1 /*
   2  * Copyright (c) 1997, 2020, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
   3  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   4  *
   5  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   6  * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   7  * published by the Free Software Foundation.
   8  *
   9  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  10  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  11  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  12  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  13  * accompanied this code).
  14  *
  15  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  16  * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  17  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  18  *
  19  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  20  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  21  * questions.
  22  *
  23  */
  24 
  25 #include "precompiled.hpp"
  26 #include "aot/aotLoader.hpp"
  27 #include "classfile/classLoader.hpp"
  28 #include "classfile/classLoaderDataGraph.hpp"
  29 #include "classfile/javaClasses.hpp"
  30 #include "classfile/stringTable.hpp"
  31 #include "classfile/symbolTable.hpp"
  32 #include "classfile/systemDictionary.hpp"
  33 #include "classfile/vmSymbols.hpp"
  34 #include "code/codeBehaviours.hpp"
  35 #include "code/codeCache.hpp"
  36 #include "gc/shared/collectedHeap.inline.hpp"
  37 #include "gc/shared/gcArguments.hpp"
  38 #include "gc/shared/gcConfig.hpp"
  39 #include "gc/shared/gcLogPrecious.hpp"
  40 #include "gc/shared/gcTraceTime.inline.hpp"
  41 #include "gc/shared/oopStorageSet.hpp"
  42 #include "logging/log.hpp"
  43 #include "logging/logStream.hpp"
  44 #include "memory/heapShared.hpp"
  45 #include "memory/metadataFactory.hpp"
  46 #include "memory/metaspaceClosure.hpp"
  47 #include "memory/metaspaceCounters.hpp"
  48 #include "memory/metaspaceShared.hpp"
  49 #include "memory/oopFactory.hpp"
  50 #include "memory/resourceArea.hpp"
  51 #include "memory/universe.hpp"
  52 #include "oops/compressedOops.hpp"
  53 #include "oops/instanceKlass.hpp"
  54 #include "oops/instanceMirrorKlass.hpp"
  55 #include "oops/objArrayOop.inline.hpp"
  56 #include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
  57 #include "oops/oopHandle.inline.hpp"
  58 #include "oops/typeArrayKlass.hpp"
  59 #include "prims/resolvedMethodTable.hpp"
  60 #include "runtime/arguments.hpp"
  61 #include "runtime/atomic.hpp"
  62 #include "runtime/flags/jvmFlagConstraintList.hpp"
  63 #include "runtime/handles.inline.hpp"
  64 #include "runtime/init.hpp"
  65 #include "runtime/java.hpp"
  66 #include "runtime/thread.inline.hpp"
  67 #include "runtime/timerTrace.hpp"
  68 #include "services/memoryService.hpp"
  69 #include "utilities/align.hpp"
  70 #include "utilities/autoRestore.hpp"
  71 #include "utilities/debug.hpp"
  72 #include "utilities/formatBuffer.hpp"
  73 #include "utilities/macros.hpp"
  74 #include "utilities/ostream.hpp"
  75 #include "utilities/preserveException.hpp"
  76 
  77 // Known objects
  78 Klass* Universe::_typeArrayKlassObjs[T_LONG+1]        = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
  79 Klass* Universe::_objectArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  80 OopHandle Universe::_mirrors[T_VOID+1];
  81 
  82 OopHandle Universe::_main_thread_group;
  83 OopHandle Universe::_system_thread_group;
  84 OopHandle Universe::_the_empty_class_array;
  85 OopHandle Universe::_the_null_string;
  86 OopHandle Universe::_the_min_jint_string;
  87 
  88 OopHandle Universe::_the_null_sentinel;
  89 
  90 // _out_of_memory_errors is an objArray
  91 enum OutOfMemoryInstance { _oom_java_heap,
  92                            _oom_c_heap,
  93                            _oom_metaspace,
  94                            _oom_class_metaspace,
  95                            _oom_array_size,
  96                            _oom_gc_overhead_limit,
  97                            _oom_realloc_objects,
  98                            _oom_retry,
  99                            _oom_count };
 100 
 101 OopHandle Universe::_out_of_memory_errors;
 102 OopHandle Universe::_delayed_stack_overflow_error_message;
 103 OopHandle Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array;
 104 volatile jint Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = 0;
 105 
 106 OopHandle Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance;
 107 OopHandle Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance;
 108 OopHandle Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance;
 109 
 110 OopHandle Universe::_reference_pending_list;
 111 
 112 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_array_interfaces_array = NULL;
 113 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = NULL;
 114 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = NULL;
 115 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache = NULL;
 116 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_throw_no_such_method_error_cache = NULL;
 117 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_do_stack_walk_cache     = NULL;
 118 
 119 bool Universe::_verify_in_progress                    = false;
 120 long Universe::verify_flags                           = Universe::Verify_All;
 121 
 122 Array<int>* Universe::_the_empty_int_array            = NULL;
 123 Array<u2>* Universe::_the_empty_short_array           = NULL;
 124 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_empty_klass_array     = NULL;
 125 Array<InstanceKlass*>* Universe::_the_empty_instance_klass_array  = NULL;
 126 Array<Method*>* Universe::_the_empty_method_array   = NULL;
 127 
 128 // These variables are guarded by FullGCALot_lock.
