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@@ -143,11 +143,11 @@
 #
 # I have a one inch to one mile map of London and my estimate of the stone's
 # position is 51° 28' 30" N, 0° 18' 45" W. The longitude should
 # be within about ±2". The Ordnance Survey grid reference is TQ172761.
 #
-# [This yields STDOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]
+# [This yields GMTOFF = -0:01:15 for London LMT in the 18th century.]
 
 # From Paul Eggert (1993-11-18):
 #
 # Howse writes that Britain was the first country to use standard time.
 # The railways cared most about the inconsistencies of local mean time,

@@ -521,11 +521,11 @@
 # Summer Time Order 1997 (S.I. 1997/2982)
 # See EU for rules starting in 1996.
 #
 # Use Europe/London for Jersey, Guernsey, and the Isle of Man.
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/London   -0:01:15 -      LMT     1847 Dec  1  0:00s
                          0:00   GB-Eire %s      1968 Oct 27
                          1:00   -       BST     1971 Oct 31  2:00u
                          0:00   GB-Eire %s      1996
                          0:00   EU      GMT/BST

@@ -551,19 +551,19 @@
 #
 # The following is like GB-Eire and EU, except with standard time in
 # summer and negative daylight saving time in winter.  It is for when
 # negative SAVE values are used.
 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
-Rule    Eire    1971    only    -       Oct     31       2:00u  -1:00   -
-Rule    Eire    1972    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16  2:00u  0       -
-Rule    Eire    1972    1980    -       Oct     Sun>=23  2:00u  -1:00   -
-Rule    Eire    1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
-Rule    Eire    1981    1989    -       Oct     Sun>=23  1:00u  -1:00   -
-Rule    Eire    1990    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=22  1:00u  -1:00   -
-Rule    Eire    1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  -1:00   -
+#Rule   Eire    1971    only    -       Oct     31       2:00u  -1:00   -
+#Rule   Eire    1972    1980    -       Mar     Sun>=16  2:00u  0       -
+#Rule   Eire    1972    1980    -       Oct     Sun>=23  2:00u  -1:00   -
+#Rule   Eire    1981    max     -       Mar     lastSun  1:00u  0       -
+#Rule   Eire    1981    1989    -       Oct     Sun>=23  1:00u  -1:00   -
+#Rule   Eire    1990    1995    -       Oct     Sun>=22  1:00u  -1:00   -
+#Rule   Eire    1996    max     -       Oct     lastSun  1:00u  -1:00   -
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Dublin   -0:25:00 -      LMT     1880 Aug  2
                         -0:25:21 -      DMT     1916 May 21  2:00s
                         -0:25:21 1:00   IST     1916 Oct  1  2:00s
                          0:00   GB-Eire %s      1921 Dec  6 # independence
                          0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1940 Feb 25  2:00s

@@ -571,15 +571,15 @@
                          0:00   -       GMT     1947 Mar 16  2:00s
                          0:00   1:00    IST     1947 Nov  2  2:00s
                          0:00   -       GMT     1948 Apr 18  2:00s
                          0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1968 Oct 27
 # The next line is for when negative SAVE values are used.
-                         1:00   Eire    IST/GMT
+#                        1:00   Eire    IST/GMT
 # These three lines are for when SAVE values are always nonnegative.
-#                        1:00   -       IST     1971 Oct 31  2:00u
-#                        0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996
-#                        0:00   EU      GMT/IST
+                         1:00   -       IST     1971 Oct 31  2:00u
+                         0:00   GB-Eire GMT/IST 1996
+                         0:00   EU      GMT/IST
 
 
 ###############################################################################
 
 # Europe

@@ -758,11 +758,11 @@
 # Take "abolishing daylight saving time" to mean that time is now considered
 # to be standard.
 
