1 /*
   2  * Copyright (c) 2003, 2022, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
   3  * Copyright (c) 2017, 2020 SAP SE. All rights reserved.
   4  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   5  *
   6  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   7  * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   8  * published by the Free Software Foundation.
   9  *
  10  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  11  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  12  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  13  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  14  * accompanied this code).
  15  *
  16  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  17  * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  18  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  19  *
  20  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  21  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  22  * questions.
  23  *
  24  */
  25 
  26 #include "precompiled.hpp"
  27 #include "jvm.h"
  28 #include "cds/metaspaceShared.hpp"
  29 #include "code/codeCache.hpp"
  30 #include "compiler/compileBroker.hpp"
  31 #include "compiler/disassembler.hpp"
  32 #include "gc/shared/gcConfig.hpp"
  33 #include "gc/shared/gcLogPrecious.hpp"
  34 #include "logging/logConfiguration.hpp"
  35 #include "memory/metaspace.hpp"
  36 #include "memory/metaspaceUtils.hpp"
  37 #include "memory/resourceArea.inline.hpp"
  38 #include "memory/universe.hpp"
  39 #include "oops/compressedKlass.hpp"
  40 #include "oops/compressedOops.hpp"
  41 #include "prims/whitebox.hpp"
  42 #include "runtime/arguments.hpp"
  43 #include "runtime/atomic.hpp"
  44 #include "runtime/frame.inline.hpp"
  45 #include "runtime/init.hpp"
  46 #include "runtime/os.hpp"
  47 #include "runtime/osThread.hpp"
  48 #include "runtime/safefetch.hpp"
  49 #include "runtime/safepointMechanism.hpp"
  50 #include "runtime/stackFrameStream.inline.hpp"
  51 #include "runtime/thread.inline.hpp"
  52 #include "runtime/threadSMR.hpp"
  53 #include "runtime/vmThread.hpp"
  54 #include "runtime/vmOperations.hpp"
  55 #include "runtime/vm_version.hpp"
  56 #include "runtime/flags/jvmFlag.hpp"
  57 #include "services/memTracker.hpp"
  58 #include "utilities/debug.hpp"
  59 #include "utilities/decoder.hpp"
  60 #include "utilities/defaultStream.hpp"
  61 #include "utilities/events.hpp"
  62 #include "utilities/vmError.hpp"
  63 #include "utilities/macros.hpp"
  64 #if INCLUDE_JFR
  65 #include "jfr/jfr.hpp"
  66 #endif
  67 #if INCLUDE_JVMCI
  68 #include "jvmci/jvmci.hpp"
  69 #endif
  70 
  71 #ifndef PRODUCT
  72 #include <signal.h>
  73 #endif // PRODUCT
  74 
  75 bool              VMError::coredump_status;
  76 char              VMError::coredump_message[O_BUFLEN];
  77 int               VMError::_current_step;
  78 const char*       VMError::_current_step_info;
  79 volatile jlong    VMError::_reporting_start_time = -1;
  80 volatile bool     VMError::_reporting_did_timeout = false;
  81 volatile jlong    VMError::_step_start_time = -1;
  82 volatile bool     VMError::_step_did_timeout = false;
  83 volatile intptr_t VMError::_first_error_tid = -1;
  84 int               VMError::_id;
  85 const char*       VMError::_message;
  86 char              VMError::_detail_msg[1024];
  87 Thread*           VMError::_thread;
  88 address           VMError::_pc;
  89 void*             VMError::_siginfo;
  90 void*             VMError::_context;
  91 bool              VMError::_print_native_stack_used = false;
  92 const char*       VMError::_filename;
  93 int               VMError::_lineno;
  94 size_t            VMError::_size;
  95 
  96 // List of environment variables that should be reported in error log file.
  97 static const char* env_list[] = {
  98   // All platforms
  99   "JAVA_HOME", "JAVA_TOOL_OPTIONS", "_JAVA_OPTIONS", "CLASSPATH",
 100   "PATH", "USERNAME",
 101 
 102   // Env variables that are defined on Linux/BSD
 103   "LD_LIBRARY_PATH", "LD_PRELOAD", "SHELL", "DISPLAY",
 104   "HOSTTYPE", "OSTYPE", "ARCH", "MACHTYPE",
 105   "LANG", "LC_ALL", "LC_CTYPE", "LC_NUMERIC", "LC_TIME",
 106   "TERM", "TMPDIR", "TZ",
 107 
 108   // defined on AIX
 109   "LIBPATH", "LDR_PRELOAD", "LDR_PRELOAD64",
 110 
 111   // defined on Linux/AIX/BSD
 112   "_JAVA_SR_SIGNUM",
 113 
 114   // defined on Darwin
 115   "DYLD_LIBRARY_PATH", "DYLD_FALLBACK_LIBRARY_PATH",
 116   "DYLD_FRAMEWORK_PATH", "DYLD_FALLBACK_FRAMEWORK_PATH",
 117   "DYLD_INSERT_LIBRARIES",
 118 
 119   // defined on Windows
 120   "OS", "PROCESSOR_IDENTIFIER", "_ALT_JAVA_HOME_DIR", "TMP", "TEMP",
 121 
 122   (const char *)0
 123 };
 124 
 125 // A simple parser for -XX:OnError, usage:
 126 //  ptr = OnError;
 127 //  while ((cmd = next_OnError_command(buffer, sizeof(buffer), &ptr) != NULL)
 128 //     ... ...