 129 debug_only(OopHandle Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_array;)
 130 debug_only(int Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_next = 0;)
 131 
 132 // Heap
 133 int             Universe::_verify_count = 0;
 134 
 135 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
 136 uintptr_t       Universe::_verify_oop_mask = 0;
 137 uintptr_t       Universe::_verify_oop_bits = (uintptr_t) -1;
 138 
 139 int             Universe::_base_vtable_size = 0;
 140 bool            Universe::_bootstrapping = false;
 141 bool            Universe::_module_initialized = false;
 142 bool            Universe::_fully_initialized = false;
 143 
 144 size_t          Universe::_heap_capacity_at_last_gc;
 145 size_t          Universe::_heap_used_at_last_gc = 0;
 146 
 147 OopStorage*     Universe::_vm_weak = NULL;
 148 OopStorage*     Universe::_vm_global = NULL;
 149 
 150 CollectedHeap*  Universe::_collectedHeap = NULL;
 151 intptr_t        Universe::_non_heap_offset = 0;
 152 
 153 objArrayOop Universe::the_empty_class_array ()  {
 154   return (objArrayOop)_the_empty_class_array.resolve();
 155 }
 156 
 157 oop Universe::main_thread_group()                 { return _main_thread_group.resolve(); }
 158 void Universe::set_main_thread_group(oop group)   { _main_thread_group = OopHandle(vm_global(), group); }
 159 
 160 oop Universe::system_thread_group()               { return _system_thread_group.resolve(); }
 161 void Universe::set_system_thread_group(oop group) { _system_thread_group = OopHandle(vm_global(), group); }
 162 
 163 oop Universe::the_null_string()                   { return _the_null_string.resolve(); }
 164 oop Universe::the_min_jint_string()               { return _the_min_jint_string.resolve(); }
 165 
 166 oop Universe::null_ptr_exception_instance()       { return _null_ptr_exception_instance.resolve(); }
 167 oop Universe::arithmetic_exception_instance()     { return _arithmetic_exception_instance.resolve(); }
 168 oop Universe::virtual_machine_error_instance()    { return _virtual_machine_error_instance.resolve(); }
 169 
 170 oop Universe::the_null_sentinel()                 { return _the_null_sentinel.resolve(); }
 171 
 172 oop Universe::int_mirror()                        { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_INT].resolve()); }
 173 oop Universe::float_mirror()                      { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_FLOAT].resolve()); }
 174 oop Universe::double_mirror()                     { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_DOUBLE].resolve()); }
 175 oop Universe::byte_mirror()                       { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_BYTE].resolve()); }
 176 oop Universe::bool_mirror()                       { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_BOOLEAN].resolve()); }
 177 oop Universe::char_mirror()                       { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_CHAR].resolve()); }
 178 oop Universe::long_mirror()                       { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_LONG].resolve()); }
 179 oop Universe::short_mirror()                      { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_SHORT].resolve()); }
 180 oop Universe::void_mirror()                       { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_VOID].resolve()); }
 181 
 182 oop Universe::java_mirror(BasicType t) {
 183   assert((uint)t < T_VOID+1, "range check");
 184   return check_mirror(_mirrors[t].resolve());
 185 }
 186 
 187 // Used by CDS dumping
 188 void Universe::replace_mirror(BasicType t, oop new_mirror) {
 189   Universe::_mirrors[t].replace(new_mirror);
 190 }
 191 
 192 // Not sure why CDS has to do this
 193 void Universe::clear_basic_type_mirrors() {
 194   for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 195     if (!is_reference_type((BasicType)i)) {
 196       Universe::_mirrors[i].replace(NULL);
 197     }
 198   }
 199 }
 200 
 201 void Universe::basic_type_classes_do(void f(Klass*)) {
 202   for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 203     f(_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 204   }
 205 }
 206 
 207 void Universe::basic_type_classes_do(KlassClosure *closure) {
 208   for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 209     closure->do_klass(_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 210   }
 211 }
 212 
 213 void LatestMethodCache::metaspace_pointers_do(MetaspaceClosure* it) {
 214   it->push(&_klass);
 215 }
 216 
 217 void Universe::metaspace_pointers_do(MetaspaceClosure* it) {
 218   for (int i = 0; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 219     it->push(&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 220   }
 221   it->push(&_objectArrayKlassObj);
 222 
 223   it->push(&_the_empty_int_array);
 224   it->push(&_the_empty_short_array);
 225   it->push(&_the_empty_klass_array);
 226   it->push(&_the_empty_instance_klass_array);
 227   it->push(&_the_empty_method_array);
 228   it->push(&_the_array_interfaces_array);
 229 
 230   _finalizer_register_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 231   _loader_addClass_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 232   _throw_illegal_access_error_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 233   _throw_no_such_method_error_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 234   _do_stack_walk_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 235 }
 236 
 237 // Serialize metadata and pointers to primitive type mirrors in and out of CDS archive
 238 void Universe::serialize(SerializeClosure* f) {
 239 
 240 #if INCLUDE_CDS_JAVA_HEAP
 241   {
 242     oop mirror_oop;
 243     for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 244       if (f->reading()) {
 245         f->do_oop(&mirror_oop); // read from archive
 246         assert(oopDesc::is_oop_or_null(mirror_oop), "is oop");
 247         // Only create an OopHandle for non-null mirrors
 248         if (mirror_oop != NULL) {
 249           _mirrors[i] = OopHandle(vm_global(), mirror_oop);
 250         }
 251       } else {
 252         mirror_oop = _mirrors[i].resolve();
 253         f->do_oop(&mirror_oop); // write to archive
 254       }
 255       if (mirror_oop != NULL) { // may be null if archived heap is disabled
 256         java_lang_Class::update_archived_primitive_mirror_native_pointers(mirror_oop);
 257       }
 258     }
 259   }
 260 #endif
 261 
 262   for (int i = 0; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 263     f->do_ptr((void**)&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 264   }
 265 
 266   f->do_ptr((void**)&_objectArrayKlassObj);
 267   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_array_interfaces_array);
 268   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_int_array);
 269   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_short_array);
 270   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_method_array);
 271   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_klass_array);
 272   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_instance_klass_array);
 273   _finalizer_register_cache->serialize(f);
 274   _loader_addClass_cache->serialize(f);
 275   _throw_illegal_access_error_cache->serialize(f);
 276   _throw_no_such_method_error_cache->serialize(f);
 277   _do_stack_walk_cache->serialize(f);
 278 }
 279 
 280 
 281 void Universe::check_alignment(uintx size, uintx alignment, const char* name) {
 282   if (size < alignment || size % alignment != 0) {
 283     vm_exit_during_initialization(
 284       err_msg("Size of %s (" UINTX_FORMAT " bytes) must be aligned to " UINTX_FORMAT " bytes", name, size, alignment));
 285   }
 286 }
 287 
 288 void initialize_basic_type_klass(Klass* k, TRAPS) {
 289   Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 290 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 291   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 292     ClassLoaderData* loader_data = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 293     assert(k->super() == ok, "u3");
 294     if (k->is_instance_klass()) {
 295       InstanceKlass::cast(k)->restore_unshareable_info(loader_data, Handle(), NULL, CHECK);
 296     } else {
 297       ArrayKlass::cast(k)->restore_unshareable_info(loader_data, Handle(), CHECK);
 298     }
 299   } else
 300 #endif
 301   {
 302     k->initialize_supers(ok, NULL, CHECK);
 303   }
 304   k->append_to_sibling_list();
 305 }
 306 
 307 void Universe::genesis(TRAPS) {
 308   ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
 309   HandleMark   hm(THREAD);
 310 
 311   { AutoModifyRestore<bool> temporarily(_bootstrapping, true);
 312 
 313     { MutexLocker mc(THREAD, Compile_lock);
 314 
 315       java_lang_Class::allocate_fixup_lists();
 316 
 317       // determine base vtable size; without that we cannot create the array klasses
 318       compute_base_vtable_size();
 319 
 320       if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 321         for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 322           _typeArrayKlassObjs[i] = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass((BasicType)i, CHECK);
 323         }
 324 
 325         ClassLoaderData* null_cld = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 326 
 327         _the_array_interfaces_array     = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 2, NULL, CHECK);
 328         _the_empty_int_array            = MetadataFactory::new_array<int>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 329         _the_empty_short_array          = MetadataFactory::new_array<u2>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 330         _the_empty_method_array         = MetadataFactory::new_array<Method*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 331         _the_empty_klass_array          = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 332         _the_empty_instance_klass_array = MetadataFactory::new_array<InstanceKlass*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 333       }
 334     }
 335 
 336     vmSymbols::initialize(CHECK);
 337 
 338     SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK);
 339 
 340     // Create string constants
 341     oop s = StringTable::intern("null", CHECK);
 342     _the_null_string = OopHandle(vm_global(), s);
 343     s = StringTable::intern("-2147483648", CHECK);
 344     _the_min_jint_string = OopHandle(vm_global(), s);
 345 
 346 
 347 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 348     if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 349       // Verify shared interfaces array.