 # These are for backward compatibility with older versions.
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    WET             0:00    EU      WE%sT
 Zone    CET             1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT
 Zone    MET             1:00    C-Eur   ME%sT
 Zone    EET             2:00    EU      EE%sT
 

@@ -818,18 +818,18 @@
 Rule    Albania 1982    only    -       May      2      0:00    1:00    S
 Rule    Albania 1982    only    -       Oct      3      0:00    0       -
 Rule    Albania 1983    only    -       Apr     18      0:00    1:00    S
 Rule    Albania 1983    only    -       Oct      1      0:00    0       -
 Rule    Albania 1984    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Tirane   1:19:20 -       LMT     1914
                         1:00    -       CET     1940 Jun 16
                         1:00    Albania CE%sT   1984 Jul
                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 
 # Andorra
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Andorra  0:06:04 -       LMT     1901
                         0:00    -       WET     1946 Sep 30
                         1:00    -       CET     1985 Mar 31  2:00
                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 

@@ -851,11 +851,11 @@
 Rule    Austria 1946    1948    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
 Rule    Austria 1947    only    -       Apr      6      2:00s   1:00    S
 Rule    Austria 1948    only    -       Apr     18      2:00s   1:00    S
 Rule    Austria 1980    only    -       Apr      6      0:00    1:00    S
 Rule    Austria 1980    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Vienna   1:05:21 -       LMT     1893 Apr
                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1920
                         1:00    Austria CE%sT   1940 Apr  1  2:00s
                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00s
                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1945 Apr 12  2:00s

@@ -883,11 +883,11 @@
 #
 # From Alexander Bokovoy (2014-10-09):
 # Belarussian government decided against changing to winter time....
 # http://eng.belta.by/all_news/society/Belarus-decides-against-adjusting-time-in-Russias-wake_i_76335.html
 #
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Minsk    1:50:16 -       LMT     1880
                         1:50    -       MMT     1924 May  2 # Minsk Mean Time
                         2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Jun 28
                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Jul  3

@@ -947,11 +947,11 @@
 Rule    Belgium 1944    only    -       Sep     17       2:00s  0       -
 Rule    Belgium 1945    only    -       Apr      2       2:00s  1:00    S
 Rule    Belgium 1945    only    -       Sep     16       2:00s  0       -
 Rule    Belgium 1946    only    -       May     19       2:00s  1:00    S
 Rule    Belgium 1946    only    -       Oct      7       2:00s  0       -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Brussels 0:17:30 -       LMT     1880
                         0:17:30 -       BMT     1892 May  1 12:00  # Brussels MT
                         0:00    -       WET     1914 Nov  8
                         1:00    -       CET     1916 May  1  0:00
                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 Nov 11 11:00u

@@ -974,11 +974,11 @@
 Rule    Bulg    1979    only    -       Mar     31      23:00   1:00    S
 Rule    Bulg    1979    only    -       Oct      1       1:00   0       -
 Rule    Bulg    1980    1982    -       Apr     Sat>=1  23:00   1:00    S
 Rule    Bulg    1980    only    -       Sep     29       1:00   0       -
 Rule    Bulg    1981    only    -       Sep     27       2:00   0       -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Sofia    1:33:16 -       LMT     1880
                         1:56:56 -       IMT     1894 Nov 30 # Istanbul MT?
                         2:00    -       EET     1942 Nov  2  3:00
                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
                         1:00    -       CET     1945 Apr  2  3:00

@@ -1007,19 +1007,19 @@
 Rule    Czech   1945    only    -       Oct      1      2:00s   0       -
 Rule    Czech   1946    only    -       May      6      2:00s   1:00    S
 Rule    Czech   1946    1949    -       Oct     Sun>=1  2:00s   0       -
 Rule    Czech   1947    1948    -       Apr     Sun>=15 2:00s   1:00    S
 Rule    Czech   1949    only    -       Apr      9      2:00s   1:00    S
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Prague   0:57:44 -       LMT     1850
                         0:57:44 -       PMT     1891 Oct    # Prague Mean Time
                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 May  9
                         1:00    Czech   CE%sT   1946 Dec  1  3:00
 # Vanguard section, for zic and other parsers that support negative DST.
-                        1:00    -1:00   GMT     1947 Feb 23  2:00
+#                       1:00    -1:00   GMT     1947 Feb 23  2:00
 # Rearguard section, for parsers that do not support negative DST.
-#                       0:00    -       GMT     1947 Feb 23  2:00
+                        0:00    -       GMT     1947 Feb 23  2:00
 # End of rearguard section.
                         1:00    Czech   CE%sT   1979
                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 # Use Europe/Prague also for Slovakia.
 

