00    -       EET     1942 Nov  2  3:00
 983                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
 984                         1:00    -       CET     1945 Apr  2  3:00
 985                         2:00    -       EET     1979 Mar 31 23:00
 986                         2:00    Bulg    EE%sT   1982 Sep 26  3:00
 987                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1991
 988                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997
 989                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
 990 
 991 # Croatia
 992 # See Europe/Belgrade.
 993 
 994 # Cyprus
 995 # Please see the 'asia' file for Asia/Nicosia.
 996 
 997 # Czech Republic / Czechia
 998 #
 999 # From Paul Eggert (2018-04-15):
1000 # The source for Czech data is: Kdy začíná a končí letní čas. 2018-04-15.
1001 # https://kalendar.beda.cz/kdy-zacina-a-konci-letni-cas
1002 # We know of no English-language name for historical Czech winter time;
1003 # abbreviate it as "GMT", as it happened to be GMT.
1004 #
1005 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1006 Rule    Czech   1945    only    -       Apr     Mon>=1       2:00s   1:00    S
1007 Rule    Czech   1945    only    -       Oct      1      2:00s   0       -
1008 Rule    Czech   1946    only    -       May      6      2:00s   1:00    S
1009 Rule    Czech   1946    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
1010 Rule    Czech   1947    1948    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00s   1:00    S
1011 Rule    Czech   1949    only    -       Apr      9      2:00s   1:00    S
1012 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1013 Zone    Europe/Prague   0:57:44 -       LMT     1850
1014                         0:57:44 -       PMT     1891 Oct    # Prague Mean Time
1015                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 May  9
1016                         1:00    Czech   CE%sT   1946 Dec  1  3:00
1017 # Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST.
1018 #                       1:00    -1:00   GMT     1947 Feb 23  2:00
1019 # Rearguard section, for parsers that do not support negative DST.
1020                         0:00    -       GMT     1947 Feb 23  2:00
1021 # End of rearguard section.
1022                         1:00    Czech   CE%sT   1979
1023                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1024 # Use Europe/Prague also for Slovakia.
1025 
1026 # Denmark, Faroe Islands, and Greenland
1027 
1028 # From Jesper Nørgaard Welen (2005-04-26):
1029 # http://www.hum.aau.dk/~poe/tid/tine/DanskTid.htm says that the law
1030 # [introducing standard time] was in effect from 1894-01-01....
1031 # The page http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A18930008330-REGL
1032 # confirms this, and states that the law was put forth 1893-03-29.
1033 #
1034 # The EU [actually, EEC and Euratom] treaty with effect from 1973:
1035 # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19722110030-REGL
1036 #
1037 # This provoked a new law from 1974 to make possible summer time changes
1038 # in subsequent decrees with the law
1039 # http://www.retsinfo.dk/_GETDOCI_/ACCN/A19740022330-REGL
1040 #


1054 # The Herning Folkeblad (1980-09-26) reported that the night between
1055 # Saturday and Sunday the clock is set back from three to two.
1056 
1057 # From Paul Eggert (2005-06-11):
1058 # Hence the "02:00" of the 1980 law refers to standard time, not
1059 # wall-clock time, and so the EU rules were in effect in 1980.
1060 
1061 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1062 Rule    Denmark 1916    only    -       May     14      23:00   1:00    S
1063 Rule    Denmark 1916    only    -       Sep     30      23:00   0       -
1064 Rule    Denmark 1940    only    -       May     15       0:00   1:00    S
1065 Rule    Denmark 1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
1066 Rule    Denmark 1945    only    -       Aug     15       2:00s  0       -
1067 Rule    Denmark 1946    only    -       May      1       2:00s  1:00    S
1068 Rule    Denmark 1946    only    -       Sep      1       2:00s  0       -
1069 Rule    Denmark 1947    only    -       May      4       2:00s  1:00    S
1070 Rule    Denmark 1947    only    -       Aug     10       2:00s  0       -
1071 Rule    Denmark 1948    only    -       May      9       2:00s  1:00    S
1072 Rule    Denmark 1948    only    -       Aug      8       2:00s  0       -
1073 #
1074 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1075 Zone Europe/Copenhagen   0:50:20 -      LMT     1890
1076                          0:50:20 -      CMT     1894 Jan  1 # Copenhagen MT
1077                          1:00   Denmark CE%sT   1942 Nov  2  2:00s
1078                          1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
1079                          1:00   Denmark CE%sT   1980
1080                          1:00   EU      CE%sT
1081 Zone Atlantic/Faroe     -0:27:04 -      LMT     1908 Jan 11 # Tórshavn
1082                          0:00   -       WET     1981
1083                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
1084 #
1085 # From Paul Eggert (2004-10-31):
1086 # During World War II, Germany maintained secret manned weather stations in
1087 # East Greenland and Franz Josef Land, but we don't know their time zones.
1088 # My source for this is Wilhelm Dege's book mentioned under Svalbard.
1089 #
1090 # From Paul Eggert (2017-12-10):
1091 # Greenland joined the European Communities as part of Denmark,
1092 # obtained home rule on 1979-05-01, and left the European Communities
1093 # on 1985-02-01.  It therefore should have been using EU
1094 # rules at least through 1984.  Shanks & Pottenger say Scoresbysund and Godthåb


1151 # the 1995 map as like Godthåb.
1152 # For lack of better info, assume they were like Godthåb before 1996.
1153 # startkart.no says Thule does not observe DST, but this is clearly an error,
1154 # so go with Shanks & Pottenger for Thule transitions until this year.
1155 # For 2007 on assume Thule will stay in sync with US DST rules.
1156 
1157 # From J William Piggott (2016-02-20):
1158 # "Greenland north of the community of Scoresbysund" is officially named
1159 # "National Park" by Executive Order:
1160 # http://naalakkersuisut.gl/~/media/Nanoq/Files/Attached%20Files/Engelske-tekster/Legislation/Executive%20Order%20National%20Park.rtf
1161 # It is their only National Park.
1162 #
1163 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1164 Rule    Thule   1991    1992    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    D
1165 Rule    Thule   1991    1992    -       Sep     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1166 Rule    Thule   1993    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    D
1167 Rule    Thule   1993    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
1168 Rule    Thule   2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8       2:00    1:00    D
1169 Rule    Thule   2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1       2:00    0       S
1170 #
1171 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1172 Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 -    LMT     1916 Jul 28
1173                         -3:00   -       -03     1980 Apr  6  2:00
1174                         -3:00   EU      -03/-02 1996
1175                         0:00    -       GMT
1176 Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 -    LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit
1177                         -2:00   -       -02     1980 Apr  6  2:00
1178                         -2:00   C-Eur   -02/-01 1981 Mar 29
1179                         -1:00   EU      -01/+00
1180 Zone America/Godthab    -3:26:56 -      LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Nuuk
1181                         -3:00   -       -03     1980 Apr  6  2:00
1182                         -3:00   EU      -03/-02
1183 Zone America/Thule      -4:35:08 -      LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Pituffik air base
1184                         -4:00   Thule   A%sT
1185 
1186 # Estonia
1187 #
1188 # From Paul Eggert (2016-03-18):
1189 # The 1989 transition is from USSR act No. 227 (1989-03-14).
1190 #
1191 # From Peter Ilieve (1994-10-15):