 350       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(0) ==
 351              SystemDictionary::Cloneable_klass(), "u3");
 352       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(1) ==
 353              SystemDictionary::Serializable_klass(), "u3");
 354     } else
 355 #endif
 356     {
 357       // Set up shared interfaces array.  (Do this before supers are set up.)
 358       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(0, SystemDictionary::Cloneable_klass());
 359       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(1, SystemDictionary::Serializable_klass());
 360     }
 361 
 362     initialize_basic_type_klass(boolArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 363     initialize_basic_type_klass(charArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 364     initialize_basic_type_klass(floatArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 365     initialize_basic_type_klass(doubleArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 366     initialize_basic_type_klass(byteArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 367     initialize_basic_type_klass(shortArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 368     initialize_basic_type_klass(intArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 369     initialize_basic_type_klass(longArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 370   } // end of core bootstrapping
 371 
 372   {
 373     Handle tns = java_lang_String::create_from_str("<null_sentinel>", CHECK);
 374     _the_null_sentinel = OopHandle(vm_global(), tns());
 375   }
 376 
 377   // Create a handle for reference_pending_list
 378   _reference_pending_list = OopHandle(vm_global(), NULL);
 379 
 380   // Maybe this could be lifted up now that object array can be initialized
 381   // during the bootstrapping.
 382 
 383   // OLD
 384   // Initialize _objectArrayKlass after core bootstraping to make
 385   // sure the super class is set up properly for _objectArrayKlass.
 386   // ---
 387   // NEW
 388   // Since some of the old system object arrays have been converted to
 389   // ordinary object arrays, _objectArrayKlass will be loaded when
 390   // SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK); is run. See the extra check
 391   // for Object_klass_loaded in objArrayKlassKlass::allocate_objArray_klass_impl.
 392   _objectArrayKlassObj = InstanceKlass::
 393     cast(SystemDictionary::Object_klass())->array_klass(1, CHECK);
 394   // OLD
 395   // Add the class to the class hierarchy manually to make sure that
 396   // its vtable is initialized after core bootstrapping is completed.
 397   // ---
 398   // New
 399   // Have already been initialized.
 400   _objectArrayKlassObj->append_to_sibling_list();
 401 
 402   #ifdef ASSERT
 403   if (FullGCALot) {
 404     // Allocate an array of dummy objects.
 405     // We'd like these to be at the bottom of the old generation,
 406     // so that when we free one and then collect,
 407     // (almost) the whole heap moves
 408     // and we find out if we actually update all the oops correctly.
 409     // But we can't allocate directly in the old generation,
 410     // so we allocate wherever, and hope that the first collection
 411     // moves these objects to the bottom of the old generation.
 412     int size = FullGCALotDummies * 2;
 413 
 414     objArrayOop    naked_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Object_klass(), size, CHECK);
 415     objArrayHandle dummy_array(THREAD, naked_array);
 416     int i = 0;
 417     while (i < size) {
 418         // Allocate dummy in old generation
 419       oop dummy = SystemDictionary::Object_klass()->allocate_instance(CHECK);
 420       dummy_array->obj_at_put(i++, dummy);
 421     }
 422     {
 423       // Only modify the global variable inside the mutex.
 424       // If we had a race to here, the other dummy_array instances
 425       // and their elements just get dropped on the floor, which is fine.
 426       MutexLocker ml(THREAD, FullGCALot_lock);
 427       if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_array.is_empty()) {
 428         _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = OopHandle(vm_global(), dummy_array());
 429       }
 430     }
 431     assert(i == ((objArrayOop)_fullgc_alot_dummy_array.resolve())->length(), "just checking");
 432   }
 433   #endif
 434 }
 435 
 436 void Universe::initialize_basic_type_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 437 #if INCLUDE_CDS_JAVA_HEAP
 438     if (UseSharedSpaces &&
 439         HeapShared::open_archive_heap_region_mapped() &&
 440         _mirrors[T_INT].resolve() != NULL) {
 441       assert(HeapShared::is_heap_object_archiving_allowed(), "Sanity");
 442 
 443       // check that all mirrors are mapped also
 444       for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 445         if (!is_reference_type((BasicType)i)) {
 446           oop m = _mirrors[i].resolve();
 447           assert(m != NULL, "archived mirrors should not be NULL");
 448         }
 449       }
 450     } else
 451       // _mirror[T_INT} could be NULL if archived heap is not mapped.
 452 #endif
 453     {
 454       for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 455         BasicType bt = (BasicType)i;
 456         if (!is_reference_type(bt)) {
 457           oop m = java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror(type2name(bt), bt, CHECK);
 458           _mirrors[i] = OopHandle(vm_global(), m);
 459         }
 460       }
 461     }
 462 }
 463 
 464 void Universe::fixup_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 465   // Bootstrap problem: all classes gets a mirror (java.lang.Class instance) assigned eagerly,
 466   // but we cannot do that for classes created before java.lang.Class is loaded. Here we simply
 467   // walk over permanent objects created so far (mostly classes) and fixup their mirrors. Note
 468   // that the number of objects allocated at this point is very small.