@@ -1069,11 +1069,11 @@
 Rule    Denmark 1947    only    -       May      4       2:00s  1:00    S
 Rule    Denmark 1947    only    -       Aug     10       2:00s  0       -
 Rule    Denmark 1948    only    -       May      9       2:00s  1:00    S
 Rule    Denmark 1948    only    -       Aug      8       2:00s  0       -
 #
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone Europe/Copenhagen   0:50:20 -      LMT     1890
                          0:50:20 -      CMT     1894 Jan  1 # Copenhagen MT
                          1:00   Denmark CE%sT   1942 Nov  2  2:00s
                          1:00   C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
                          1:00   Denmark CE%sT   1980

@@ -1166,11 +1166,11 @@
 Rule    Thule   1993    2006    -       Apr     Sun>=1  2:00    1:00    D
 Rule    Thule   1993    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 2:00    0       S
 Rule    Thule   2007    max     -       Mar     Sun>=8  2:00    1:00    D
 Rule    Thule   2007    max     -       Nov     Sun>=1  2:00    0       S
 #
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone America/Danmarkshavn -1:14:40 -    LMT     1916 Jul 28
                         -3:00   -       -03     1980 Apr  6  2:00
                         -3:00   EU      -03/-02 1996
                         0:00    -       GMT
 Zone America/Scoresbysund -1:27:52 -    LMT     1916 Jul 28 # Ittoqqortoormiit

@@ -1232,11 +1232,11 @@
 # Now we are using again EU rules.
 #
 # From Urmet Jänes (2002-03-28):
 # The legislative reference is Government decree No. 84 on 2002-02-21.
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Tallinn  1:39:00 -       LMT     1880
                         1:39:00 -       TMT     1918 Feb    # Tallinn Mean Time
                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1919 Jul
                         1:39:00 -       TMT     1921 May
                         2:00    -       EET     1940 Aug  6

@@ -1295,11 +1295,11 @@
 Rule    Finland 1981    1982    -       Sep     lastSun 3:00    0       -
 
 # Milne says Helsinki (Helsingfors) time was 1:39:49.2 (official document);
 # round to nearest.
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Helsinki 1:39:49 -       LMT     1878 May 31
                         1:39:49 -       HMT     1921 May    # Helsinki Mean Time
                         2:00    Finland EE%sT   1983
                         2:00    EU      EE%sT
 

@@ -1385,11 +1385,11 @@
 Rule    France  1976    only    -       Sep     26       1:00   0       -
 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time, and Whitman 0:09:05,
 # but Howse quotes the actual French legislation as saying 0:09:21.
 # Go with Howse.  Howse writes that the time in France was officially based
 # on PMT-0:09:21 until 1978-08-09, when the time base finally switched to UTC.
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Paris    0:09:21 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15  0:01
                         0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11  0:01 # Paris MT
 # Shanks & Pottenger give 1940 Jun 14 0:00; go with Excoffier and Le Corre.
                         0:00    France  WE%sT   1940 Jun 14 23:00
 # Le Corre says Paris stuck with occupied-France time after the liberation;

@@ -1433,11 +1433,11 @@
 
 Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       May     24      2:00    2:00    M # Midsummer
 Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       Sep     24      3:00    1:00    S
 Rule SovietZone 1945    only    -       Nov     18      2:00s   0       -
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Berlin   0:53:28 -       LMT     1893 Apr
                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 May 24  2:00
                         1:00 SovietZone CE%sT   1946
                         1:00    Germany CE%sT   1980
                         1:00    EU      CE%sT

@@ -1461,11 +1461,11 @@
 # Please see the "asia" file for Asia/Tbilisi.
 # Herodotus (Histories, IV.45) says Georgia north of the Phasis (now Rioni)
 # is in Europe.  Our reference location Tbilisi is in the Asian part.
 
 # Gibraltar
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone Europe/Gibraltar   -0:21:24 -      LMT     1880 Aug  2  0:00s
                         0:00    GB-Eire %s      1957 Apr 14  2:00
                         1:00    -       CET     1982
                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 

@@ -1492,11 +1492,11 @@
 Rule    Greece  1978    only    -       Sep     24      4:00    0       -
 Rule    Greece  1979    only    -       Apr      1      9:00    1:00    S
 Rule    Greece  1979    only    -       Sep     29      2:00    0       -
 Rule    Greece  1980    only    -       Apr      1      0:00    1:00    S
 Rule    Greece  1980    only    -       Sep     28      0:00    0       -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Athens   1:34:52 -       LMT     1895 Sep 14
                         1:34:52 -       AMT     1916 Jul 28  0:01 # Athens MT
                         2:00    Greece  EE%sT   1941 Apr 30
                         1:00    Greece  CE%sT   1944 Apr  4
                         2:00    Greece  EE%sT   1981