1217 # via Steffen Thorsen:
1218 # This year will mark the last time Estonia shifts to summer time,
1219 # a council of the ruling coalition announced Sept. 6....
1220 # But what this could mean for Estonia's chances of joining the European
1221 # Union are still unclear.  In 1994, the EU declared summer time compulsory
1222 # for all member states until 2001.  Brussels has yet to decide what to do
1223 # after that.
1224 
1225 # From Mart Oruaas (2000-01-29):
1226 # Regulation No. 301 (1999-10-12) obsoletes previous regulation
1227 # No. 206 (1998-09-22) and thus sticks Estonia to +02:00 GMT for all
1228 # the year round.  The regulation is effective 1999-11-01.
1229 
1230 # From Toomas Soome (2002-02-21):
1231 # The Estonian government has changed once again timezone politics.
1232 # Now we are using again EU rules.
1233 #
1234 # From Urmet Jänes (2002-03-28):
1235 # The legislative reference is Government decree No. 84 on 2002-02-21.
1236 
1237 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1238 Zone    Europe/Tallinn  1:39:00 -       LMT     1880
1239                         1:39:00 -       TMT     1918 Feb    # Tallinn Mean Time
1240                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1919 Jul
1241                         1:39:00 -       TMT     1921 May
1242                         2:00    -       EET     1940 Aug  6
1243                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Sep 15
1244                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Sep 22
1245                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
1246                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1989 Sep 24  2:00s
1247                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1998 Sep 22
1248                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   1999 Oct 31  4:00
1249                         2:00    -       EET     2002 Feb 21
1250                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1251 
1252 # Finland
1253 
1254 # From Hannu Strang (1994-09-25 06:03:37 UTC):
1255 # Well, here in Helsinki we're just changing from summer time to regular one,
1256 # and it's supposed to change at 4am...
1257 


1280 # [Heikki Oja's book Aikakirja 2013]
1281 # https://almanakka.helsinki.fi/images/aikakirja/Aikakirja2013kokonaan.pdf
1282 # pages 104-105, including a scan from a newspaper published on Apr 2 1942
1283 # say that ... [o]n Apr 2 1942, 24 o'clock (which means Apr 3 1942,
1284 # 00:00), clocks were moved one hour forward. The newspaper
1285 # mentions "on the night from Thursday to Friday"....
1286 # On Oct 4 1942, clocks were moved at 1:00 one hour backwards.
1287 #
1288 # From Paul Eggert (2014-06-14):
1289 # Go with Oja over Shanks.
1290 
1291 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1292 Rule    Finland 1942    only    -       Apr     2       24:00   1:00    S
1293 Rule    Finland 1942    only    -       Oct     4       1:00    0       -
1294 Rule    Finland 1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00    1:00    S
1295 Rule    Finland 1981    1982    -       Sep     lastSun 3:00    0       -
1296 
1297 # Milne says Helsinki (Helsingfors) time was 1:39:49.2 (official document);
1298 # round to nearest.
1299 
1300 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1301 Zone    Europe/Helsinki 1:39:49 -       LMT     1878 May 31
1302                         1:39:49 -       HMT     1921 May    # Helsinki Mean Time
1303                         2:00    Finland EE%sT   1983
1304                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1305 
1306 # Åland Is
1307 Link    Europe/Helsinki Europe/Mariehamn
1308 
1309 
1310 # France
1311 
1312 # From Ciro Discepolo (2000-12-20):
1313 #
1314 # Henri Le Corre, Régimes horaires pour le monde entier, Éditions
1315 # Traditionnelles - Paris 2 books, 1993
1316 #
1317 # Gabriel, Traité de l'heure dans le monde, Guy Trédaniel,
1318 # Paris, 1991
1319 #
1320 # Françoise Gauquelin, Problèmes de l'heure résolus en astrologie,


1370 # but go with Denis Excoffier (1997-12-12),
1371 # who quotes the Ephémérides astronomiques for 1998 from Bureau des Longitudes
1372 # as saying 5/10/41 22hUT.
1373 Rule    France  1941    only    -       Oct      6       0:00   1:00    S
1374 Rule    France  1942    only    -       Mar      9       0:00   2:00    M
1375 Rule    France  1942    only    -       Nov      2       3:00   1:00    S
1376 Rule    France  1943    only    -       Mar     29       2:00   2:00    M
1377 Rule    France  1943    only    -       Oct      4       3:00   1:00    S
1378 Rule    France  1944    only    -       Apr      3       2:00   2:00    M
1379 Rule    France  1944    only    -       Oct      8       1:00   1:00    S
1380 Rule    France  1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00   2:00    M
1381 Rule    France  1945    only    -       Sep     16       3:00   0       -
1382 # Shanks & Pottenger give Mar 28 2:00 and Sep 26 3:00;
1383 # go with Excoffier's 28/3/76 0hUT and 25/9/76 23hUT.
1384 Rule    France  1976    only    -       Mar     28       1:00   1:00    S
1385 Rule    France  1976    only    -       Sep     26       1:00   0       -
1386 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman 0:09:05,
1387 # but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21.
1388 # Go with Howse.  Howse writes that the time in France was officially based
1389 # on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.
1390 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1391 Zone    Europe/Paris    0:09:21 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15  0:01
1392                         0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11  0:01 # Paris MT
1393 # Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre.
1394                         0:00    France  WE%sT   1940 Jun 14 23:00
1395 # Le Corre says Paris stuck with occupied-France time after the liberation;
1396 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1397                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug 25
1398                         0:00    France  WE%sT   1945 Sep 16  3:00
1399                         1:00    France  CE%sT   1977
1400                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1401 
1402 # Germany
1403 
1404 # From Markus Kuhn (1998-09-29):
1405 # The German time zone web site by the Physikalisch-Technische
1406 # Bundesanstalt contains DST information back to 1916.
1407 # [See tz-link.html for the URL.]
1408 
1409 # From Jörg Schilling (2002-10-23):
1410 # In 1945, Berlin was switched to Moscow Summer time (GMT+4) by