 129 static char* next_OnError_command(char* buf, int buflen, const char** ptr) {
 130   if (ptr == NULL || *ptr == NULL) return NULL;
 131 
 132   const char* cmd = *ptr;
 133 
 134   // skip leading blanks or ';'
 135   while (*cmd == ' ' || *cmd == ';') cmd++;
 136 
 137   if (*cmd == '\0') return NULL;
 138 
 139   const char * cmdend = cmd;
 140   while (*cmdend != '\0' && *cmdend != ';') cmdend++;
 141 
 142   Arguments::copy_expand_pid(cmd, cmdend - cmd, buf, buflen);
 143 
 144   *ptr = (*cmdend == '\0' ? cmdend : cmdend + 1);
 145   return buf;
 146 }
 147 
 148 static void print_bug_submit_message(outputStream *out, Thread *thread) {
 149   if (out == NULL) return;
 150   const char *url = Arguments::java_vendor_url_bug();
 151   if (url == NULL || *url == '\0')
 152     url = JDK_Version::runtime_vendor_vm_bug_url();
 153   if (url != NULL && *url != '\0') {
 154     out->print_raw_cr("# If you would like to submit a bug report, please visit:");
 155     out->print_raw   ("#   ");
 156     out->print_raw_cr(url);
 157   }
 158   // If the crash is in native code, encourage user to submit a bug to the
 159   // provider of that code.
 160   if (thread && thread->is_Java_thread() &&
 161       !thread->is_hidden_from_external_view()) {
 162     if (JavaThread::cast(thread)->thread_state() == _thread_in_native) {
 163       out->print_cr("# The crash happened outside the Java Virtual Machine in native code.\n# See problematic frame for where to report the bug.");
 164     }
 165   }
 166   out->print_raw_cr("#");
 167 }
 168 
 169 void VMError::record_coredump_status(const char* message, bool status) {
 170   coredump_status = status;
 171   strncpy(coredump_message, message, sizeof(coredump_message));
 172   coredump_message[sizeof(coredump_message)-1] = 0;
 173 }
 174 
 175 // Return a string to describe the error
 176 char* VMError::error_string(char* buf, int buflen) {
 177   char signame_buf[64];
 178   const char *signame = os::exception_name(_id, signame_buf, sizeof(signame_buf));
 179 
 180   if (signame) {
 181     jio_snprintf(buf, buflen,
 182                  "%s (0x%x) at pc=" PTR_FORMAT ", pid=%d, tid=" UINTX_FORMAT,
 183                  signame, _id, _pc,
 184                  os::current_process_id(), os::current_thread_id());
 185   } else if (_filename != NULL && _lineno > 0) {
 186     // skip directory names
 187     char separator = os::file_separator()[0];
 188     const char *p = strrchr(_filename, separator);
 189     int n = jio_snprintf(buf, buflen,
 190                          "Internal Error at %s:%d, pid=%d, tid=" UINTX_FORMAT,
 191                          p ? p + 1 : _filename, _lineno,
 192                          os::current_process_id(), os::current_thread_id());
 193     if (n >= 0 && n < buflen && _message) {
 194       if (strlen(_detail_msg) > 0) {
 195         jio_snprintf(buf + n, buflen - n, "%s%s: %s",
 196         os::line_separator(), _message, _detail_msg);
 197       } else {
 198         jio_snprintf(buf + n, buflen - n, "%sError: %s",
 199                      os::line_separator(), _message);
 200       }
 201     }
 202   } else {
 203     jio_snprintf(buf, buflen,
 204                  "Internal Error (0x%x), pid=%d, tid=" UINTX_FORMAT,
 205                  _id, os::current_process_id(), os::current_thread_id());
 206   }
 207 
 208   return buf;
 209 }
 210 
 211 void VMError::print_stack_trace(outputStream* st, JavaThread* jt,
 212                                 char* buf, int buflen, bool verbose) {
 213 #ifdef ZERO
 214   if (jt->zero_stack()->sp() && jt->top_zero_frame()) {
 215     // StackFrameStream uses the frame anchor, which may not have
 216     // been set up.  This can be done at any time in Zero, however,
 217     // so if it hasn't been set up then we just set it up now and
 218     // clear it again when we're done.
 219     bool has_last_Java_frame = jt->has_last_Java_frame();
 220     if (!has_last_Java_frame)
 221       jt->set_last_Java_frame();
 222     st->print("Java frames:");
 223     st->cr();
 224 
 225     // Print the frames
 226     StackFrameStream sfs(jt, true /* update */, true /* process_frames */);
 227     for(int i = 0; !sfs.is_done(); sfs.next(), i++) {
 228       sfs.current()->zero_print_on_error(i, st, buf, buflen);
 229       st->cr();
 230     }
 231 
 232     // Reset the frame anchor if necessary
 233     if (!has_last_Java_frame)
 234       jt->reset_last_Java_frame();
 235   }
 236 #else
 237   if (jt->has_last_Java_frame()) {
 238     st->print_cr("Java frames: (J=compiled Java code, j=interpreted, Vv=VM code)");
 239     for (StackFrameStream sfs(jt, true /* update */, true /* process_frames */); !sfs.is_done(); sfs.next()) {
 240       sfs.current()->print_on_error(st, buf, buflen, verbose);
 241       st->cr();
 242     }
 243   }
 244 #endif // ZERO
 245 }
 246 
 247 /**
 248  * Adds `value` to `list` iff it's not already present and there is sufficient
 249  * capacity (i.e. length(list) < `list_capacity`). The length of the list
 250  * is the index of the first nullptr entry or `list_capacity` if there are
 251  * no nullptr entries.
 252  *
 253  * @ return true if the value was added, false otherwise
 254  */
 255 static bool add_if_absent(address value, address* list, int list_capacity) {
 256   for (int i = 0; i < list_capacity; i++) {
 257     if (list[i] == value) {
 258       return false;
 259     }
 260     if (list[i] == nullptr) {
 261       list[i] = value;
 262       if (i + 1 < list_capacity) {
 263         list[i + 1] = nullptr;
 264       }
 265       return true;
 266     }
 267   }
 268   return false;
 269 }
 270 
 271 /**
 272  * Prints the VM generated code unit, if any, containing `pc` if it has not already
 273  * been printed. If the code unit is an InterpreterCodelet or StubCodeDesc, it is
 274  * only printed if `is_crash_pc` is true.