@@ -1529,11 +1529,11 @@
 Rule    Hungary 1956    only    -       Jun     Sun>=1   0:00   1:00    S
 Rule    Hungary 1956    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 Rule    Hungary 1957    only    -       Jun     Sun>=1   1:00   1:00    S
 Rule    Hungary 1957    only    -       Sep     lastSun  3:00   0       -
 Rule    Hungary 1980    only    -       Apr      6       1:00   1:00    S
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Budapest 1:16:20 -       LMT     1890 Oct
                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918
                         1:00    Hungary CE%sT   1941 Apr  8
                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
                         1:00    Hungary CE%sT   1980 Sep 28  2:00s

@@ -1590,11 +1590,11 @@
 Rule    Iceland 1947    1967    -       Apr     Sun>=1   1:00s  1:00    -
 # 1949 and 1967 Oct transitions delayed by 1 week
 Rule    Iceland 1949    only    -       Oct     30       1:00s  0       -
 Rule    Iceland 1950    1966    -       Oct     Sun>=22  1:00s  0       -
 Rule    Iceland 1967    only    -       Oct     29       1:00s  0       -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone Atlantic/Reykjavik -1:28   -       LMT     1908
                         -1:00   Iceland -01/+00 1968 Apr  7  1:00s
                          0:00   -       GMT
 
 # Italy

@@ -1604,40 +1604,20 @@
 # called Palermo Time (+00:53:28) and Cagliari Time (+00:36:32).
 # During World War II, German-controlled Italy used German time.
 # But these events all occurred before the 1970 cutoff,
 # so record only the time in Rome.
 #
-# From Stephen Trainor (2019-05-06):
-# http://www.ac-ilsestante.it/MERIDIANE/ora_legale/ORA_LEGALE_ESTIVA_IN_ITALIA.htm
-# ... the [1866] law went into effect on 12 December 1866, rather than
-# the date of the decree (22 Sep 1866)
-# https://web.archive.org/web/20070824155341/http://www.iav.it/planetario/didastro/didastro/english.htm
-# ... "In Italy in 1866 there were 6 railway times (Torino, Verona, Firenze,
-# Roma, Napoli, Palermo). On that year it was decided to unify them, adopting
-# the average time of Rome (even if this city was not yet part of the
-# kingdom).  On the 12th December 1866, on the starting of the winter time
-# table, it took effect in the railways, the post office and the telegraph,
-# not only for the internal service but also for the public....  Milano set
-# the public watches on the Rome time on the same day (12th December 1866),
-# Torino and Bologna on the 1st January 1867, Venezia the 1st May 1880 and the
-# last city was Cagliari in 1886."
-#
-# From Luigi Rosa (2019-05-07):
-# this is the scan of the decree:
-# http://www.radiomarconi.com/marconi/filopanti/1866c.jpg
-#
 # From Michael Deckers (2016-10-24):
 # http://www.ac-ilsestante.it/MERIDIANE/ora_legale quotes a law of 1893-08-10
 # ... [translated as] "The preceding dispositions will enter into
 # force at the instant at which, according to the time specified in
 # the 1st article, the 1st of November 1893 will begin...."
 #
 # From Pierpaolo Bernardi (2016-10-20):
 # The authoritative source for time in Italy is the national metrological
 # institute, which has a summary page of historical DST data at
 # http://www.inrim.it/res/tf/ora_legale_i.shtml
-# [now at http://oldsite.inrim.it/res/tf/ora_legale_i.shtml as of 2017]
 # (2016-10-24):
 # http://www.renzobaldini.it/le-ore-legali-in-italia/
 # has still different data for 1944.  It divides Italy in two, as
 # there were effectively two governments at the time, north of Gothic
 # Line German controlled territory, official government RSI, and south