1418 # this was equivalent to UT +03, not +04.
1419 
1420 
1421 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1422 Rule    Germany 1946    only    -       Apr     14      2:00s   1:00    S
1423 Rule    Germany 1946    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   0       -
1424 Rule    Germany 1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
1425 # http://www.ptb.de/de/org/4/44/441/salt.htm says the following transition
1426 # occurred at 3:00 MEZ, not the 2:00 MEZ given in Shanks & Pottenger.
1427 # Go with the PTB.
1428 Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       Apr      6      3:00s   1:00    S
1429 Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       May     11      2:00s   2:00    M
1430 Rule    Germany 1947    only    -       Jun     29      3:00    1:00    S
1431 Rule    Germany 1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
1432 Rule    Germany 1949    only    -       Apr     10      2:00s   1:00    S
1433 
1434 Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       May     24      2:00    2:00    M # Midsummer
1435 Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       Sep     24      3:00    1:00    S
1436 Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       Nov     18      2:00s   0       -
1437 
1438 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1439 Zone    Europe/Berlin   0:53:28 -       LMT     1893 Apr
1440                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 May 24  2:00
1441                         1:00 SovietZone CE%sT   1946
1442                         1:00    Germany CE%sT   1980
1443                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1444 
1445 # From Tobias Conradi (2011-09-12):
1446 # Büsingen <http://www.buesingen.de>, surrounded by the Swiss canton
1447 # Schaffhausen, did not start observing DST in 1980 as the rest of DE
1448 # (West Germany at that time) and DD (East Germany at that time) did.
1449 # DD merged into DE, the area is currently covered by code DE in ISO 3166-1,
1450 # which in turn is covered by the zone Europe/Berlin.
1451 #
1452 # Source for the time in Büsingen 1980:
1453 # http://www.srf.ch/player/video?id=c012c029-03b7-4c2b-9164-aa5902cd58d3
1454 
1455 # From Arthur David Olson (2012-03-03):
1456 # Büsingen and Zurich have shared clocks since 1970.
1457 
1458 Link    Europe/Zurich   Europe/Busingen
1459 
1460 # Georgia
1461 # Please see the "asia" file for Asia/Tbilisi.
1462 # Herodotus (Histories, IV.45) says Georgia north of the Phasis (now Rioni)
1463 # is in Europe.  Our reference location Tbilisi is in the Asian part.
1464 
1465 # Gibraltar
1466 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1467 Zone Europe/Gibraltar   -0:21:24 -      LMT     1880 Aug  2  0:00s
1468                         0:00    GB-Eire %s      1957 Apr 14  2:00
1469                         1:00    -       CET     1982
1470                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1471 
1472 # Greece
1473 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1474 # Whitman gives 1932 Jul 5 - Nov 1; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1475 Rule    Greece  1932    only    -       Jul      7      0:00    1:00    S
1476 Rule    Greece  1932    only    -       Sep      1      0:00    0       -
1477 # Whitman gives 1941 Apr 25 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1478 Rule    Greece  1941    only    -       Apr      7      0:00    1:00    S
1479 # Whitman gives 1942 Feb 2 - ?; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1480 Rule    Greece  1942    only    -       Nov      2      3:00    0       -
1481 Rule    Greece  1943    only    -       Mar     30      0:00    1:00    S
1482 Rule    Greece  1943    only    -       Oct      4      0:00    0       -
1483 # Whitman gives 1944 Oct 3 - Oct 31; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1484 Rule    Greece  1952    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    S
1485 Rule    Greece  1952    only    -       Nov      2      0:00    0       -
1486 Rule    Greece  1975    only    -       Apr     12      0:00s   1:00    S
1487 Rule    Greece  1975    only    -       Nov     26      0:00s   0       -
1488 Rule    Greece  1976    only    -       Apr     11      2:00s   1:00    S
1489 Rule    Greece  1976    only    -       Oct     10      2:00s   0       -
1490 Rule    Greece  1977    1978    -       Apr     Sun>=1       2:00s   1:00    S
1491 Rule    Greece  1977    only    -       Sep     26      2:00s   0       -
1492 Rule    Greece  1978    only    -       Sep     24      4:00    0       -
1493 Rule    Greece  1979    only    -       Apr      1      9:00    1:00    S
1494 Rule    Greece  1979    only    -       Sep     29      2:00    0       -
1495 Rule    Greece  1980    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
1496 Rule    Greece  1980    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
1497 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1498 Zone    Europe/Athens   1:34:52 -       LMT     1895 Sep 14
1499                         1:34:52 -       AMT     1916 Jul 28  0:01 # Athens MT
1500                         2:00    Greece  EE%sT   1941 Apr 30
1501                         1:00    Greece  CE%sT   1944 Apr  4
1502                         2:00    Greece  EE%sT   1981
1503                         # Shanks & Pottenger say it switched to C-Eur in 1981;
1504                         # go with EU rules instead, since Greece joined Jan 1.
1505                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1506 
1507 # Hungary
1508 # From Paul Eggert (2014-07-15):
1509 # Dates for 1916-1945 are taken from:
1510 # Oross A. Jelen a múlt jövője: a nyári időszámítás Magyarországon 1916-1945.
1511 # National Archives of Hungary (2012-10-29).
1512 # http://mnl.gov.hu/a_het_dokumentuma/a_nyari_idoszamitas_magyarorszagon_19161945.html
1513 # This source does not always give times, which are taken from Shanks
1514 # & Pottenger (which disagree about the dates).
1515 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1516 Rule    Hungary 1918    only    -       Apr      1       3:00   1:00    S
1517 Rule    Hungary 1918    only    -       Sep     16       3:00   0       -
1518 Rule    Hungary 1919    only    -       Apr     15       3:00   1:00    S
1519 Rule    Hungary 1919    only    -       Nov     24       3:00   0       -
1520 Rule    Hungary 1945    only    -       May      1      23:00   1:00    S
1521 Rule    Hungary 1945    only    -       Nov      1       0:00   0       -
1522 Rule    Hungary 1946    only    -       Mar     31       2:00s  1:00    S
1523 Rule    Hungary 1946    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1        2:00s  0       -
1524 Rule    Hungary 1947    1949    -       Apr     Sun>=4        2:00s  1:00    S
1525 Rule    Hungary 1950    only    -       Apr     17       2:00s  1:00    S
1526 Rule    Hungary 1950    only    -       Oct     23       2:00s  0       -
1527 Rule    Hungary 1954    1955    -       May     23       0:00   1:00    S
1528 Rule    Hungary 1954    1955    -       Oct      3       0:00   0       -
1529 Rule    Hungary 1956    only    -       Jun     Sun>=1        0:00   1:00    S
1530 Rule    Hungary 1956    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
1531 Rule    Hungary 1957    only    -       Jun     Sun>=1        1:00   1:00    S
1532 Rule    Hungary 1957    only    -       Sep     lastSun  3:00   0       -
1533 Rule    Hungary 1980    only    -       Apr      6       1:00   1:00    S
1534 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1535 Zone    Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 -       LMT     1890 Oct
1536                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918
1537                         1:00    Hungary CE%sT   1941 Apr  8
1538                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
1539                         1:00    Hungary CE%sT   1980 Sep 28  2:00s
1540                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1541 
1542 # Iceland
1543 #
1544 # From Adam David (1993-11-06):
1545 # The name of the timezone in Iceland for system / mail / news purposes is GMT.
1546 #
1547 # (1993-12-05):
1548 # This material is paraphrased from the 1988 edition of the University of
1549 # Iceland Almanak.
1550 #
1551 # From January 1st, 1908 the whole of Iceland was standardised at 1 hour
1552 # behind GMT. Previously, local mean solar time was used in different parts
1553 # of Iceland, the almanak had been based on Reykjavik mean solar time which
1554 # was 1 hour and 28 minutes behind GMT.


1575 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1576 Rule    Iceland 1917    1919    -       Feb     19      23:00   1:00    -
1577 Rule    Iceland 1917    only    -       Oct     21       1:00   0       -
1578 Rule    Iceland 1918    1919    -       Nov     16       1:00   0       -
1579 Rule    Iceland 1921    only    -       Mar     19      23:00   1:00    -
1580 Rule    Iceland 1921    only    -       Jun     23       1:00   0       -
1581 Rule    Iceland 1939    only    -       Apr     29      23:00   1:00    -
1582 Rule    Iceland 1939    only    -       Oct     29       2:00   0       -
1583 Rule    Iceland 1940    only    -       Feb     25       2:00   1:00    -
1584 Rule    Iceland 1940    1941    -       Nov     Sun>=2        1:00s  0       -
1585 Rule    Iceland 1941    1942    -       Mar     Sun>=2        1:00s  1:00    -
1586 # 1943-1946 - first Sunday in March until first Sunday in winter
1587 Rule    Iceland 1943    1946    -       Mar     Sun>=1        1:00s  1:00    -
1588 Rule    Iceland 1942    1948    -       Oct     Sun>=22       1:00s  0       -
1589 # 1947-1967 - first Sunday in April until first Sunday in winter
1590 Rule    Iceland 1947    1967    -       Apr     Sun>=1        1:00s  1:00    -
1591 # 1949 and 1967 Oct transitions delayed by 1 week
1592 Rule    Iceland 1949    only    -       Oct     30       1:00s  0       -
1593 Rule    Iceland 1950    1966    -       Oct     Sun>=22       1:00s  0       -
1594 Rule    Iceland 1967    only    -       Oct     29       1:00s  0       -
1595 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1596 Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:28   -       LMT     1908
1597                         -1:00   Iceland -01/+00 1968 Apr  7  1:00s
1598                          0:00   -       GMT
1599 
1600 # Italy
1601 #
1602 # From Paul Eggert (2001-03-06):
1603 # Sicily and Sardinia each had their own time zones from 1866 to 1893,
1604 # called Palermo Time (+00:53:28) and Cagliari Time (+00:36:32).
1605 # During World War II, German-controlled Italy used German time.
1606 # But these events all occurred before the 1970 cutoff,
1607 # so record only the time in Rome.
1608 #



















1609 # From Michael Deckers (2016-10-24):
1610 # http://www.ac-ilsestante.it/MERIDIANE/ora_legale quotes a law of 1893-08-10
1611 # ... [translated as] "The preceding dispositions will enter into
1612 # force at the instant at which, according to the time specified in
1613 # the 1st article, the 1st of November 1893 will begin...."
1614 #
1615 # From Pierpaolo Bernardi (2016-10-20):
1616 # The authoritative source for time in Italy is the national metrological
1617 # institute, which has a summary page of historical DST data at
1618 # http://www.inrim.it/res/tf/ora_legale_i.shtml

1619 # (2016-10-24):
1620 # http://www.renzobaldini.it/le-ore-legali-in-italia/
1621 # has still different data for 1944.  It divides Italy in two, as
1622 # there were effectively two governments at the time, north of Gothic
1623 # Line German controlled territory, official government RSI, and south
1624 # of the Gothic Line, controlled by allied armies.
1625 #
1626 # From Brian Inglis (2016-10-23):
1627 # Viceregal LEGISLATIVE DECREE. 14 September 1944, no. 219.
1628 # Restoration of Standard Time. (044U0219) (OJ 62 of 30.9.1944) ...
1629 # Given the R. law decreed on 1944-03-29, no. 92, by which standard time is
1630 # advanced to sixty minutes later starting at hour two on 1944-04-02; ...
1631 # Starting at hour three on the date 1944-09-17 standard time will be resumed.
1632 #
1633 # From Paul Eggert (2016-10-27):
1634 # Go with INRiM for DST rules, except as corrected by Inglis for 1944
1635 # for the Kingdom of Italy.  This is consistent with Renzo Baldini.
1636 # Model Rome's occupation by using C-Eur rules from 1943-09-10
1637 # to 1944-06-04; although Rome was an open city during this period, it
1638 # was effectively controlled by Germany.