 469   assert(SystemDictionary::Class_klass_loaded(), "java.lang.Class should be loaded");
 470   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 471 
 472   if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 473     // Cache the start of the static fields
 474     InstanceMirrorKlass::init_offset_of_static_fields();
 475   }
 476 
 477   GrowableArray <Klass*>* list = java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 478   int list_length = list->length();
 479   for (int i = 0; i < list_length; i++) {
 480     Klass* k = list->at(i);
 481     assert(k->is_klass(), "List should only hold classes");
 482     EXCEPTION_MARK;
 483     java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror(k, CATCH);
 484   }
 485   delete java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 486   java_lang_Class::set_fixup_mirror_list(NULL);
 487 }
 488 
 489 #define assert_pll_locked(test) \
 490   assert(Heap_lock->test(), "Reference pending list access requires lock")
 491 
 492 #define assert_pll_ownership() assert_pll_locked(owned_by_self)
 493 
 494 oop Universe::reference_pending_list() {
 495   if (Thread::current()->is_VM_thread()) {
 496     assert_pll_locked(is_locked);
 497   } else {
 498     assert_pll_ownership();
 499   }
 500   return _reference_pending_list.resolve();
 501 }
 502 
 503 void Universe::clear_reference_pending_list() {
 504   assert_pll_ownership();
 505   _reference_pending_list.replace(NULL);
 506 }
 507 
 508 bool Universe::has_reference_pending_list() {
 509   assert_pll_ownership();
 510   return _reference_pending_list.peek() != NULL;
 511 }
 512 
 513 oop Universe::swap_reference_pending_list(oop list) {
 514   assert_pll_locked(is_locked);
 515   return _reference_pending_list.xchg(list);
 516 }
 517 
 518 #undef assert_pll_locked
 519 #undef assert_pll_ownership
 520 
 521 void Universe::reinitialize_vtable_of(Klass* ko, TRAPS) {
 522   // init vtable of k and all subclasses
 523   ko->vtable().initialize_vtable(false, CHECK);
 524   if (ko->is_instance_klass()) {
 525     for (Klass* sk = ko->subklass();
 526          sk != NULL;
 527          sk = sk->next_sibling()) {
 528       reinitialize_vtable_of(sk, CHECK);
 529     }
 530   }
 531 }
 532 
 533 void Universe::reinitialize_vtables(TRAPS) {
 534   // The vtables are initialized by starting at java.lang.Object and
 535   // initializing through the subclass links, so that the super
 536   // classes are always initialized first.
 537   Klass* ok = SystemDictionary::Object_klass();
 538   Universe::reinitialize_vtable_of(ok, THREAD);
 539 }
 540 
 541 
 542 void initialize_itable_for_klass(InstanceKlass* k, TRAPS) {
 543   k->itable().initialize_itable(false, CHECK);
 544 }
 545 
 546 
 547 void Universe::reinitialize_itables(TRAPS) {
 548   MutexLocker mcld(THREAD, ClassLoaderDataGraph_lock);
 549   ClassLoaderDataGraph::dictionary_classes_do(initialize_itable_for_klass, CHECK);
 550 }
 551 
 552 
 553 bool Universe::on_page_boundary(void* addr) {
 554   return is_aligned(addr, os::vm_page_size());
 555 }
 556 
 557 // the array of preallocated errors with backtraces
 558 objArrayOop Universe::preallocated_out_of_memory_errors() {
 559   return (objArrayOop)_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array.resolve();
 560 }
 561 
 562 objArrayOop Universe::out_of_memory_errors() { return (objArrayOop)_out_of_memory_errors.resolve(); }
 563 
 564 oop Universe::out_of_memory_error_java_heap() {
 565   return gen_out_of_memory_error(out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(_oom_java_heap));
 566 }
 567 
 568 oop Universe::out_of_memory_error_c_heap() {
 569   return gen_out_of_memory_error(out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(_oom_c_heap));
 570 }
 571 
 572 oop Universe::out_of_memory_error_metaspace() {
 573   return gen_out_of_memory_error(out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(_oom_metaspace));
 574 }
 575 
 576 oop Universe::out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace() {
 577   return gen_out_of_memory_error(out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(_oom_class_metaspace));
 578 }
 579 
 580 oop Universe::out_of_memory_error_array_size() {
 581   return gen_out_of_memory_error(out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(_oom_array_size));
 582 }
 583 
 584 oop Universe::out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit() {
 585   return gen_out_of_memory_error(out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(_oom_gc_overhead_limit));
 586 }
 587 
 588 oop Universe::out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects() {
 589   return gen_out_of_memory_error(out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(_oom_realloc_objects));
 590 }
 591 
 592 // Throw default _out_of_memory_error_retry object as it will never propagate out of the VM
 593 oop Universe::out_of_memory_error_retry()              { return out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(_oom_retry);  }
 594 oop Universe::delayed_stack_overflow_error_message()   { return _delayed_stack_overflow_error_message.resolve(); }
 595 
 596 
 597 bool Universe::should_fill_in_stack_trace(Handle throwable) {
 598   // never attempt to fill in the stack trace of preallocated errors that do not have
 599   // backtrace. These errors are kept alive forever and may be "re-used" when all
 600   // preallocated errors with backtrace have been consumed. Also need to avoid
 601   // a potential loop which could happen if an out of memory occurs when attempting
 602   // to allocate the backtrace.
 603   objArrayOop preallocated_oom = out_of_memory_errors();
 604   for (int i = 0; i < _oom_count; i++) {
 605     if (throwable() == preallocated_oom->obj_at(i)) {
 606       return false;
 607     }
 608   }
 609   return true;
 610 }
 611 
 612 
 613 oop Universe::gen_out_of_memory_error(oop default_err) {
 614   // generate an out of memory error:
 615   // - if there is a preallocated error and stack traces are available
 616   //   (j.l.Throwable is initialized), then return the preallocated
 617   //   error with a filled in stack trace, and with the message
 618   //   provided by the default error.
 619   // - otherwise, return the default error, without a stack trace.
 620   int next;
 621   if ((_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count > 0) &&
 622       SystemDictionary::Throwable_klass()->is_initialized()) {
 623     next = (int)Atomic::add(&_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count, -1);
 624     assert(next < (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount, "avail count is corrupt");
 625   } else {
 626     next = -1;
 627   }
 628   if (next < 0) {
 629     // all preallocated errors have been used.
 630     // return default
 631     return default_err;
 632   } else {
 633     Thread* THREAD = Thread::current();
 634     Handle default_err_h(THREAD, default_err);
 635     // get the error object at the slot and set set it to NULL so that the
 636     // array isn't keeping it alive anymore.
 637     Handle exc(THREAD, preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(next));
 638     assert(exc() != NULL, "slot has been used already");
 639     preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at_put(next, NULL);
 640 
 641     // use the message from the default error
 642     oop msg = java_lang_Throwable::message(default_err_h());
 643     assert(msg != NULL, "no message");
 644     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(exc(), msg);
 645 
 646     // populate the stack trace and return it.