@@ -1697,12 +1677,12 @@
 Rule    Italy   1975    1977    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
 Rule    Italy   1976    only    -       May     30       0:00s  1:00    S
 Rule    Italy   1977    1979    -       May     Sun>=22  0:00s  1:00    S
 Rule    Italy   1978    only    -       Oct      1       0:00s  0       -
 Rule    Italy   1979    only    -       Sep     30       0:00s  0       -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
-Zone    Europe/Rome     0:49:56 -       LMT     1866 Dec 12
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+Zone    Europe/Rome     0:49:56 -       LMT     1866 Sep 22
                         0:49:56 -       RMT     1893 Oct 31 23:49:56 # Rome Mean
                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1943 Sep 10
                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1944 Jun  4
                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1980
                         1:00    EU      CE%sT

@@ -1773,11 +1753,11 @@
 
 # Milne 1899 says Riga was 1:36:28 (Polytechnique House time).
 # Byalokoz 1919 says Latvia was 1:36:34.
 # Go with Byalokoz.
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Riga     1:36:34 -       LMT     1880
                         1:36:34 -       RMT     1918 Apr 15  2:00 # Riga MT
                         1:36:34 1:00    LST     1918 Sep 16  3:00 # Latvian ST
                         1:36:34 -       RMT     1919 Apr  1  2:00
                         1:36:34 1:00    LST     1919 May 22  3:00

@@ -1843,11 +1823,11 @@
 # neighbour Latvia). The text of the Lithuanian government Order of
 # 7.XI.02 to this effect can be found at
 # http://www.lrvk.lt/nut/11/n1749.htm
 
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Vilnius  1:41:16 -       LMT     1880
                         1:24:00 -       WMT     1917        # Warsaw Mean Time
                         1:35:36 -       KMT     1919 Oct 10 # Kaunas Mean Time
                         1:00    -       CET     1920 Jul 12
                         2:00    -       EET     1920 Oct  9

@@ -1887,20 +1867,20 @@
 Rule    Lux     1925    only    -       Apr      5      23:00   1:00    S
 Rule    Lux     1926    only    -       Apr     17      23:00   1:00    S
 Rule    Lux     1927    only    -       Apr      9      23:00   1:00    S
 Rule    Lux     1928    only    -       Apr     14      23:00   1:00    S
 Rule    Lux     1929    only    -       Apr     20      23:00   1:00    S
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone Europe/Luxembourg  0:24:36 -       LMT     1904 Jun
                         1:00    Lux     CE%sT   1918 Nov 25
                         0:00    Lux     WE%sT   1929 Oct  6  2:00s
                         0:00    Belgium WE%sT   1940 May 14  3:00
                         1:00    C-Eur   WE%sT   1944 Sep 18  3:00
                         1:00    Belgium CE%sT   1977
                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 
-# North Macedonia
+# Macedonia
 # See Europe/Belgrade.
 
 # Malta
 #
 # From Paul Eggert (2016-10-21):

@@ -1912,11 +1892,11 @@
 Rule    Malta   1974    only    -       Apr     21      0:00s   1:00    S
 Rule    Malta   1974    only    -       Sep     16      0:00s   0       -
 Rule    Malta   1975    1979    -       Apr     Sun>=15 2:00    1:00    S
 Rule    Malta   1975    1980    -       Sep     Sun>=15 2:00    0       -
 Rule    Malta   1980    only    -       Mar     31      2:00    1:00    S
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Malta    0:58:04 -       LMT     1893 Nov  2  0:00s # Valletta
                         1:00    Italy   CE%sT   1973 Mar 31
                         1:00    Malta   CE%sT   1981
                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 

@@ -1981,11 +1961,11 @@
 
 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 Rule    Moldova 1997    max     -       Mar     lastSun  2:00   1:00    S
 Rule    Moldova 1997    max     -       Oct     lastSun  3:00   0       -
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Chisinau 1:55:20 -       LMT     1880
                         1:55    -       CMT     1918 Feb 15 # Chisinau MT
                         1:44:24 -       BMT     1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
                         2:00    Romania EE%sT   1940 Aug 15
                         2:00    1:00    EEST    1941 Jul 17

@@ -1997,11 +1977,11 @@
                         2:00    Moldova EE%sT
 
 # Monaco
 # Shanks & Pottenger give 0:09:20 for Paris Mean Time; go with Howse's
 # more precise 0:09:21.
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Monaco   0:29:32 -       LMT     1891 Mar 15
                         0:09:21 -       PMT     1911 Mar 11 # Paris Mean Time
                         0:00    France  WE%sT   1945 Sep 16  3:00
                         1:00    France  CE%sT   1977
                         1:00    EU      CE%sT