1662 Rule    Italy   1948    only    -       Feb     29       2:00s  1:00    S
1663 Rule    Italy   1948    only    -       Oct      3       2:00s  0       -
1664 Rule    Italy   1966    1968    -       May     Sun>=22       0:00s  1:00    S
1665 Rule    Italy   1966    only    -       Sep     24      24:00   0       -
1666 Rule    Italy   1967    1969    -       Sep     Sun>=22       0:00s  0       -
1667 Rule    Italy   1969    only    -       Jun      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1668 Rule    Italy   1970    only    -       May     31       0:00s  1:00    S
1669 Rule    Italy   1970    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
1670 Rule    Italy   1971    1972    -       May     Sun>=22       0:00s  1:00    S
1671 Rule    Italy   1971    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
1672 Rule    Italy   1972    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       -
1673 Rule    Italy   1973    only    -       Jun      3       0:00s  1:00    S
1674 Rule    Italy   1973    1974    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
1675 Rule    Italy   1974    only    -       May     26       0:00s  1:00    S
1676 Rule    Italy   1975    only    -       Jun      1       0:00s  1:00    S
1677 Rule    Italy   1975    1977    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
1678 Rule    Italy   1976    only    -       May     30       0:00s  1:00    S
1679 Rule    Italy   1977    1979    -       May     Sun>=22       0:00s  1:00    S
1680 Rule    Italy   1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       -
1681 Rule    Italy   1979    only    -       Sep     30       0:00s  0       -
1682 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1683 Zone    Europe/Rome     0:49:56 -       LMT     1866 Sep 22
1684                         0:49:56 -       RMT     1893 Oct 31 23:49:56 # Rome Mean
1685                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1943 Sep 10
1686                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Jun  4
1687                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1980
1688                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1689 
1690 Link    Europe/Rome     Europe/Vatican
1691 Link    Europe/Rome     Europe/San_Marino
1692 
1693 # Latvia
1694 
1695 # From Liene Kanepe (1998-09-17):
1696 
1697 # I asked about this matter Scientific Secretary of the Institute of Astronomy
1698 # of The University of Latvia Dr. paed Mr. Ilgonis Vilks. I also searched the
1699 # correct data in juridical acts and I found some juridical documents about
1700 # changes in the counting of time in Latvia from 1981....
1701 #
1702 # Act No. 35 of the Council of Ministers of Latvian SSR of 1981-01-22 ...
1703 # according to the Act No. 925 of the Council of Ministers of USSR of 1980-10-24


1738 # (2001-01-03), noted after a heads-up by Rives McDow:
1739 # The Latvian government on 2 January decided that the country will
1740 # institute daylight-saving time this spring, LETA reported.
1741 # Last February the three Baltic states decided not to turn back their
1742 # clocks one hour in the spring....
1743 # Minister of Economy Aigars Kalvītis noted that Latvia had too few
1744 # daylight hours and thus decided to comply with a draft European
1745 # Commission directive that provides for instituting daylight-saving
1746 # time in EU countries between 2002 and 2006. The Latvian government
1747 # urged Lithuania and Estonia to adopt a similar time policy, but it
1748 # appears that they will not do so....
1749 
1750 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1751 Rule    Latvia  1989    1996    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
1752 Rule    Latvia  1989    1996    -       Sep     lastSun  2:00s  0       -
1753 
1754 # Milne 1899 says Riga was 1:36:28 (Polytechnique House time).
1755 # Byalokoz 1919 says Latvia was 1:36:34.
1756 # Go with Byalokoz.
1757 
1758 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1759 Zone    Europe/Riga     1:36:34 -       LMT     1880
1760                         1:36:34 -       RMT     1918 Apr 15  2:00 # Riga MT
1761                         1:36:34 1:00    LST     1918 Sep 16  3:00 # Latvian ST
1762                         1:36:34 -       RMT     1919 Apr  1  2:00
1763                         1:36:34 1:00    LST     1919 May 22  3:00
1764                         1:36:34 -       RMT     1926 May 11
1765                         2:00    -       EET     1940 Aug  5
1766                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jul
1767                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct 13
1768                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar lastSun  2:00s
1769                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1989 Sep lastSun  2:00s
1770                         2:00    Latvia  EE%sT   1997 Jan 21
1771                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2000 Feb 29
1772                         2:00    -       EET     2001 Jan  2
1773                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1774 
1775 # Liechtenstein
1776 
1777 # From Paul Eggert (2013-09-09):
1778 # Shanks & Pottenger say Vaduz is like Zurich.


1808 # Lithuania has shifted back to the second time zone (GMT plus two hours)
1809 # to be valid here starting from October 31,
1810 # as decided by the national government on Wednesday....
1811 # The Lithuanian government also announced plans to consider a
1812 # motion to give up shifting to summer time in spring, as it was
1813 # already done by Estonia.
1814 
1815 # From the Fact File, Lithuanian State Department of Tourism
1816 # <http://www.tourism.lt/informa/ff.htm> (2000-03-27):
1817 # Local time is GMT+2 hours ..., no daylight saving.
1818 
1819 # From a user via Klaus Marten (2003-02-07):
1820 # As a candidate for membership of the European Union, Lithuania will
1821 # observe Summer Time in 2003, changing its clocks at the times laid
1822 # down in EU Directive 2000/84 of 19.I.01 (i.e. at the same times as its
1823 # neighbour Latvia). The text of the Lithuanian government Order of
1824 # 7.XI.02 to this effect can be found at
1825 # http://www.lrvk.lt/nut/11/n1749.htm
1826 
1827 
1828 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1829 Zone    Europe/Vilnius  1:41:16 -       LMT     1880
1830                         1:24:00 -       WMT     1917        # Warsaw Mean Time
1831                         1:35:36 -       KMT     1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time
1832                         1:00    -       CET     1920 Jul 12
1833                         2:00    -       EET     1920 Oct  9
1834                         1:00    -       CET     1940 Aug  3
1835                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jun 24
1836                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug
1837                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1989 Mar 26  2:00s
1838                         2:00    Russia  EE%sT   1991 Sep 29  2:00s
1839                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1998
1840                         2:00    -       EET     1998 Mar 29  1:00u
1841                         1:00    EU      CE%sT   1999 Oct 31  1:00u
1842                         2:00    -       EET     2003 Jan  1
1843                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
1844 
1845 # Luxembourg
1846 # Whitman disagrees with most of these dates in minor ways;
1847 # go with Shanks & Pottenger.
1848 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S