 275  *
 276  * @param printed array of code units that have already been printed (delimited by NULL entry)
 277  * @param printed_capacity the capacity of `printed`
 278  * @return true if the code unit was printed, false otherwise
 279  */
 280 static bool print_code(outputStream* st, Thread* thread, address pc, bool is_crash_pc,
 281                        address* printed, int printed_capacity) {
 282   if (Interpreter::contains(pc)) {
 283     if (is_crash_pc) {
 284       // The interpreter CodeBlob is very large so try to print the codelet instead.
 285       InterpreterCodelet* codelet = Interpreter::codelet_containing(pc);
 286       if (codelet != nullptr) {
 287         if (add_if_absent((address) codelet, printed, printed_capacity)) {
 288           codelet->print_on(st);
 289           Disassembler::decode(codelet->code_begin(), codelet->code_end(), st);
 290           return true;
 291         }
 292       }
 293     }
 294   } else {
 295     StubCodeDesc* desc = StubCodeDesc::desc_for(pc);
 296     if (desc != nullptr) {
 297       if (is_crash_pc) {
 298         if (add_if_absent((address) desc, printed, printed_capacity)) {
 299           desc->print_on(st);
 300           Disassembler::decode(desc->begin(), desc->end(), st);
 301           return true;
 302         }
 303       }
 304     } else if (thread != nullptr) {
 305       CodeBlob* cb = CodeCache::find_blob(pc);
 306       if (cb != nullptr && add_if_absent((address) cb, printed, printed_capacity)) {
 307         // Disassembling nmethod will incur resource memory allocation,
 308         // only do so when thread is valid.
 309         ResourceMark rm(thread);
 310         Disassembler::decode(cb, st);
 311         st->cr();
 312         return true;
 313       }
 314     }
 315   }
 316   return false;
 317 }
 318 
 319 /**
 320  * Gets the caller frame of `fr`.
 321  *
 322  * @returns an invalid frame (i.e. fr.pc() === 0) if the caller cannot be obtained
 323  */
 324 static frame next_frame(frame fr, Thread* t) {
 325   // Compiled code may use EBP register on x86 so it looks like
 326   // non-walkable C frame. Use frame.sender() for java frames.
 327   frame invalid;
 328   if (t != nullptr && t->is_Java_thread()) {
 329     // Catch very first native frame by using stack address.
 330     // For JavaThread stack_base and stack_size should be set.
 331     if (!t->is_in_full_stack((address)(fr.real_fp() + 1))) {
 332       return invalid;
 333     }
 334     if (fr.is_java_frame() || fr.is_native_frame() || fr.is_runtime_frame()) {
 335       RegisterMap map(JavaThread::cast(t), false); // No update
 336       return fr.sender(&map);
 337     } else {
 338       // is_first_C_frame() does only simple checks for frame pointer,
 339       // it will pass if java compiled code has a pointer in EBP.
 340       if (os::is_first_C_frame(&fr)) return invalid;
 341       return os::get_sender_for_C_frame(&fr);
 342     }
 343   } else {
 344     if (os::is_first_C_frame(&fr)) return invalid;
 345     return os::get_sender_for_C_frame(&fr);
 346   }
 347 }
 348 
 349 void VMError::print_native_stack(outputStream* st, frame fr, Thread* t, char* buf, int buf_size) {
 350 
 351   // see if it's a valid frame
 352   if (fr.pc()) {
 353     st->print_cr("Native frames: (J=compiled Java code, j=interpreted, Vv=VM code, C=native code)");
 354 
 355     int count = 0;
 356     while (count++ < StackPrintLimit) {
 357       fr.print_on_error(st, buf, buf_size);
 358       if (fr.pc()) { // print source file and line, if available
 359         char buf[128];
 360         int line_no;
 361         if (Decoder::get_source_info(fr.pc(), buf, sizeof(buf), &line_no)) {
 362           st->print("  (%s:%d)", buf, line_no);
 363         }
 364       }
 365       st->cr();
 366       fr = next_frame(fr, t);
 367       if (fr.pc() == nullptr) {
 368         break;
 369       }
 370     }
 371 
 372     if (count > StackPrintLimit) {
 373       st->print_cr("...<more frames>...");
 374     }
 375 
 376     st->cr();
 377   }
 378 }
 379 
 380 static void print_oom_reasons(outputStream* st) {
 381   st->print_cr("# Possible reasons:");
 382   st->print_cr("#   The system is out of physical RAM or swap space");
 383   if (UseCompressedOops) {
 384     st->print_cr("#   The process is running with CompressedOops enabled, and the Java Heap may be blocking the growth of the native heap");
 385   }
 386   if (LogBytesPerWord == 2) {
 387     st->print_cr("#   In 32 bit mode, the process size limit was hit");
 388   }
 389   st->print_cr("# Possible solutions:");
 390   st->print_cr("#   Reduce memory load on the system");
 391   st->print_cr("#   Increase physical memory or swap space");
 392   st->print_cr("#   Check if swap backing store is full");
 393   if (LogBytesPerWord == 2) {
 394     st->print_cr("#   Use 64 bit Java on a 64 bit OS");
 395   }
 396   st->print_cr("#   Decrease Java heap size (-Xmx/-Xms)");
 397   st->print_cr("#   Decrease number of Java threads");
 398   st->print_cr("#   Decrease Java thread stack sizes (-Xss)");
 399   st->print_cr("#   Set larger code cache with -XX:ReservedCodeCacheSize=");
 400   if (UseCompressedOops) {
 401     switch (CompressedOops::mode()) {
 402       case CompressedOops::UnscaledNarrowOop:
 403         st->print_cr("#   JVM is running with Unscaled Compressed Oops mode in which the Java heap is");
 404         st->print_cr("#     placed in the first 4GB address space. The Java Heap base address is the");
 405         st->print_cr("#     maximum limit for the native heap growth. Please use -XX:HeapBaseMinAddress");
 406         st->print_cr("#     to set the Java Heap base and to place the Java Heap above 4GB virtual address.");
 407         break;
 408       case CompressedOops::ZeroBasedNarrowOop:
 409         st->print_cr("#   JVM is running with Zero Based Compressed Oops mode in which the Java heap is");
 410         st->print_cr("#     placed in the first 32GB address space. The Java Heap base address is the");
 411         st->print_cr("#     maximum limit for the native heap growth. Please use -XX:HeapBaseMinAddress");
 412         st->print_cr("#     to set the Java Heap base and to place the Java Heap above 32GB virtual address.");
 413         break;
 414       default:
 415         break;
 416     }
 417   }
 418   st->print_cr("# This output file may be truncated or incomplete.");
 419 }
 420 
 421 static void report_vm_version(outputStream* st, char* buf, int buflen) {
 422    // VM version
 423    st->print_cr("#");
 424    JDK_Version::current().to_string(buf, buflen);
 425    const char* runtime_name = JDK_Version::runtime_name() != NULL ?