@@ -2072,12 +2052,12 @@
 Rule    Neth    1938    1939    -       May     15      2:00s   1:00    S
 Rule    Neth    1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00s   1:00    S
 Rule    Neth    1945    only    -       Sep     16      2:00s   0       -
 #
 # Amsterdam Mean Time was +00:19:32.13, but the .13 is omitted
-# below because the current format requires STDOFF to be an integer.
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# below because the current format requires GMTOFF to be an integer.
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone Europe/Amsterdam   0:19:32 -       LMT     1835
                         0:19:32 Neth    %s      1937 Jul  1
                         0:20    Neth +0020/+0120 1940 May 16  0:00
                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
                         1:00    Neth    CE%sT   1977

@@ -2092,11 +2072,11 @@
 Rule    Norway  1945    only    -       Apr      2      2:00s   1:00    S
 Rule    Norway  1945    only    -       Oct      1      2:00s   0       -
 Rule    Norway  1959    1964    -       Mar     Sun>=15 2:00s   1:00    S
 Rule    Norway  1959    1965    -       Sep     Sun>=15 2:00s   0       -
 Rule    Norway  1965    only    -       Apr     25      2:00s   1:00    S
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Oslo     0:43:00 -       LMT     1895 Jan  1
                         1:00    Norway  CE%sT   1940 Aug 10 23:00
                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945 Apr  2  2:00
                         1:00    Norway  CE%sT   1980
                         1:00    EU      CE%sT

@@ -2183,11 +2163,11 @@
 Rule    Poland  1959    only    -       May     31      1:00s   1:00    S
 Rule    Poland  1959    1961    -       Oct     Sun>=1  1:00s   0       -
 Rule    Poland  1960    only    -       Apr      3      1:00s   1:00    S
 Rule    Poland  1961    1964    -       May     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S
 Rule    Poland  1962    1964    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Warsaw   1:24:00 -       LMT     1880
                         1:24:00 -       WMT     1915 Aug  5 # Warsaw Mean Time
                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1918 Sep 16  3:00
                         2:00    Poland  EE%sT   1922 Jun
                         1:00    Poland  CE%sT   1940 Jun 23  2:00

@@ -2288,11 +2268,11 @@
 Rule    Port    1979    1982    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00s  0       -
 Rule    Port    1980    only    -       Mar     lastSun  0:00s  1:00    S
 Rule    Port    1981    1982    -       Mar     lastSun  1:00s  1:00    S
 Rule    Port    1983    only    -       Mar     lastSun  2:00s  1:00    S
 #
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Lisbon   -0:36:45 -      LMT     1884
                         -0:36:45 -      LMT     1912 Jan  1  0:00u # Lisbon MT
                          0:00   Port    WE%sT   1966 Apr  3  2:00
                          1:00   -       CET     1976 Sep 26  1:00
                          0:00   Port    WE%sT   1983 Sep 25  1:00s

@@ -2347,11 +2327,11 @@
 Rule    Romania 1979    only    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00   0       -
 Rule    Romania 1980    only    -       Apr      5      23:00   1:00    S
 Rule    Romania 1980    only    -       Sep     lastSun  1:00   0       -
 Rule    Romania 1991    1993    -       Mar     lastSun  0:00s  1:00    S
 Rule    Romania 1991    1993    -       Sep     lastSun  0:00s  0       -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone Europe/Bucharest   1:44:24 -       LMT     1891 Oct
                         1:44:24 -       BMT     1931 Jul 24 # Bucharest MT
                         2:00    Romania EE%sT   1981 Mar 29  2:00s
                         2:00    C-Eur   EE%sT   1991
                         2:00    Romania EE%sT   1994

@@ -3386,11 +3366,11 @@
 
 # San Marino
 # See Europe/Rome.
 
 # Serbia
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Belgrade 1:22:00 -       LMT     1884
                         1:00    -       CET     1941 Apr 18 23:00
                         1:00    C-Eur   CE%sT   1945
                         1:00    -       CET     1945 May  8  2:00s
                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1945 Sep 16  2:00s

@@ -3400,11 +3380,11 @@
                         1:00    -       CET     1982 Nov 27
                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Ljubljana   # Slovenia
 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Podgorica   # Montenegro
 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Sarajevo    # Bosnia and Herzegovina
-Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje      # North Macedonia
+Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Skopje      # Macedonia
 Link Europe/Belgrade Europe/Zagreb      # Croatia
 