1852 Rule    Lux     1917    only    -       Sep     17       1:00   0       -
1853 Rule    Lux     1918    only    -       Apr     Mon>=15       2:00s  1:00    S
1854 Rule    Lux     1918    only    -       Sep     Mon>=15       2:00s  0       -
1855 Rule    Lux     1919    only    -       Mar      1      23:00   1:00    S
1856 Rule    Lux     1919    only    -       Oct      5       3:00   0       -
1857 Rule    Lux     1920    only    -       Feb     14      23:00   1:00    S
1858 Rule    Lux     1920    only    -       Oct     24       2:00   0       -
1859 Rule    Lux     1921    only    -       Mar     14      23:00   1:00    S
1860 Rule    Lux     1921    only    -       Oct     26       2:00   0       -
1861 Rule    Lux     1922    only    -       Mar     25      23:00   1:00    S
1862 Rule    Lux     1922    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2        1:00   0       -
1863 Rule    Lux     1923    only    -       Apr     21      23:00   1:00    S
1864 Rule    Lux     1923    only    -       Oct     Sun>=2        2:00   0       -
1865 Rule    Lux     1924    only    -       Mar     29      23:00   1:00    S
1866 Rule    Lux     1924    1928    -       Oct     Sun>=2        1:00   0       -
1867 Rule    Lux     1925    only    -       Apr      5      23:00   1:00    S
1868 Rule    Lux     1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00   1:00    S
1869 Rule    Lux     1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00   1:00    S
1870 Rule    Lux     1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00   1:00    S
1871 Rule    Lux     1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00   1:00    S
1872 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1873 Zone Europe/Luxembourg  0:24:36 -       LMT     1904 Jun
1874                         1:00    Lux     CE%sT   1918 Nov 25
1875                         0:00    Lux     WE%sT   1929 Oct  6  2:00s
1876                         0:00    Belgium WE%sT   1940 May 14  3:00
1877                         1:00    C-Eur   WE%sT   1944 Sep 18  3:00
1878                         1:00    Belgium CE%sT   1977
1879                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1880 
1881 # Macedonia
1882 # See Europe/Belgrade.
1883 
1884 # Malta
1885 #
1886 # From Paul Eggert (2016-10-21):
1887 # Assume 1900-1972 was like Rome, overriding Shanks.
1888 #
1889 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1890 Rule    Malta   1973    only    -       Mar     31      0:00s   1:00    S
1891 Rule    Malta   1973    only    -       Sep     29      0:00s   0       -
1892 Rule    Malta   1974    only    -       Apr     21      0:00s   1:00    S
1893 Rule    Malta   1974    only    -       Sep     16      0:00s   0       -
1894 Rule    Malta   1975    1979    -       Apr     Sun>=15      2:00    1:00    S
1895 Rule    Malta   1975    1980    -       Sep     Sun>=15      2:00    0       -
1896 Rule    Malta   1980    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S
1897 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1898 Zone    Europe/Malta    0:58:04 -       LMT     1893 Nov  2  0:00s # Valletta
1899                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1973 Mar 31
1900                         1:00    Malta   CE%sT   1981
1901                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1902 
1903 # Moldova
1904 
1905 # From Stepan Golosunov (2016-03-07):
1906 # the act of the government of the Republic of Moldova Nr. 132 from 1990-05-04
1907 # http://lex.justice.md/viewdoc.php?action=view&view=doc&id=298782&lang=2
1908 # ... says that since 1990-05-06 on the territory of the Moldavian SSR
1909 # time would be calculated as the standard time of the second time belt
1910 # plus one hour of the "summer" time. To implement that clocks would be
1911 # adjusted one hour backwards at 1990-05-06 2:00. After that "summer"
1912 # time would be cancelled last Sunday of September at 3:00 and
1913 # reintroduced last Sunday of March at 2:00.
1914 
1915 # From Paul Eggert (2006-03-22):
1916 # A previous version of this database followed Shanks & Pottenger, who write
1917 # that Tiraspol switched to Moscow time on 1992-01-19 at 02:00.


1946 # As of today, Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)- Tiraspol reversed its own
1947 # decision to abolish DST this winter.
1948 # Following Moldova and neighboring Ukraine- Transnistria (Pridnestrovie)-
1949 # Tiraspol will go back to winter time on October 30, 2011.
1950 # News from Moldova (in russian):
1951 # https://ru.publika.md/link_317061.html
1952 
1953 # From Roman Tudos (2015-07-02):
1954 # http://lex.justice.md/index.php?action=view&view=doc&lang=1&id=355077
1955 # From Paul Eggert (2015-07-01):
1956 # The abovementioned official link to IGO1445-868/2014 states that
1957 # 2014-10-26's fallback transition occurred at 03:00 local time.  Also,
1958 # https://www.trm.md/en/social/la-30-martie-vom-trece-la-ora-de-vara
1959 # says the 2014-03-30 spring-forward transition was at 02:00 local time.
1960 # Guess that since 1997 Moldova has switched one hour before the EU.
1961 
1962 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
1963 Rule    Moldova 1997    max     -       Mar     lastSun  2:00   1:00    S
1964 Rule    Moldova 1997    max     -       Oct     lastSun  3:00   0       -
1965 
1966 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1967 Zone    Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 -       LMT     1880
1968                         1:55    -       CMT     1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT
1969                         1:44:24 -       BMT     1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
1970                         2:00    Romania EE%sT   1940 Aug 15
1971                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1941 Jul 17
1972                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Aug 24
1973                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990 May  6  2:00
1974                         2:00    Russia  EE%sT   1992
1975                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997
1976 # See Romania commentary for the guessed 1997 transition to EU rules.
1977                         2:00    Moldova EE%sT
1978 
1979 # Monaco
1980 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
1981 # more precise 0:09:21.
1982 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
1983 Zone    Europe/Monaco   0:29:32 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15
1984                         0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
1985                         0:00    France  WE%sT   1945 Sep 16  3:00
1986                         1:00    France  CE%sT   1977
1987                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
1988 
1989 # Montenegro
1990 # See Europe/Belgrade.
1991 
1992 # Netherlands
1993 
1994 # Howse writes that the Netherlands' railways used GMT between 1892 and 1940,
1995 # but for other purposes the Netherlands used Amsterdam mean time.
1996 
1997 # However, Robert H. van Gent writes (2001-04-01):
1998 # Howse's statement is only correct up to 1909. From 1909-05-01 (00:00:00
1999 # Amsterdam mean time) onwards, the whole of the Netherlands (including
2000 # the Dutch railways) was required by law to observe Amsterdam mean time
2001 # (19 minutes 32.13 seconds ahead of GMT). This had already been the
2002 # common practice (except for the railways) for many decades but it was


2037 Rule    Neth    1918    1921    -       Apr     Mon>=1       2:00s   1:00    NST
2038 Rule    Neth    1918    1921    -       Sep     lastMon 2:00s   0       AMT
2039 Rule    Neth    1922    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    NST
2040 Rule    Neth    1922    1936    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       AMT
2041 Rule    Neth    1923    only    -       Jun     Fri>=1       2:00s   1:00    NST
2042 Rule    Neth    1924    only    -       Mar     lastSun 2:00s   1:00    NST
2043 Rule    Neth    1925    only    -       Jun     Fri>=1       2:00s   1:00    NST
2044 # From 1926 through 1939 DST began 05-15, except that it was delayed by a week
2045 # in years when 05-15 fell in the Pentecost weekend.
2046 Rule    Neth    1926    1931    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    NST
2047 Rule    Neth    1932    only    -       May     22      2:00s   1:00    NST
2048 Rule    Neth    1933    1936    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    NST
2049 Rule    Neth    1937    only    -       May     22      2:00s   1:00    NST
2050 Rule    Neth    1937    only    -       Jul      1      0:00    1:00    S
2051 Rule    Neth    1937    1939    -       Oct     Sun>=2       2:00s   0       -
2052 Rule    Neth    1938    1939    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    S
2053 Rule    Neth    1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00s   1:00    S
2054 Rule    Neth    1945    only    -       Sep     16      2:00s   0       -
2055 #
2056 # Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13, but the .13 is omitted
2057 # below because the current format requires GMTOFF to be an integer.
2058 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2059 Zone Europe/Amsterdam   0:19:32 -       LMT     1835
2060                         0:19:32 Neth    %s      1937 Jul  1
2061                         0:20    Neth +0020/+0120 1940 May 16  0:00
2062                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
2063                         1:00    Neth    CE%sT   1977
2064                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
2065 
2066 # Norway
2067 # http://met.no/met/met_lex/q_u/sommertid.html (2004-01) agrees with Shanks &
2068 # Pottenger.
2069 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2070 Rule    Norway  1916    only    -       May     22      1:00    1:00    S
2071 Rule    Norway  1916    only    -       Sep     30      0:00    0       -
2072 Rule    Norway  1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00s   1:00    S
2073 Rule    Norway  1945    only    -       Oct      1      2:00s   0       -
2074 Rule    Norway  1959    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=15      2:00s   1:00    S
2075 Rule    Norway  1959    1965    -       Sep     Sun>=15      2:00s   0       -
2076 Rule    Norway  1965    only    -       Apr     25      2:00s   1:00    S
2077 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2078 Zone    Europe/Oslo     0:43:00 -       LMT     1895 Jan  1
2079                         1:00    Norway  CE%sT   1940 Aug 10 23:00
2080                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
2081                         1:00    Norway  CE%sT   1980
2082                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
2083 
2084 # Svalbard & Jan Mayen
2085 
2086 # From Steffen Thorsen (2001-05-01):
2087 # Although I could not find it explicitly, it seems that Jan Mayen and
2088 # Svalbard have been using the same time as Norway at least since the
2089 # time they were declared as parts of Norway.  Svalbard was declared
2090 # as a part of Norway by law of 1925-07-17 no 11, section 4 and Jan
2091 # Mayen by law of 1930-02-27 no 2, section 2. (From
2092 # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19250717-011.html> and
2093 # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-19300227-002.html>).  The law/regulation
2094 # for normal/standard time in Norway is from 1894-06-29 no 1 (came
2095 # into operation on 1895-01-01) and Svalbard/Jan Mayen seem to be a
2096 # part of this law since 1925/1930. (From
2097 # <http://www.lovdata.no/all/nl-18940629-001.html>) I have not been