 426                                 JDK_Version::runtime_name() : "";
 427    const char* runtime_version = JDK_Version::runtime_version() != NULL ?
 428                                    JDK_Version::runtime_version() : "";
 429    const char* vendor_version = JDK_Version::runtime_vendor_version() != NULL ?
 430                                   JDK_Version::runtime_vendor_version() : "";
 431    const char* jdk_debug_level = VM_Version::printable_jdk_debug_level() != NULL ?
 432                                    VM_Version::printable_jdk_debug_level() : "";
 433 
 434    st->print_cr("# JRE version: %s%s%s (%s) (%sbuild %s)", runtime_name,
 435                 (*vendor_version != '\0') ? " " : "", vendor_version,
 436                 buf, jdk_debug_level, runtime_version);
 437 
 438    // This is the long version with some default settings added
 439    st->print_cr("# Java VM: %s%s%s (%s%s, %s%s%s%s%s%s, %s, %s)",
 440                  VM_Version::vm_name(),
 441                 (*vendor_version != '\0') ? " " : "", vendor_version,
 442                  jdk_debug_level,
 443                  VM_Version::vm_release(),
 444                  VM_Version::vm_info_string(),
 445                  TieredCompilation ? ", tiered" : "",
 446 #if INCLUDE_JVMCI
 447                  EnableJVMCI ? ", jvmci" : "",
 448                  UseJVMCICompiler ? ", jvmci compiler" : "",
 449 #else
 450                  "", "",
 451 #endif
 452                  UseCompressedOops ? ", compressed oops" : "",
 453                  UseCompressedClassPointers ? ", compressed class ptrs" : "",
 454                  GCConfig::hs_err_name(),
 455                  VM_Version::vm_platform_string()
 456                );
 457 }
 458 
 459 // Returns true if at least one thread reported a fatal error and fatal error handling is in process.
 460 bool VMError::is_error_reported() {
 461   return _first_error_tid != -1;
 462 }
 463 
 464 // Returns true if the current thread reported a fatal error.
 465 bool VMError::is_error_reported_in_current_thread() {
 466   return _first_error_tid == os::current_thread_id();
 467 }
 468 
 469 // Helper, return current timestamp for timeout handling.
 470 jlong VMError::get_current_timestamp() {
 471   return os::javaTimeNanos();
 472 }
 473 // Factor to translate the timestamp to seconds.
 474 #define TIMESTAMP_TO_SECONDS_FACTOR (1000 * 1000 * 1000)
 475 
 476 void VMError::record_reporting_start_time() {
 477   const jlong now = get_current_timestamp();
 478   Atomic::store(&_reporting_start_time, now);
 479 }
 480 
 481 jlong VMError::get_reporting_start_time() {
 482   return Atomic::load(&_reporting_start_time);
 483 }
 484 
 485 void VMError::record_step_start_time() {
 486   const jlong now = get_current_timestamp();
 487   Atomic::store(&_step_start_time, now);
 488 }
 489 
 490 jlong VMError::get_step_start_time() {
 491   return Atomic::load(&_step_start_time);
 492 }
 493 
 494 void VMError::clear_step_start_time() {
 495   return Atomic::store(&_step_start_time, (jlong)0);
 496 }
 497 
 498 // This is the main function to report a fatal error. Only one thread can
 499 // call this function, so we don't need to worry about MT-safety. But it's
 500 // possible that the error handler itself may crash or die on an internal
 501 // error, for example, when the stack/heap is badly damaged. We must be
 502 // able to handle recursive errors that happen inside error handler.
 503 //
 504 // Error reporting is done in several steps. If a crash or internal error
 505 // occurred when reporting an error, the nested signal/exception handler
 506 // can skip steps that are already (or partially) done. Error reporting will
 507 // continue from the next step. This allows us to retrieve and print
 508 // information that may be unsafe to get after a fatal error. If it happens,
 509 // you may find nested report_and_die() frames when you look at the stack
 510 // in a debugger.
 511 //
 512 // In general, a hang in error handler is much worse than a crash or internal
 513 // error, as it's harder to recover from a hang. Deadlock can happen if we
 514 // try to grab a lock that is already owned by current thread, or if the
 515 // owner is blocked forever (e.g. in os::infinite_sleep()). If possible, the
 516 // error handler and all the functions it called should avoid grabbing any
 517 // lock. An important thing to notice is that memory allocation needs a lock.
 518 //
 519 // We should avoid using large stack allocated buffers. Many errors happen
 520 // when stack space is already low. Making things even worse is that there
 521 // could be nested report_and_die() calls on stack (see above). Only one
 522 // thread can report error, so large buffers are statically allocated in data
 523 // segment.