 # Slovakia
 Link Europe/Prague Europe/Bratislava
 

@@ -3492,11 +3472,11 @@
 Rule SpainAfrica 1976   1977    -       May      1       0:00   1:00    S
 Rule SpainAfrica 1976   only    -       Aug      1       0:00   0       -
 Rule SpainAfrica 1977   only    -       Sep     28       0:00   0       -
 Rule SpainAfrica 1978   only    -       Jun      1       0:00   1:00    S
 Rule SpainAfrica 1978   only    -       Aug      4       0:00   0       -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Madrid   -0:14:44 -      LMT     1900 Dec 31 23:45:16
                          0:00   Spain   WE%sT   1940 Mar 16 23:00
                          1:00   Spain   CE%sT   1979
                          1:00   EU      CE%sT
 Zone    Africa/Ceuta    -0:21:16 -      LMT     1900 Dec 31 23:38:44

@@ -3560,11 +3540,11 @@
 # at 1916-10-01 00:00 summer time, but they had to wait for another
 # hour before the event took place.
 #
 # Source: The newspaper "Dagens Nyheter", 1916-10-01, page 7 upper left.
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone Europe/Stockholm   1:12:12 -       LMT     1879 Jan  1
                         1:00:14 -       SET     1900 Jan  1 # Swedish Time
                         1:00    -       CET     1916 May 14 23:00
                         1:00    1:00    CEST    1916 Oct  1  1:00
                         1:00    -       CET     1980

@@ -3663,11 +3643,11 @@
 # legal civil time probably changed at still some other transition date.
 
 # Rule  NAME    FROM    TO      TYPE    IN      ON      AT      SAVE    LETTER/S
 Rule    Swiss   1941    1942    -       May     Mon>=1  1:00    1:00    S
 Rule    Swiss   1941    1942    -       Oct     Mon>=1  2:00    0       -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Zurich   0:34:08 -       LMT     1853 Jul 16 # See above comment.
                         0:29:46 -       BMT     1894 Jun    # Bern Mean Time
                         1:00    Swiss   CE%sT   1981
                         1:00    EU      CE%sT
 

@@ -3813,11 +3793,11 @@
 Rule    Turkey  1986    1993    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S
 Rule    Turkey  1986    1995    -       Sep     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
 Rule    Turkey  1994    only    -       Mar     20      1:00s   1:00    S
 Rule    Turkey  1995    2006    -       Mar     lastSun 1:00s   1:00    S
 Rule    Turkey  1996    2006    -       Oct     lastSun 1:00s   0       -
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 Zone    Europe/Istanbul 1:55:52 -       LMT     1880
                         1:56:56 -       IMT     1910 Oct # Istanbul Mean Time?
                         2:00    Turkey  EE%sT   1978 Oct 15
                         3:00    Turkey  +03/+04 1985 Apr 20
                         2:00    Turkey  EE%sT   2007

@@ -3910,12 +3890,20 @@
 # came from old Slavic via French to English, so the two cases have something
 # in common.)  Admittedly English-language spelling of Ukrainian names is
 # controversial, and some day "Kyiv" may become substantially more popular in
 # English; in the meantime, stick with the traditional English "Kiev" as that
 # means less disruption for our users.
+#
+# Anyway, none of the common English-language spellings (Kiev, Kyiv, Kieff,
+# Kijeff, Kijev, Kiyef, Kiyeff) do justice to the common pronunciation in
+# Ukrainian, namely [ˈkɪjiu̯] (IPA).  This pronunciation has nothing like an
+# English "v" or "f", and instead trails off with what an English-speaker
+# would call a demure "oo" sound, and it would would be better anglicized as
+# "Kuiyu".  Here's a sound file, if you would like to do as the Kuiyuvians do:
+# https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Uk-Київ.ogg
 
-# Zone  NAME            STDOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
+# Zone  NAME            GMTOFF  RULES   FORMAT  [UNTIL]
 # This represents most of Ukraine.  See above for the spelling of "Kiev".
 Zone Europe/Kiev        2:02:04 -       LMT     1880
                         2:02:04 -       KMT     1924 May  2 # Kiev Mean Time
                         2:00    -       EET     1930 Jun 21
                         3:00    -       MSK     1941 Sep 20
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