2148 # Toruń Center for Astronomy, Dept. of Radio Astronomy, Nicolaus Copernicus U.,
2149 # https://www.astro.uni.torun.pl/~kb/Artykuly/U-PA/Czas2.htm#tth_tAb1
2150 # Thanks to Przemysław Augustyniak (2005-05-28) for this reference.
2151 # He also gives these further references:
2152 # Mon Pol nr 13, poz 162 (1995) <http://www.abc.com.pl/serwis/mp/1995/0162.htm>
2153 # Druk nr 2180 (2003) <http://www.senat.gov.pl/k5/dok/sejm/053/2180.pdf>
2154 Rule    Poland  1946    only    -       Apr     14      0:00s   1:00    S
2155 Rule    Poland  1946    only    -       Oct      7      2:00s   0       -
2156 Rule    Poland  1947    only    -       May      4      2:00s   1:00    S
2157 Rule    Poland  1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1       2:00s   0       -
2158 Rule    Poland  1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
2159 Rule    Poland  1949    only    -       Apr     10      2:00s   1:00    S
2160 Rule    Poland  1957    only    -       Jun      2      1:00s   1:00    S
2161 Rule    Poland  1957    1958    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
2162 Rule    Poland  1958    only    -       Mar     30      1:00s   1:00    S
2163 Rule    Poland  1959    only    -       May     31      1:00s   1:00    S
2164 Rule    Poland  1959    1961    -       Oct     Sun>=1       1:00s   0       -
2165 Rule    Poland  1960    only    -       Apr      3      1:00s   1:00    S
2166 Rule    Poland  1961    1964    -       May     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S
2167 Rule    Poland  1962    1964    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
2168 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2169 Zone    Europe/Warsaw   1:24:00 -       LMT     1880
2170                         1:24:00 -       WMT     1915 Aug  5 # Warsaw Mean Time
2171                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 Sep 16  3:00
2172                         2:00    Poland  EE%sT   1922 Jun
2173                         1:00    Poland  CE%sT   1940 Jun 23  2:00
2174                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct
2175                         1:00    Poland  CE%sT   1977
2176                         1:00    W-Eur   CE%sT   1988
2177                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
2178 
2179 # Portugal
2180 
2181 # From Paul Eggert (2014-08-11), after a heads-up from Stephen Colebourne:
2182 # According to a Portuguese decree (1911-05-26)
2183 # https://dre.pt/application/dir/pdf1sdip/1911/05/12500/23132313.pdf
2184 # Lisbon was at -0:36:44.68, but switched to GMT on 1912-01-01 at 00:00.
2185 # Round the old offset to -0:36:45.  This agrees with Willett....
2186 #
2187 # From Michael Deckers (2018-02-15):
2188 # article 5 [of the 1911 decree; Deckers's translation] ...:


2253 Rule    Port    1943    only    -       Apr     17      22:00s  2:00    M
2254 Rule    Port    1943    1945    -       Aug     Sat>=25      22:00s  1:00    S
2255 Rule    Port    1944    1945    -       Apr     Sat>=21      22:00s  2:00    M
2256 Rule    Port    1946    only    -       Apr     Sat>=1       23:00s  1:00    S
2257 Rule    Port    1946    only    -       Oct     Sat>=1       23:00s  0       -
2258 Rule    Port    1947    1949    -       Apr     Sun>=1        2:00s  1:00    S
2259 Rule    Port    1947    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1        2:00s  0       -
2260 # Shanks & Pottenger say DST was observed in 1950; go with Whitman.
2261 # Whitman gives Oct lastSun for 1952 on; go with Shanks & Pottenger.
2262 Rule    Port    1951    1965    -       Apr     Sun>=1        2:00s  1:00    S
2263 Rule    Port    1951    1965    -       Oct     Sun>=1        2:00s  0       -
2264 Rule    Port    1977    only    -       Mar     27       0:00s  1:00    S
2265 Rule    Port    1977    only    -       Sep     25       0:00s  0       -
2266 Rule    Port    1978    1979    -       Apr     Sun>=1        0:00s  1:00    S
2267 Rule    Port    1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       -
2268 Rule    Port    1979    1982    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
2269 Rule    Port    1980    only    -       Mar     lastSun  0:00s  1:00    S
2270 Rule    Port    1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun  1:00s  1:00    S
2271 Rule    Port    1983    only    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
2272 #
2273 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2274 Zone    Europe/Lisbon   -0:36:45 -      LMT     1884
2275                         -0:36:45 -      LMT     1912 Jan  1  0:00u # Lisbon MT
2276                          0:00   Port    WE%sT   1966 Apr  3  2:00
2277                          1:00   -       CET     1976 Sep 26  1:00
2278                          0:00   Port    WE%sT   1983 Sep 25  1:00s
2279                          0:00   W-Eur   WE%sT   1992 Sep 27  1:00s
2280                          1:00   EU      CE%sT   1996 Mar 31  1:00u
2281                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
2282 # This Zone can be simplified once we assume zic %z.
2283 Zone Atlantic/Azores    -1:42:40 -      LMT     1884        # Ponta Delgada
2284                         -1:54:32 -      HMT     1912 Jan  1  2:00u # Horta MT
2285                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1942 Apr 25 22:00s
2286                         -2:00   Port    +00     1942 Aug 15 22:00s
2287                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1943 Apr 17 22:00s
2288                         -2:00   Port    +00     1943 Aug 28 22:00s
2289                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1944 Apr 22 22:00s
2290                         -2:00   Port    +00     1944 Aug 26 22:00s
2291                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1945 Apr 21 22:00s
2292                         -2:00   Port    +00     1945 Aug 25 22:00s
2293                         -2:00   Port    -02/-01 1966 Apr  3  2:00