 524 void VMError::report(outputStream* st, bool _verbose) {
 525 
 526 # define BEGIN if (_current_step == 0) { _current_step = __LINE__;
 527 # define STEP(s) } if (_current_step < __LINE__) { _current_step = __LINE__; _current_step_info = s; \
 528   record_step_start_time(); _step_did_timeout = false;
 529 # define END clear_step_start_time(); }
 530 
 531   // don't allocate large buffer on stack
 532   static char buf[O_BUFLEN];
 533 
 534   BEGIN
 535 
 536   STEP("printing fatal error message")
 537 
 538     st->print_cr("#");
 539     if (should_report_bug(_id)) {
 540       st->print_cr("# A fatal error has been detected by the Java Runtime Environment:");
 541     } else {
 542       st->print_cr("# There is insufficient memory for the Java "
 543                    "Runtime Environment to continue.");
 544     }
 545 
 546 #ifdef ASSERT
 547   // Error handler self tests
 548   // Meaning of codes passed through in the tests.
 549 #define TEST_SECONDARY_CRASH 14
 550 #define TEST_RESOURCE_MARK_CRASH 2
 551 
 552   // test secondary error handling. Test it twice, to test that resetting
 553   // error handler after a secondary crash works.
 554   STEP("test secondary crash 1")
 555     if (_verbose && TestCrashInErrorHandler == TEST_SECONDARY_CRASH) {
 556       st->print_cr("Will crash now (TestCrashInErrorHandler=" UINTX_FORMAT ")...",
 557         TestCrashInErrorHandler);
 558       controlled_crash(TestCrashInErrorHandler);
 559     }
 560 
 561   STEP("test secondary crash 2")
 562     if (_verbose && TestCrashInErrorHandler == TEST_SECONDARY_CRASH) {
 563       st->print_cr("Will crash now (TestCrashInErrorHandler=" UINTX_FORMAT ")...",
 564         TestCrashInErrorHandler);
 565       controlled_crash(TestCrashInErrorHandler);
 566     }
 567 
 568   STEP("test missing ResourceMark does not crash")
 569     if (_verbose && TestCrashInErrorHandler == TEST_RESOURCE_MARK_CRASH) {
 570       stringStream message;
 571       message.print("This is a message with no ResourceMark");
 572       tty->print_cr("%s", message.as_string());
 573     }
 574 
 575   // TestUnresponsiveErrorHandler: We want to test both step timeouts and global timeout.
 576   // Step to global timeout ratio is 4:1, so in order to be absolutely sure we hit the
 577   // global timeout, let's execute the timeout step five times.
 578   // See corresponding test in test/runtime/ErrorHandling/TimeoutInErrorHandlingTest.java
 579   STEP("setup for test unresponsive error reporting step")
 580     if (_verbose && TestUnresponsiveErrorHandler) {
 581       // We record reporting_start_time for this test here because we
 582       // care about the time spent executing TIMEOUT_TEST_STEP and not
 583       // about the time it took us to get here.
 584       tty->print_cr("Recording reporting_start_time for TestUnresponsiveErrorHandler.");
 585       record_reporting_start_time();
 586     }
 587 
 588   #define TIMEOUT_TEST_STEP STEP("test unresponsive error reporting step") \
 589     if (_verbose && TestUnresponsiveErrorHandler) { os::infinite_sleep(); }
 590   TIMEOUT_TEST_STEP
 591   TIMEOUT_TEST_STEP
 592   TIMEOUT_TEST_STEP
 593   TIMEOUT_TEST_STEP
 594   TIMEOUT_TEST_STEP
 595 
 596   STEP("test safefetch in error handler")
 597     // test whether it is safe to use SafeFetch32 in Crash Handler. Test twice
 598     // to test that resetting the signal handler works correctly.
 599     if (_verbose && TestSafeFetchInErrorHandler) {
 600       st->print_cr("Will test SafeFetch...");
 601       int* const invalid_pointer = (int*)segfault_address;
 602       const int x = 0x76543210;
 603       int i1 = SafeFetch32(invalid_pointer, x);
 604       int i2 = SafeFetch32(invalid_pointer, x);
 605       if (i1 == x && i2 == x) {
 606         st->print_cr("SafeFetch OK."); // Correctly deflected and returned default pattern
 607       } else {
 608         st->print_cr("??");
 609       }
 610     }
 611 #endif // ASSERT
 612 
 613   STEP("printing type of error")
 614 
 615      switch(static_cast<unsigned int>(_id)) {
 616        case OOM_MALLOC_ERROR:
 617        case OOM_MMAP_ERROR:
 618        case OOM_MPROTECT_ERROR:
 619          if (_size) {
 620            st->print("# Native memory allocation ");
 621            st->print((_id == (int)OOM_MALLOC_ERROR) ? "(malloc) failed to allocate " :
 622                      (_id == (int)OOM_MMAP_ERROR)   ? "(mmap) failed to map " :
 623                                                       "(mprotect) failed to protect ");
 624            jio_snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), SIZE_FORMAT, _size);
 625            st->print("%s", buf);
 626            st->print(" bytes");
 627            if (strlen(_detail_msg) > 0) {
 628              st->print(" for ");
 629              st->print("%s", _detail_msg);
 630            }
 631            st->cr();
 632          } else {
 633            if (strlen(_detail_msg) > 0) {
 634              st->print("# ");
 635              st->print_cr("%s", _detail_msg);
 636            }
 637          }
 638          // In error file give some solutions
 639          if (_verbose) {
 640            print_oom_reasons(st);
 641          } else {
 642            return;  // that's enough for the screen
 643          }
 644          break;
 645        case INTERNAL_ERROR:
 646        default:
 647          break;
 648      }
 649 
 650   STEP("printing exception/signal name")
 651 
 652      st->print_cr("#");
 653      st->print("#  ");
 654      // Is it an OS exception/signal?