 647     java_lang_Throwable::fill_in_stack_trace_of_preallocated_backtrace(exc);
 648     return exc();
 649   }
 650 }
 651 
 652 // Setup preallocated OutOfMemoryError errors
 653 void Universe::create_preallocated_out_of_memory_errors(TRAPS) {
 654   InstanceKlass* ik = SystemDictionary::OutOfMemoryError_klass();
 655   objArrayOop oa = oopFactory::new_objArray(ik, _oom_count, CHECK);
 656   objArrayHandle oom_array(THREAD, oa);
 657 
 658   for (int i = 0; i < _oom_count; i++) {
 659     oop oom_obj = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK);
 660     oom_array->obj_at_put(i, oom_obj);
 661   }
 662   _out_of_memory_errors = OopHandle(vm_global(), oom_array());
 663 
 664   Handle msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space", CHECK);
 665   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oom_array->obj_at(_oom_java_heap), msg());
 666 
 667   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("C heap space", CHECK);
 668   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oom_array->obj_at(_oom_c_heap), msg());
 669 
 670   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Metaspace", CHECK);
 671   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oom_array->obj_at(_oom_metaspace), msg());
 672 
 673   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Compressed class space", CHECK);
 674   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oom_array->obj_at(_oom_class_metaspace), msg());
 675 
 676   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Requested array size exceeds VM limit", CHECK);
 677   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oom_array->obj_at(_oom_array_size), msg());
 678 
 679   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("GC overhead limit exceeded", CHECK);
 680   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oom_array->obj_at(_oom_gc_overhead_limit), msg());
 681 
 682   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space: failed reallocation of scalar replaced objects", CHECK);
 683   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oom_array->obj_at(_oom_realloc_objects), msg());
 684 
 685   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space: failed retryable allocation", CHECK);
 686   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oom_array->obj_at(_oom_retry), msg());
 687 
 688   // Setup the array of errors that have preallocated backtrace
 689   int len = (StackTraceInThrowable) ? (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount : 0;
 690   objArrayOop instance = oopFactory::new_objArray(ik, len, CHECK);
 691   _preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array = OopHandle(vm_global(), instance);
 692   objArrayHandle preallocated_oom_array(THREAD, instance);
 693 
 694   for (int i=0; i<len; i++) {
 695     oop err = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK);
 696     Handle err_h(THREAD, err);
 697     java_lang_Throwable::allocate_backtrace(err_h, CHECK);
 698     preallocated_oom_array->obj_at_put(i, err_h());
 699   }
 700   _preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = (jint)len;
 701 }
 702 
 703 intptr_t Universe::_non_oop_bits = 0;
 704 
 705 void* Universe::non_oop_word() {
 706   // Neither the high bits nor the low bits of this value is allowed
 707   // to look like (respectively) the high or low bits of a real oop.
 708   //
 709   // High and low are CPU-specific notions, but low always includes
 710   // the low-order bit.  Since oops are always aligned at least mod 4,
 711   // setting the low-order bit will ensure that the low half of the
 712   // word will never look like that of a real oop.
 713   //
 714   // Using the OS-supplied non-memory-address word (usually 0 or -1)
 715   // will take care of the high bits, however many there are.
 716 
 717   if (_non_oop_bits == 0) {
 718     _non_oop_bits = (intptr_t)os::non_memory_address_word() | 1;
 719   }
 720 
 721   return (void*)_non_oop_bits;
 722 }
 723 
 724 static void initialize_global_behaviours() {
 725   CompiledICProtectionBehaviour::set_current(new DefaultICProtectionBehaviour());
 726 }
 727 
 728 jint universe_init() {
 729   assert(!Universe::_fully_initialized, "called after initialize_vtables");
 730   guarantee(1 << LogHeapWordSize == sizeof(HeapWord),
 731          "LogHeapWordSize is incorrect.");
 732   guarantee(sizeof(oop) >= sizeof(HeapWord), "HeapWord larger than oop?");
 733   guarantee(sizeof(oop) % sizeof(HeapWord) == 0,
 734             "oop size is not not a multiple of HeapWord size");
 735 
 736   TraceTime timer("Genesis", TRACETIME_LOG(Info, startuptime));
 737 
 738   initialize_global_behaviours();
 739 
 740   GCLogPrecious::initialize();
 741 
 742   GCConfig::arguments()->initialize_heap_sizes();
 743 
 744   jint status = Universe::initialize_heap();
 745   if (status != JNI_OK) {
 746     return status;
 747   }
 748 
 749   Universe::initialize_tlab();
 750 
 751   Metaspace::global_initialize();
 752 
 753   // Initialize performance counters for metaspaces
 754   MetaspaceCounters::initialize_performance_counters();
 755   CompressedClassSpaceCounters::initialize_performance_counters();
 756 
 757   AOTLoader::universe_init();
 758 
 759   // Checks 'AfterMemoryInit' constraints.
 760   if (!JVMFlagConstraintList::check_constraints(JVMFlagConstraint::AfterMemoryInit)) {
 761     return JNI_EINVAL;
 762   }
 763 
 764   // Create memory for metadata.  Must be after initializing heap for
 765   // DumpSharedSpaces.
 766   ClassLoaderData::init_null_class_loader_data();
 767 
 768   // We have a heap so create the Method* caches before
 769   // Metaspace::initialize_shared_spaces() tries to populate them.
 770   Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 771   Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = new LatestMethodCache();
 772   Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 773   Universe::_throw_no_such_method_error_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 774   Universe::_do_stack_walk_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 775 
 776 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 777   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 778     // Read the data structures supporting the shared spaces (shared
 779     // system dictionary, symbol table, etc.).  After that, access to
 780     // the file (other than the mapped regions) is no longer needed, and
 781     // the file is closed. Closing the file does not affect the
 782     // currently mapped regions.