2312 
2313 # Romania
2314 #
2315 # From Paul Eggert (1999-10-07):
2316 # Nine O'clock <http://www.nineoclock.ro/POL/1778pol.html>
2317 # (1998-10-23) reports that the switch occurred at
2318 # 04:00 local time in fall 1998.  For lack of better info,
2319 # assume that Romania and Moldova switched to EU rules in 1997,
2320 # the same year as Bulgaria.
2321 #
2322 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
2323 Rule    Romania 1932    only    -       May     21       0:00s  1:00    S
2324 Rule    Romania 1932    1939    -       Oct     Sun>=1        0:00s  0       -
2325 Rule    Romania 1933    1939    -       Apr     Sun>=2        0:00s  1:00    S
2326 Rule    Romania 1979    only    -       May     27       0:00   1:00    S
2327 Rule    Romania 1979    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
2328 Rule    Romania 1980    only    -       Apr      5      23:00   1:00    S
2329 Rule    Romania 1980    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       -
2330 Rule    Romania 1991    1993    -       Mar     lastSun  0:00s  1:00    S
2331 Rule    Romania 1991    1993    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
2332 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
2333 Zone Europe/Bucharest   1:44:24 -       LMT     1891 Oct
2334                         1:44:24 -       BMT     1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
2335                         2:00    Romania EE%sT   1981 Mar 29  2:00s
2336                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1991
2337                         2:00    Romania EE%sT   1994
2338                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1997
2339                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
2340 
2341 
2342 # Russia
2343 
2344 # From Alexander Krivenyshev (2011-09-15):
2345 # Based on last Russian Government Decree No. 725 on August 31, 2011
2346 # (Government document
2347 # http://www.government.ru/gov/results/16355/print/
2348 # in Russian)
2349 # there are few corrections have to be made for some Russian time zones...
2350 # All updated Russian Time Zones were placed in table and translated to English
2351 # by WorldTimeZone.com at the link below:
2352 # http://www.worldtimezone.com/dst_news/dst_news_russia36.htm


3351 
3352 
3353 # From Tim Parenti (2014-07-03):
3354 # Asia/Anadyr covers...
3355 # 87    RU-CHU  Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
3356 
3357 Zone Asia/Anadyr        11:49:56 -      LMT     1924 May  2
3358                         12:00   -       +12     1930 Jun 21
3359                         13:00   Russia  +13/+14 1982 Apr  1  0:00s
3360                         12:00   Russia  +12/+13 1991 Mar 31  2:00s
3361                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 1992 Jan 19  2:00s
3362                         12:00   Russia  +12/+13 2010 Mar 28  2:00s
3363                         11:00   Russia  +11/+12 2011 Mar 27  2:00s
3364                         12:00   -       +12
3365 
3366 
3367 # San Marino
3368 # See Europe/Rome.
3369 
3370 # Serbia
3371 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3372 Zone    Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 -       LMT     1884
3373                         1:00    -       CET     1941 Apr 18 23:00
3374                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
3375                         1:00    -       CET     1945 May  8  2:00s
3376                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1945 Sep 16  2:00s
3377 # Metod Koželj reports that the legal date of
3378 # transition to EU rules was 1982-11-27, for all of Yugoslavia at the time.
3379 # Shanks & Pottenger don't give as much detail, so go with Koželj.
3380                         1:00    -       CET     1982 Nov 27
3381                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
3382 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana   # Slovenia
3383 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Podgorica   # Montenegro
3384 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo    # Bosnia and Herzegovina
3385 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje      # Macedonia
3386 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb      # Croatia
3387 
3388 # Slovakia
3389 Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava
3390 
3391 # Slovenia
3392 # See Europe/Belgrade.
3393 
3394 # Spain
3395 #
3396 # From Paul Eggert (2016-12-14):
3397 #
3398 # The source for Europe/Madrid before 2013 is:
3399 # Planesas P. La hora oficial en España y sus cambios.
3400 # Anuario del Observatorio Astronómico de Madrid (2013, in Spanish).
3401 # http://astronomia.ign.es/rknowsys-theme/images/webAstro/paginas/documentos/Anuario/lahoraoficialenespana.pdf
3402 # As this source says that historical time in the Canaries is obscure,
3403 # and it does not discuss Ceuta, stick with Shanks for now for that data.
3404 #
3405 # In the 1918 and 1919 fallback transitions in Spain, the clock for


3457 Rule    Spain   1976    only    -       Mar     27      23:00   1:00    S
3458 Rule    Spain   1976    1977    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       -
3459 Rule    Spain   1977    only    -       Apr      2      23:00   1:00    S
3460 Rule    Spain   1978    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
3461 Rule    Spain   1978    only    -       Oct      1       2:00s  0       -
3462 # Nationalist Spain during the civil war
3463 #Rule NatSpain  1937    only    -       May     22      23:00   1:00    S
3464 #Rule NatSpain  1937    1938    -       Oct     Sat>=1       24:00s  0       -
3465 #Rule NatSpain  1938    only    -       Mar     26      23:00   1:00    S
3466 # The following rules are copied from Morocco from 1967 through 1978,
3467 # except with "S" letters.
3468 Rule SpainAfrica 1967   only    -       Jun      3      12:00   1:00    S
3469 Rule SpainAfrica 1967   only    -       Oct      1       0:00   0       -
3470 Rule SpainAfrica 1974   only    -       Jun     24       0:00   1:00    S
3471 Rule SpainAfrica 1974   only    -       Sep      1       0:00   0       -
3472 Rule SpainAfrica 1976   1977    -       May      1       0:00   1:00    S
3473 Rule SpainAfrica 1976   only    -       Aug      1       0:00   0       -
3474 Rule SpainAfrica 1977   only    -       Sep     28       0:00   0       -
3475 Rule SpainAfrica 1978   only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    S
3476 Rule SpainAfrica 1978   only    -       Aug      4       0:00   0       -
3477 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3478 Zone    Europe/Madrid   -0:14:44 -      LMT     1900 Dec 31 23:45:16
3479                          0:00   Spain   WE%sT   1940 Mar 16 23:00
3480                          1:00   Spain   CE%sT   1979
3481                          1:00   EU      CE%sT
3482 Zone    Africa/Ceuta    -0:21:16 -      LMT     1900 Dec 31 23:38:44
3483                          0:00   -       WET     1918 May  6 23:00
3484                          0:00   1:00    WEST    1918 Oct  7 23:00
3485                          0:00   -       WET     1924
3486                          0:00   Spain   WE%sT   1929
3487                          0:00   -       WET     1967 # Help zishrink.awk.
3488                          0:00 SpainAfrica WE%sT 1984 Mar 16
3489                          1:00   -       CET     1986
3490                          1:00   EU      CE%sT
3491 Zone    Atlantic/Canary -1:01:36 -      LMT     1922 Mar # Las Palmas de Gran C.
3492                         -1:00   -       -01     1946 Sep 30  1:00
3493                          0:00   -       WET     1980 Apr  6  0:00s
3494                          0:00   1:00    WEST    1980 Sep 28  1:00u
3495                          0:00   EU      WE%sT
3496 # IATA SSIM (1996-09) says the Canaries switch at 2:00u, not 1:00u.
3497 # Ignore this for now, as the Canaries are part of the EU.


3525 # Further the law says, that "1916-09-30 is considered to end one hour later".
3526 #
3527 # The laws regulating [DST] are available on the site of the Swedish
3528 # Parliament beginning with 1985 - the laws regulating 1980/1984 are
3529 # not available on the site (to my knowledge they are only available
3530 # in Swedish): <http://www.riksdagen.se/english/work/sfst.asp> (type
3531 # "sommartid" without the quotes in the field "Fritext" and then click
3532 # the Sök-button).
3533 #
3534 # (2001-05-13):
3535 #
3536 # I have now found a newspaper stating that at 1916-10-01 01:00
3537 # summertime the church-clocks etc were set back one hour to show
3538 # 1916-10-01 00:00 standard time.  The article also reports that some
3539 # people thought the switch to standard time would take place already
3540 # at 1916-10-01 00:00 summer time, but they had to wait for another
3541 # hour before the event took place.
3542 #
3543 # Source: The newspaper "Dagens Nyheter", 1916-10-01, page 7 upper left.
3544 
3545 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3546 Zone Europe/Stockholm   1:12:12 -       LMT     1879 Jan  1
3547                         1:00:14 -       SET     1900 Jan  1 # Swedish Time
3548                         1:00    -       CET     1916 May 14 23:00
3549                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1916 Oct  1  1:00
3550                         1:00    -       CET     1980
3551                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
3552 
3553 # Switzerland
3554 # From Howse:
3555 # By the end of the 18th century clocks and watches became commonplace
3556 # and their performance improved enormously.  Communities began to keep
3557 # mean time in preference to apparent time - Geneva from 1780 ....
3558 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3559 # From Whitman (who writes "Midnight?"):
3560 # Rule  Swiss   1940    only    -       Nov      2      0:00    1:00    S
3561 # Rule  Swiss   1940    only    -       Dec     31      0:00    0       -
3562 # From Shanks & Pottenger:
3563 # Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Sun>=1       2:00    1:00    S
3564 # Rule  Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Sun>=1       0:00    0       -
3565 