 655      if (os::exception_name(_id, buf, sizeof(buf))) {
 656        st->print("%s", buf);
 657        st->print(" (0x%x)", _id);                // signal number
 658        st->print(" at pc=" PTR_FORMAT, p2i(_pc));
 659        if (_siginfo != NULL && os::signal_sent_by_kill(_siginfo)) {
 660          st->print(" (sent by kill)");
 661        }
 662      } else {
 663        if (should_report_bug(_id)) {
 664          st->print("Internal Error");
 665        } else {
 666          st->print("Out of Memory Error");
 667        }
 668        if (_filename != NULL && _lineno > 0) {
 669 #ifdef PRODUCT
 670          // In product mode chop off pathname?
 671          char separator = os::file_separator()[0];
 672          const char *p = strrchr(_filename, separator);
 673          const char *file = p ? p+1 : _filename;
 674 #else
 675          const char *file = _filename;
 676 #endif
 677          st->print(" (%s:%d)", file, _lineno);
 678        } else {
 679          st->print(" (0x%x)", _id);
 680        }
 681      }
 682 
 683   STEP("printing current thread and pid")
 684 
 685      // process id, thread id
 686      st->print(", pid=%d", os::current_process_id());
 687      st->print(", tid=" UINTX_FORMAT, os::current_thread_id());
 688      st->cr();
 689 
 690   STEP("printing error message")
 691 
 692      if (should_report_bug(_id)) {  // already printed the message.
 693        // error message
 694        if (strlen(_detail_msg) > 0) {
 695          st->print_cr("#  %s: %s", _message ? _message : "Error", _detail_msg);
 696        } else if (_message) {
 697          st->print_cr("#  Error: %s", _message);
 698        }
 699      }
 700 
 701   STEP("printing Java version string")
 702 
 703      report_vm_version(st, buf, sizeof(buf));
 704 
 705   STEP("printing problematic frame")
 706 
 707      // Print current frame if we have a context (i.e. it's a crash)
 708      if (_context) {
 709        st->print_cr("# Problematic frame:");
 710        st->print("# ");
 711        frame fr = os::fetch_frame_from_context(_context);
 712        fr.print_on_error(st, buf, sizeof(buf));
 713        st->cr();
 714        st->print_cr("#");
 715      }
 716 
 717   STEP("printing core file information")
 718     st->print("# ");
 719     if (CreateCoredumpOnCrash) {
 720       if (coredump_status) {
 721         st->print("Core dump will be written. Default location: %s", coredump_message);
 722       } else {
 723         st->print("No core dump will be written. %s", coredump_message);
 724       }
 725     } else {
 726       st->print("CreateCoredumpOnCrash turned off, no core file dumped");
 727     }
 728     st->cr();
 729     st->print_cr("#");
 730 
 731   JFR_ONLY(STEP("printing jfr information"))
 732   JFR_ONLY(Jfr::on_vm_error_report(st);)
 733 
 734   STEP("printing bug submit message")
 735 
 736      if (should_submit_bug_report(_id) && _verbose) {
 737        print_bug_submit_message(st, _thread);
 738      }
 739 
 740   STEP("printing summary")
 741 
 742      if (_verbose) {
 743        st->cr();
 744        st->print_cr("---------------  S U M M A R Y ------------");
 745        st->cr();
 746      }
 747 
 748   STEP("printing VM option summary")
 749 
 750      if (_verbose) {
 751        // VM options
 752        Arguments::print_summary_on(st);
 753        st->cr();
 754      }
 755 
 756   STEP("printing summary machine and OS info")
 757 
 758      if (_verbose) {
 759        os::print_summary_info(st, buf, sizeof(buf));
 760      }
 761 
 762   STEP("printing date and time")
 763 
 764      if (_verbose) {
 765        os::print_date_and_time(st, buf, sizeof(buf));
 766      }
 767 
 768   STEP("printing thread")
 769 
 770      if (_verbose) {
 771        st->cr();
 772        st->print_cr("---------------  T H R E A D  ---------------");
 773        st->cr();
 774      }
 775 
 776   STEP("printing current thread")
 777 
 778      // current thread
 779      if (_verbose) {
 780        if (_thread) {
 781          st->print("Current thread (" PTR_FORMAT "):  ", p2i(_thread));
 782          _thread->print_on_error(st, buf, sizeof(buf));
 783          st->cr();
 784        } else {
 785          st->print_cr("Current thread is native thread");
 786        }
 787        st->cr();
 788      }
 789 
 790   STEP("printing current compile task")
 791 
 792      if (_verbose && _thread && _thread->is_Compiler_thread()) {
 793         CompilerThread* t = (CompilerThread*)_thread;
 794         if (t->task()) {
 795            st->cr();
 796            st->print_cr("Current CompileTask:");
 797            t->task()->print_line_on_error(st, buf, sizeof(buf));
 798            st->cr();
 799         }
 800      }
 801 
 802   STEP("printing stack bounds")
 803 
 804      if (_verbose) {
 805        st->print("Stack: ");
 806 
 807        address stack_top;
 808        size_t stack_size;
 809 
 810        if (_thread) {
 811           stack_top = _thread->stack_base();
 812           stack_size = _thread->stack_size();
 813        } else {
 814           stack_top = os::current_stack_base();
 815           stack_size = os::current_stack_size();
 816        }
 817 
 818        address stack_bottom = stack_top - stack_size;
 819        st->print("[" PTR_FORMAT "," PTR_FORMAT "]", p2i(stack_bottom), p2i(stack_top));
 820 
 821        frame fr = _context ? os::fetch_frame_from_context(_context)
 822                            : os::current_frame();
 823 
 824        if (fr.sp()) {
 825          st->print(",  sp=" PTR_FORMAT, p2i(fr.sp()));
 826          size_t free_stack_size = pointer_delta(fr.sp(), stack_bottom, 1024);
 827          st->print(",  free space=" SIZE_FORMAT "k", free_stack_size);
 828        }
 829 
 830        st->cr();
 831      }
 832 
 833   STEP("printing native stack")
 834 
 835    if (_verbose) {
 836      if (os::platform_print_native_stack(st, _context, buf, sizeof(buf))) {
 837        // We have printed the native stack in platform-specific code
 838        // Windows/x64 needs special handling.