 783     MetaspaceShared::initialize_shared_spaces();
 784     StringTable::create_table();
 785   } else
 786 #endif
 787   {
 788     SymbolTable::create_table();
 789     StringTable::create_table();
 790   }
 791 
 792 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 793   if (Arguments::is_dumping_archive()) {
 794     MetaspaceShared::prepare_for_dumping();
 795   }
 796 #endif
 797 
 798   if (strlen(VerifySubSet) > 0) {
 799     Universe::initialize_verify_flags();
 800   }
 801 
 802   ResolvedMethodTable::create_table();
 803 
 804   return JNI_OK;
 805 }
 806 
 807 jint Universe::initialize_heap() {
 808   assert(_collectedHeap == NULL, "Heap already created");
 809   _collectedHeap = GCConfig::arguments()->create_heap();
 810 
 811   log_info(gc)("Using %s", _collectedHeap->name());
 812   return _collectedHeap->initialize();
 813 }
 814 
 815 void Universe::initialize_tlab() {
 816   ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::set_max_size(Universe::heap()->max_tlab_size());
 817   if (UseTLAB) {
 818     assert(Universe::heap()->supports_tlab_allocation(),
 819            "Should support thread-local allocation buffers");
 820     ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::startup_initialization();
 821   }
 822 }
 823 
 824 ReservedHeapSpace Universe::reserve_heap(size_t heap_size, size_t alignment) {
 825 
 826   assert(alignment <= Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment(),
 827          "actual alignment " SIZE_FORMAT " must be within maximum heap alignment " SIZE_FORMAT,
 828          alignment, Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment());
 829 
 830   size_t total_reserved = align_up(heap_size, alignment);
 831   assert(!UseCompressedOops || (total_reserved <= (OopEncodingHeapMax - os::vm_page_size())),
 832       "heap size is too big for compressed oops");
 833 
 834   bool use_large_pages = UseLargePages && is_aligned(alignment, os::large_page_size());
 835   assert(!UseLargePages
 836       || UseParallelGC
 837       || use_large_pages, "Wrong alignment to use large pages");
 838 
 839   // Now create the space.
 840   ReservedHeapSpace total_rs(total_reserved, alignment, use_large_pages, AllocateHeapAt);
 841 
 842   if (total_rs.is_reserved()) {
 843     assert((total_reserved == total_rs.size()) && ((uintptr_t)total_rs.base() % alignment == 0),
 844            "must be exactly of required size and alignment");
 845     // We are good.
 846 
 847     if (AllocateHeapAt != NULL) {
 848       log_info(gc,heap)("Successfully allocated Java heap at location %s", AllocateHeapAt);
 849     }
 850 
 851     if (UseCompressedOops) {
 852       CompressedOops::initialize(total_rs);
 853     }
 854 
 855     Universe::calculate_verify_data((HeapWord*)total_rs.base(), (HeapWord*)total_rs.end());
 856 
 857     // Make sure oop + offset is past the Java heap, plus some random positive offset.
 858     // The offset should not hide the real alignment up to object alignment or cache line size.
 859     intptr_t non_heap_offset = (intptr_t) total_rs.size() + abs(os::random());
 860     non_heap_offset = align_up(non_heap_offset, MinObjAlignmentInBytes);
 861     non_heap_offset = align_up(non_heap_offset, VM_Version::L1_data_cache_line_size());
 862     Universe::_non_heap_offset = non_heap_offset;
 863 
 864     return total_rs;
 865   }
 866 
 867   vm_exit_during_initialization(
 868     err_msg("Could not reserve enough space for " SIZE_FORMAT "KB object heap",
 869             total_reserved/K));
 870 
 871   // satisfy compiler
 872   ShouldNotReachHere();
 873   return ReservedHeapSpace(0, 0, false);
 874 }
 875 
 876 
 877 // It's the caller's responsibility to ensure glitch-freedom
 878 // (if required).
 879 void Universe::update_heap_info_at_gc() {
 880   _heap_capacity_at_last_gc = heap()->capacity();
 881   _heap_used_at_last_gc     = heap()->used();
 882 }
 883 
 884 OopStorage* Universe::vm_weak() {
 885   return Universe::_vm_weak;
 886 }
 887 
 888 OopStorage* Universe::vm_global() {
 889   return Universe::_vm_global;
 890 }
 891 
 892 void Universe::oopstorage_init() {
 893   Universe::_vm_global = OopStorageSet::create_strong("VM Global");
 894   Universe::_vm_weak = OopStorageSet::create_weak("VM Weak");
 895 }
 896 
 897 void universe_oopstorage_init() {
 898   Universe::oopstorage_init();
 899 }
 900 
 901 void initialize_known_method(LatestMethodCache* method_cache,
 902                              InstanceKlass* ik,
 903                              const char* method,
 904                              Symbol* signature,
 905                              bool is_static, TRAPS)
 906 {
 907   TempNewSymbol name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(method);
 908   Method* m = NULL;
 909   // The klass must be linked before looking up the method.
 910   if (!ik->link_class_or_fail(THREAD) ||
 911       ((m = ik->find_method(name, signature)) == NULL) ||
 912       is_static != m->is_static()) {
 913     ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
 914     // NoSuchMethodException doesn't actually work because it tries to run the
 915     // <init> function before java_lang_Class is linked. Print error and exit.
 916     vm_exit_during_initialization(err_msg("Unable to link/verify %s.%s method",
 917                                  ik->name()->as_C_string(), method));
 918   }
 919   method_cache->init(ik, m);
 920 }
 921 
 922 void Universe::initialize_known_methods(TRAPS) {
 923   // Set up static method for registering finalizers
 924   initialize_known_method(_finalizer_register_cache,
 925                           SystemDictionary::Finalizer_klass(),
 926                           "register",
 927                           vmSymbols::object_void_signature(), true, CHECK);
 928 
 929   initialize_known_method(_throw_illegal_access_error_cache,
 930                           SystemDictionary::internal_Unsafe_klass(),
 931                           "throwIllegalAccessError",
 932                           vmSymbols::void_method_signature(), true, CHECK);
 933 
 934   initialize_known_method(_throw_no_such_method_error_cache,
 935                           SystemDictionary::internal_Unsafe_klass(),
 936                           "throwNoSuchMethodError",
 937                           vmSymbols::void_method_signature(), true, CHECK);
 938 
 939   // Set up method for registering loaded classes in class loader vector
 940   initialize_known_method(_loader_addClass_cache,
 941                           SystemDictionary::ClassLoader_klass(),
 942                           "addClass",
 943                           vmSymbols::class_void_signature(), false, CHECK);
 944 
 945   // Set up method for stack walking
 946   initialize_known_method(_do_stack_walk_cache,
 947                           SystemDictionary::AbstractStackWalker_klass(),
 948                           "doStackWalk",
 949                           vmSymbols::doStackWalk_signature(), false, CHECK);
 950 }
 951 
 952 void universe2_init() {
 953   EXCEPTION_MARK;
 954   Universe::genesis(CATCH);
 955 }
 956 
 957 // Set after initialization of the module runtime, call_initModuleRuntime
 958 void universe_post_module_init() {
 959   Universe::_module_initialized = true;
 960 }
 961 
 962 bool universe_post_init() {
 963   assert(!is_init_completed(), "Error: initialization not yet completed!");
 964   Universe::_fully_initialized = true;
 965   EXCEPTION_MARK;
 966   if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 967     ResourceMark rm;
 968     Universe::reinitialize_vtables(CHECK_false);
 969     Universe::reinitialize_itables(CHECK_false);
 970   }
 971 
 972   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 973   // Setup preallocated empty java.lang.Class array for Method reflection.