3628 #
3629 #       Jakob Messerli. Gleichmässig, pünktlich, schnell. Zeiteinteilung und
3630 #       Zeitgebrauch in der Schweiz im 19. Jahrhundert. Chronos, Zurich 1995,
3631 #       ISBN 3-905311-68-2, OCLC 717570797.
3632 #
3633 # suggests that the transition was more gradual, and that the Swiss did not
3634 # agree about civil time during the transition.  The timekeeping it gives the
3635 # most detail for is postal and telegraph time: here, federal legislation (the
3636 # "Bundesgesetz über die Erstellung von elektrischen Telegraphen") passed on
3637 # 1851-11-23, and an official implementation notice was published 1853-07-16
3638 # (Bundesblatt 1853, Bd. II, S. 859).  On p 72 Messerli writes that in
3639 # practice since July 1853 Bernese time was used in "all postal and telegraph
3640 # offices in Switzerland from Geneva to St. Gallen and Basel to Chiasso"
3641 # (Google translation).  For now, model this transition as occurring on
3642 # 1853-07-16, though it probably occurred at some other date in Zurich, and
3643 # legal civil time probably changed at still some other transition date.
3644 
3645 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
3646 Rule    Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Mon>=1       1:00    1:00    S
3647 Rule    Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Mon>=1       2:00    0       -
3648 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3649 Zone    Europe/Zurich   0:34:08 -       LMT     1853 Jul 16 # See above comment.
3650                         0:29:46 -       BMT     1894 Jun    # Bern Mean Time
3651                         1:00    Swiss   CE%sT   1981
3652                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
3653 
3654 # Turkey
3655 
3656 # From Kıvanç Yazan (2016-09-25):
3657 # 1) For 1986-2006, DST started at 01:00 local and ended at 02:00 local, with
3658 #    no exceptions.
3659 # 2) 1994's lastSun was overridden with Mar 20 ...
3660 # Here are official papers:
3661 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19032.pdf  - page 2 for 1986
3662 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19400.pdf  - page 4 for 1987
3663 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/19752.pdf  - page 15 for 1988
3664 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/20102.pdf  - page 6 for 1989
3665 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/20464.pdf  - page 1 for 1990 - 1992
3666 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/21531.pdf  - page 15 for 1993 - 1995
3667 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/21879.pdf  - page 1 for overriding 1994
3668 # http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/arsiv/22588.pdf  - page 1 for 1996, 1997


3778 Rule    Turkey  1973    only    -       Nov      4      3:00    0       -
3779 Rule    Turkey  1974    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S
3780 Rule    Turkey  1974    only    -       Nov      3      5:00    0       -
3781 Rule    Turkey  1975    only    -       Mar     30      0:00    1:00    S
3782 Rule    Turkey  1975    1976    -       Oct     lastSun 0:00    0       -
3783 Rule    Turkey  1976    only    -       Jun      1      0:00    1:00    S
3784 Rule    Turkey  1977    1978    -       Apr     Sun>=1       0:00    1:00    S
3785 Rule    Turkey  1977    only    -       Oct     16      0:00    0       -
3786 Rule    Turkey  1979    1980    -       Apr     Sun>=1       3:00    1:00    S
3787 Rule    Turkey  1979    1982    -       Oct     Mon>=11      0:00    0       -
3788 Rule    Turkey  1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun 3:00    1:00    S
3789 Rule    Turkey  1983    only    -       Jul     31      0:00    1:00    S
3790 Rule    Turkey  1983    only    -       Oct      2      0:00    0       -
3791 Rule    Turkey  1985    only    -       Apr     20      0:00    1:00    S
3792 Rule    Turkey  1985    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
3793 Rule    Turkey  1986    1993    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S
3794 Rule    Turkey  1986    1995    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
3795 Rule    Turkey  1994    only    -       Mar     20      1:00s   1:00    S
3796 Rule    Turkey  1995    2006    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S
3797 Rule    Turkey  1996    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
3798 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3799 Zone    Europe/Istanbul 1:55:52 -       LMT     1880
3800                         1:56:56 -       IMT     1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time?
3801                         2:00    Turkey  EE%sT   1978 Oct 15
3802                         3:00    Turkey  +03/+04 1985 Apr 20
3803                         2:00    Turkey  EE%sT   2007
3804                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2011 Mar 27  1:00u
3805                         2:00    -       EET     2011 Mar 28  1:00u
3806                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2014 Mar 30  1:00u
3807                         2:00    -       EET     2014 Mar 31  1:00u
3808                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2015 Oct 25  1:00u
3809                         2:00    1:00    EEST    2015 Nov  8  1:00u
3810                         2:00    EU      EE%sT   2016 Sep  7
3811                         3:00    -       +03
3812 Link    Europe/Istanbul Asia/Istanbul   # Istanbul is in both continents.
3813 
3814 # Ukraine
3815 #
3816 # From Igor Karpov, who works for the Ukrainian Ministry of Justice,
3817 # via Garrett Wollman (2003-01-27):
3818 # BTW, I've found the official document on this matter. It's government


3875 # This is an answer.
3876 #
3877 # Since 1992 they had normal DST procedure:
3878 #       03 29 1992 02:00 -02.00 1       DST started
3879 #       09 27 1992 03:00 -02.00 0       DST ended
3880 # * Ukrainian Government's Resolution of 20.03.1992, No. 139.
3881 # http://www.uazakon.com/documents/date_8u/pg_grcasa.htm
3882 
3883 # From Paul Eggert (2018-10-03):
3884 # As is usual in tzdb, Ukrainian zones use the most common English spellings.
3885 # For example, tzdb uses Europe/Kiev, as "Kiev" is the most common spelling in
3886 # English for Ukraine's capital, even though it is certainly wrong as a
3887 # transliteration of the Ukrainian "Київ".  This is similar to tzdb's use of
3888 # Europe/Prague, which is certainly wrong as a transliteration of the Czech
3889 # "Praha".  ("Kiev" came from old Slavic via Russian to English, and "Prague"
3890 # came from old Slavic via French to English, so the two cases have something
3891 # in common.)  Admittedly English-language spelling of Ukrainian names is
3892 # controversial, and some day "Kyiv" may become substantially more popular in
3893 # English; in the meantime, stick with the traditional English "Kiev" as that
3894 # means less disruption for our users.
3895 #
3896 # Anyway, none of the common English-language spellings (Kiev, Kyiv, Kieff,
3897 # Kijeff, Kijev, Kiyef, Kiyeff) do justice to the common pronunciation in
3898 # Ukrainian, namely [ˈkɪjiu̯] (IPA).  This pronunciation has nothing like an
3899 # English "v" or "f", and instead trails off with what an English-speaker
3900 # would call a demure "oo" sound, and it would would be better anglicized as
3901 # "Kuiyu".  Here's a sound file, if you would like to do as the Kuiyuvians do:
3902 # https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Uk-Київ.ogg
3903 
3904 # Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
3905 # This represents most of Ukraine.  See above for the spelling of "Kiev".
3906 Zone Europe/Kiev        2:02:04 -       LMT     1880
3907                         2:02:04 -       KMT     1924 May  2 # Kiev Mean Time
3908                         2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
3909                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Sep 20
3910                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1943 Nov  6
3911                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990 Jul  1  2:00
3912                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1991 Sep 29  3:00
3913                         2:00    E-Eur   EE%sT   1995
3914                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
3915 # Ruthenia used CET 1990/1991.
3916 # "Uzhhorod" is the transliteration of the Rusyn/Ukrainian pronunciation, but
3917 # "Uzhgorod" is more common in English.
3918 Zone Europe/Uzhgorod    1:29:12 -       LMT     1890 Oct
3919                         1:00    -       CET     1940
3920                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Oct
3921                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1944 Oct 26
3922                         1:00    -       CET     1945 Jun 29
3923                         3:00    Russia  MSK/MSD 1990
3924                         3:00    -       MSK     1990 Jul  1  2:00


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