 839      } else {
 840        frame fr = _context ? os::fetch_frame_from_context(_context)
 841                            : os::current_frame();
 842 
 843        print_native_stack(st, fr, _thread, buf, sizeof(buf));
 844        _print_native_stack_used = true;
 845      }
 846    }
 847 
 848   STEP("printing Java stack")
 849 
 850      if (_verbose && _thread && _thread->is_Java_thread()) {
 851        print_stack_trace(st, JavaThread::cast(_thread), buf, sizeof(buf));
 852      }
 853 
 854   STEP("printing target Java thread stack")
 855 
 856      // printing Java thread stack trace if it is involved in GC crash
 857      if (_verbose && _thread && (_thread->is_Named_thread())) {
 858        Thread* thread = ((NamedThread *)_thread)->processed_thread();
 859        if (thread != NULL && thread->is_Java_thread()) {
 860          JavaThread* jt = JavaThread::cast(thread);
 861          st->print_cr("JavaThread " PTR_FORMAT " (nid = %d) was being processed", p2i(jt), jt->osthread()->thread_id());
 862          print_stack_trace(st, jt, buf, sizeof(buf), true);
 863        }
 864      }
 865 
 866   STEP("printing siginfo")
 867 
 868      // signal no, signal code, address that caused the fault
 869      if (_verbose && _siginfo) {
 870        st->cr();
 871        os::print_siginfo(st, _siginfo);
 872        st->cr();
 873      }
 874 
 875   STEP("CDS archive access warning")
 876 
 877      // Print an explicit hint if we crashed on access to the CDS archive.
 878      if (_verbose && _siginfo) {
 879        check_failing_cds_access(st, _siginfo);
 880        st->cr();
 881      }
 882 
 883   STEP("printing register info")
 884 
 885      // decode register contents if possible
 886      if (_verbose && _context && _thread && Universe::is_fully_initialized()) {
 887        ResourceMark rm(_thread);
 888        os::print_register_info(st, _context);
 889        st->cr();
 890      }
 891 
 892   STEP("printing registers, top of stack, instructions near pc")
 893 
 894      // registers, top of stack, instructions near pc
 895      if (_verbose && _context) {
 896        os::print_context(st, _context);
 897        st->cr();
 898      }
 899 
 900   STEP("inspecting top of stack")
 901 
 902      // decode stack contents if possible
 903      if (_verbose && _context && _thread && Universe::is_fully_initialized()) {
 904        frame fr = os::fetch_frame_from_context(_context);
 905        const int slots = 8;
 906        const intptr_t *start = fr.sp();
 907        const intptr_t *end = start + slots;
 908        if (is_aligned(start, sizeof(intptr_t)) && os::is_readable_range(start, end)) {
 909          st->print_cr("Stack slot to memory mapping:");
 910          for (int i = 0; i < slots; ++i) {
 911            st->print("stack at sp + %d slots: ", i);
 912            ResourceMark rm(_thread);
 913            os::print_location(st, *(start + i));
 914          }
 915        }
 916        st->cr();
 917      }
 918 
 919   STEP("printing code blobs if possible")
 920 
 921      if (_verbose) {
 922        const int printed_capacity = max_error_log_print_code;
 923        address printed[printed_capacity];
 924        printed[0] = nullptr;
 925        int printed_len = 0;
 926        // Even though ErrorLogPrintCodeLimit is ranged checked
 927        // during argument parsing, there's no way to prevent it
 928        // subsequently (i.e., after parsing) being set to a
 929        // value outside the range.
 930        int limit = MIN2(ErrorLogPrintCodeLimit, printed_capacity);
 931        if (limit > 0) {
 932          // Scan the native stack
 933          if (!_print_native_stack_used) {
 934            // Only try to print code of the crashing frame since
 935            // the native stack cannot be walked with next_frame.