 974 
 975   objArrayOop the_empty_class_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(SystemDictionary::Class_klass(), 0, CHECK_false);
 976   Universe::_the_empty_class_array = OopHandle(Universe::vm_global(), the_empty_class_array);
 977 
 978   // Setup preallocated OutOfMemoryError errors
 979   Universe::create_preallocated_out_of_memory_errors(CHECK_false);
 980 
 981   oop instance;
 982   // Setup preallocated cause message for delayed StackOverflowError
 983   if (StackReservedPages > 0) {
 984     instance = java_lang_String::create_oop_from_str("Delayed StackOverflowError due to ReservedStackAccess annotated method", CHECK_false);
 985     Universe::_delayed_stack_overflow_error_message = OopHandle(Universe::vm_global(), instance);
 986   }
 987 
 988   // Setup preallocated NullPointerException
 989   // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
 990   Klass* k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException(), true, CHECK_false);
 991   instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 992   Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance = OopHandle(Universe::vm_global(), instance);
 993 
 994   // Setup preallocated ArithmeticException
 995   // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
 996   k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_ArithmeticException(), true, CHECK_false);
 997   instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
 998   Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance = OopHandle(Universe::vm_global(), instance);
 999 
1000   // Virtual Machine Error for when we get into a situation we can't resolve
1001   k = SystemDictionary::VirtualMachineError_klass();
1002   bool linked = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->link_class_or_fail(CHECK_false);
1003   if (!linked) {
1004      tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify VirtualMachineError class");
1005      return false; // initialization failed
1006   }
1007   instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1008   Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance = OopHandle(Universe::vm_global(), instance);
1009 
1010   Handle msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("/ by zero", CHECK_false);
1011   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::arithmetic_exception_instance(), msg());
1012 
1013   Universe::initialize_known_methods(CHECK_false);
1014 
1015   // This needs to be done before the first scavenge/gc, since
1016   // it's an input to soft ref clearing policy.
1017   {
1018     MutexLocker x(THREAD, Heap_lock);
1019     Universe::update_heap_info_at_gc();
1020   }
1021 
1022   // ("weak") refs processing infrastructure initialization
1023   Universe::heap()->post_initialize();
1024 
1025   MemoryService::add_metaspace_memory_pools();
1026 
1027   MemoryService::set_universe_heap(Universe::heap());
1028 #if INCLUDE_CDS
1029   MetaspaceShared::post_initialize(CHECK_false);
1030 #endif
1031   return true;
1032 }
1033 
1034 
1035 void Universe::compute_base_vtable_size() {
1036   _base_vtable_size = ClassLoader::compute_Object_vtable();
1037 }
1038 
1039 void Universe::print_on(outputStream* st) {
1040   GCMutexLocker hl(Heap_lock); // Heap_lock might be locked by caller thread.
1041   st->print_cr("Heap");
1042   heap()->print_on(st);
1043 }
1044 
1045 void Universe::print_heap_at_SIGBREAK() {
1046   if (PrintHeapAtSIGBREAK) {
1047     print_on(tty);
1048     tty->cr();
1049     tty->flush();
1050   }
1051 }
1052 
1053 void Universe::print_heap_before_gc() {
1054   LogTarget(Debug, gc, heap) lt;
1055   if (lt.is_enabled()) {
1056     LogStream ls(lt);
1057     ls.print("Heap before GC invocations=%u (full %u):", heap()->total_collections(), heap()->total_full_collections());
1058     ResourceMark rm;
1059     heap()->print_on(&ls);
1060   }
1061 }
1062 
1063 void Universe::print_heap_after_gc() {
1064   LogTarget(Debug, gc, heap) lt;
1065   if (lt.is_enabled()) {
1066     LogStream ls(lt);
1067     ls.print("Heap after GC invocations=%u (full %u):", heap()->total_collections(), heap()->total_full_collections());
1068     ResourceMark rm;
1069     heap()->print_on(&ls);
1070   }
1071 }
1072 
1073 void Universe::initialize_verify_flags() {
1074   verify_flags = 0;
1075   const char delimiter[] = " ,";
1076 
1077   size_t length = strlen(VerifySubSet);
1078   char* subset_list = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, length + 1, mtInternal);
1079   strncpy(subset_list, VerifySubSet, length + 1);
1080   char* save_ptr;
1081 
1082   char* token = strtok_r(subset_list, delimiter, &save_ptr);
1083   while (token != NULL) {
1084     if (strcmp(token, "threads") == 0) {
1085       verify_flags |= Verify_Threads;
1086     } else if (strcmp(token, "heap") == 0) {
1087       verify_flags |= Verify_Heap;
1088     } else if (strcmp(token, "symbol_table") == 0) {
1089       verify_flags |= Verify_SymbolTable;
1090     } else if (strcmp(token, "string_table") == 0) {
1091       verify_flags |= Verify_StringTable;
1092     } else if (strcmp(token, "codecache") == 0) {
1093       verify_flags |= Verify_CodeCache;
1094     } else if (strcmp(token, "dictionary") == 0) {
1095       verify_flags |= Verify_SystemDictionary;
1096     } else if (strcmp(token, "classloader_data_graph") == 0) {
1097       verify_flags |= Verify_ClassLoaderDataGraph;
1098     } else if (strcmp(token, "metaspace") == 0) {
1099       verify_flags |= Verify_MetaspaceUtils;
1100     } else if (strcmp(token, "jni_handles") == 0) {
1101       verify_flags |= Verify_JNIHandles;
1102     } else if (strcmp(token, "codecache_oops") == 0) {
1103       verify_flags |= Verify_CodeCacheOops;
1104     } else if (strcmp(token, "resolved_method_table") == 0) {
1105       verify_flags |= Verify_ResolvedMethodTable;
1106     } else {
1107       vm_exit_during_initialization(err_msg("VerifySubSet: \'%s\' memory sub-system is unknown, please correct it", token));
1108     }
1109     token = strtok_r(NULL, delimiter, &save_ptr);
1110   }
1111   FREE_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, subset_list);
1112 }
1113 
1114 bool Universe::should_verify_subset(uint subset) {
1115   if (verify_flags & subset) {
1116     return true;
1117   }
1118   return false;
1119 }
1120 
1121 void Universe::verify(VerifyOption option, const char* prefix) {
1122   // The use of _verify_in_progress is a temporary work around for
1123   // 6320749.  Don't bother with a creating a class to set and clear
1124   // it since it is only used in this method and the control flow is
1125   // straight forward.
1126   _verify_in_progress = true;
1127 
1128   COMPILER2_PRESENT(
1129     assert(!DerivedPointerTable::is_active(),
1130          "DPT should not be active during verification "
1131          "(of thread stacks below)");
1132   )
1133 
1134   Thread* thread = Thread::current();
1135   ResourceMark rm(thread);
1136   HandleMark hm(thread);  // Handles created during verification can be zapped
1137   _verify_count++;
1138 
1139   FormatBuffer<> title("Verifying %s", prefix);
1140   GCTraceTime(Info, gc, verify) tm(title.buffer());
1141   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_Threads)) {
1142     log_debug(gc, verify)("Threads");
1143     Threads::verify();
1144   }
1145   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_Heap)) {
1146     log_debug(gc, verify)("Heap");
1147     heap()->verify(option);
1148   }
1149   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_SymbolTable)) {
1150     log_debug(gc, verify)("SymbolTable");
1151     SymbolTable::verify();
1152   }
1153   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_StringTable)) {
1154     log_debug(gc, verify)("StringTable");
1155     StringTable::verify();
1156   }
1157   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_CodeCache)) {
1158   {
1159     MutexLocker mu(CodeCache_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
1160     log_debug(gc, verify)("CodeCache");
1161     CodeCache::verify();
1162   }
1163   }
1164   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_SystemDictionary)) {
1165     log_debug(gc, verify)("SystemDictionary");
1166     SystemDictionary::verify();
1167   }
1168   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_ClassLoaderDataGraph)) {
1169     log_debug(gc, verify)("ClassLoaderDataGraph");
1170     ClassLoaderDataGraph::verify();
1171   }
1172   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_MetaspaceUtils)) {
1173     log_debug(gc, verify)("MetaspaceUtils");
1174     MetaspaceUtils::verify_free_chunks();
1175   }
1176   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_JNIHandles)) {
1177     log_debug(gc, verify)("JNIHandles");
1178     JNIHandles::verify();
1179   }
1180   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_CodeCacheOops)) {
1181     log_debug(gc, verify)("CodeCache Oops");
1182     CodeCache::verify_oops();
1183   }
1184   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_ResolvedMethodTable)) {
1185     log_debug(gc, verify)("ResolvedMethodTable Oops");
1186     ResolvedMethodTable::verify();
1187   }
1188 
1189   _verify_in_progress = false;
1190 }
1191 
1192 
1193 #ifndef PRODUCT
1194 void Universe::calculate_verify_data(HeapWord* low_boundary, HeapWord* high_boundary) {
1195   assert(low_boundary < high_boundary, "bad interval");
1196 
1197   // decide which low-order bits we require to be clear:
1198   size_t alignSize = MinObjAlignmentInBytes;
1199   size_t min_object_size = CollectedHeap::min_fill_size();
1200 
1201   // make an inclusive limit:
1202   uintptr_t max = (uintptr_t)high_boundary - min_object_size*wordSize;
1203   uintptr_t min = (uintptr_t)low_boundary;
1204   assert(min < max, "bad interval");
1205   uintptr_t diff = max ^ min;
1206 
1207   // throw away enough low-order bits to make the diff vanish
1208   uintptr_t mask = (uintptr_t)(-1);
1209   while ((mask & diff) != 0)
1210     mask <<= 1;
1211   uintptr_t bits = (min & mask);
1212   assert(bits == (max & mask), "correct mask");
1213   // check an intermediate value between min and max, just to make sure:
1214   assert(bits == ((min + (max-min)/2) & mask), "correct mask");
1215 
1216   // require address alignment, too:
1217   mask |= (alignSize - 1);
1218 
1219   if (!(_verify_oop_mask == 0 && _verify_oop_bits == (uintptr_t)-1)) {
1220     assert(_verify_oop_mask == mask && _verify_oop_bits == bits, "mask stability");
1221   }
1222   _verify_oop_mask = mask;
1223   _verify_oop_bits = bits;
1224 }
1225 
1226 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
1227 
1228 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_mask() {
1229   return _verify_oop_mask;
1230 }
1231 
1232 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_bits() {
1233   return _verify_oop_bits;
1234 }
1235 
1236 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_mask() {
1237   return markWord::lock_mask_in_place;
1238 }
1239 
1240 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_bits() {
1241   intptr_t mask = verify_mark_mask();
1242   intptr_t bits = (intptr_t)markWord::prototype().value();
1243   assert((bits & ~mask) == 0, "no stray header bits");
1244   return bits;
1245 }
1246 #endif // PRODUCT
1247 
1248 
1249 void LatestMethodCache::init(Klass* k, Method* m) {
1250   if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
1251     _klass = k;
1252   }
1253 #ifndef PRODUCT
1254   else {
1255     // sharing initilization should have already set up _klass
1256     assert(_klass != NULL, "just checking");
1257   }
1258 #endif
1259 
1260   _method_idnum = m->method_idnum();
1261   assert(_method_idnum >= 0, "sanity check");
1262 }
1263 
1264 
1265 Method* LatestMethodCache::get_method() {
1266   if (klass() == NULL) return NULL;
1267   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(klass());
1268   Method* m = ik->method_with_idnum(method_idnum());
1269   assert(m != NULL, "sanity check");
1270   return m;
1271 }
1272 
1273 
1274 #ifdef ASSERT
1275 // Release dummy object(s) at bottom of heap
1276 bool Universe::release_fullgc_alot_dummy() {
1277   MutexLocker ml(FullGCALot_lock);
1278   objArrayOop fullgc_alot_dummy_array = (objArrayOop)_fullgc_alot_dummy_array.resolve();
1279   if (fullgc_alot_dummy_array != NULL) {
1280     if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_next >= fullgc_alot_dummy_array->length()) {
1281       // No more dummies to release, release entire array instead
1282       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array.release(Universe::vm_global());
1283       return false;
1284     }
1285 
1286     // Release dummy at bottom of old generation
1287     fullgc_alot_dummy_array->obj_at_put(_fullgc_alot_dummy_next++, NULL);
1288   }
1289   return true;
1290 }
1291 
1292 #endif // ASSERT