 936            if (print_code(st, _thread, _pc, true, printed, printed_capacity)) {
 937              printed_len++;
 938            }
 939          } else {
 940            frame fr = _context ? os::fetch_frame_from_context(_context)
 941                                : os::current_frame();
 942            while (printed_len < limit && fr.pc() != nullptr) {
 943              if (print_code(st, _thread, fr.pc(), fr.pc() == _pc, printed, printed_capacity)) {
 944                printed_len++;
 945              }
 946              fr = next_frame(fr, _thread);
 947            }
 948          }
 949 
 950          // Scan the Java stack
 951          if (_thread != nullptr && _thread->is_Java_thread()) {
 952            JavaThread* jt = JavaThread::cast(_thread);
 953            if (jt->has_last_Java_frame()) {
 954              for (StackFrameStream sfs(jt, true /* update */, true /* process_frames */); printed_len < limit && !sfs.is_done(); sfs.next()) {
 955                address pc = sfs.current()->pc();
 956                if (print_code(st, _thread, pc, pc == _pc, printed, printed_capacity)) {
 957                  printed_len++;
 958                }
 959              }
 960            }
 961          }
 962        }
 963      }
 964 
 965   STEP("printing VM operation")
 966 
 967      if (_verbose && _thread && _thread->is_VM_thread()) {
 968         VMThread* t = (VMThread*)_thread;
 969         VM_Operation* op = t->vm_operation();
 970         if (op) {
 971           op->print_on_error(st);
 972           st->cr();
 973           st->cr();
 974         }
 975      }
 976 
 977   STEP("printing process")
 978 
 979      if (_verbose) {
 980        st->cr();
 981        st->print_cr("---------------  P R O C E S S  ---------------");
 982        st->cr();
 983      }
 984 
 985 #ifndef _WIN32
 986   STEP("printing user info")
 987 
 988      if (ExtensiveErrorReports && _verbose) {
 989        os::Posix::print_user_info(st);
 990      }
 991 #endif
 992 
 993   STEP("printing all threads")
 994 
 995      // all threads
 996      if (_verbose && _thread) {
 997        Threads::print_on_error(st, _thread, buf, sizeof(buf));
 998        st->cr();
 999      }
1000 
1001   STEP("printing VM state")
1002 
1003      if (_verbose) {
1004        // Safepoint state
1005        st->print("VM state: ");
1006 
1007        if (SafepointSynchronize::is_synchronizing()) st->print("synchronizing");
1008        else if (SafepointSynchronize::is_at_safepoint()) st->print("at safepoint");
1009        else st->print("not at safepoint");
1010 
1011        // Also see if error occurred during initialization or shutdown
1012        if (!Universe::is_fully_initialized()) {
1013          st->print(" (not fully initialized)");
1014        } else if (VM_Exit::vm_exited()) {
1015          st->print(" (shutting down)");
1016        } else {
1017          st->print(" (normal execution)");
1018        }
1019        st->cr();
1020        st->cr();
1021      }
1022 
1023   STEP("printing owned locks on error")
1024 
1025      // mutexes/monitors that currently have an owner
1026      if (_verbose) {
1027        print_owned_locks_on_error(st);
1028        st->cr();
1029      }
1030 
1031   STEP("printing number of OutOfMemoryError and StackOverflow exceptions")
1032 
1033      if (_verbose && Exceptions::has_exception_counts()) {
1034        st->print_cr("OutOfMemory and StackOverflow Exception counts:");
1035        Exceptions::print_exception_counts_on_error(st);
1036        st->cr();
1037      }
1038 
1039 #ifdef _LP64
1040   STEP("printing compressed oops mode")
1041 
1042      if (_verbose && UseCompressedOops) {
1043        CompressedOops::print_mode(st);
1044        st->cr();
1045      }
1046 
1047   STEP("printing compressed klass pointers mode")
1048 
1049      if (_verbose && UseCompressedClassPointers) {
1050        CDS_ONLY(MetaspaceShared::print_on(st);)
1051        Metaspace::print_compressed_class_space(st);
1052        CompressedKlassPointers::print_mode(st);
1053        st->cr();
1054      }
1055 #endif
1056 
1057   STEP("printing heap information")
1058 
1059      if (_verbose) {
1060        GCLogPrecious::print_on_error(st);
1061 
1062        if (Universe::heap() != NULL) {
1063          Universe::heap()->print_on_error(st);
1064          st->cr();
1065        }
1066 
1067        if (Universe::is_fully_initialized()) {
1068          st->print_cr("Polling page: " INTPTR_FORMAT, p2i(SafepointMechanism::get_polling_page()));
1069          st->cr();
1070        }
1071      }
1072 
1073   STEP("printing metaspace information")
1074 
1075      if (_verbose && Universe::is_fully_initialized()) {
1076        st->print_cr("Metaspace:");
1077        MetaspaceUtils::print_basic_report(st, 0);
1078      }
1079 
1080   STEP("printing code cache information")
1081 
1082      if (_verbose && Universe::is_fully_initialized()) {
1083        // print code cache information before vm abort
1084        CodeCache::print_summary(st);
1085        st->cr();
1086      }
1087 
1088   STEP("printing ring buffers")
1089 
1090      if (_verbose) {
1091        Events::print_all(st);
1092        st->cr();
1093      }
1094 
1095   STEP("printing dynamic libraries")
1096 
1097      if (_verbose) {
1098        // dynamic libraries, or memory map
1099        os::print_dll_info(st);
1100        st->cr();
1101      }
1102 
1103   STEP("printing native decoder state")
1104 
1105      if (_verbose) {
1106        Decoder::print_state_on(st);
1107        st->cr();
1108      }
1109 
1110   STEP("printing VM options")
1111 
1112      if (_verbose) {
1113        // VM options
1114        Arguments::print_on(st);
1115        st->cr();
1116      }
1117 
1118   STEP("printing flags")
1119 
1120     if (_verbose) {
1121       JVMFlag::printFlags(
1122         st,
1123         true, // with comments
1124         false, // no ranges
1125         true); // skip defaults
1126       st->cr();
1127     }
1128 
1129   STEP("printing warning if internal testing API used")
1130 
1131      if (WhiteBox::used()) {
1132        st->print_cr("Unsupported internal testing APIs have been used.");
1133        st->cr();
1134      }
1135 
1136   STEP("printing log configuration")
1137     if (_verbose){
1138       st->print_cr("Logging:");
1139       LogConfiguration::describe_current_configuration(st);
1140       st->cr();
1141     }
1142 
1143   STEP("printing all environment variables")
1144 
1145      if (_verbose) {
1146        os::print_environment_variables(st, env_list);
1147        st->cr();
1148      }
1149 
1150   STEP("printing signal handlers")
1151 
1152      if (_verbose) {
1153        os::print_signal_handlers(st, buf, sizeof(buf));
1154        st->cr();
1155      }
1156 
1157   STEP("Native Memory Tracking")
1158      if (_verbose) {
1159        MemTracker::error_report(st);
1160      }
1161 
1162   STEP("printing system")
1163 
1164      if (_verbose) {
1165        st->cr();
1166        st->print_cr("---------------  S Y S T E M  ---------------");
1167        st->cr();
1168      }
1169 
1170   STEP("printing OS information")
1171 
1172      if (_verbose) {
1173        os::print_os_info(st);
1174        st->cr();
1175      }
1176 
1177   STEP("printing CPU info")
1178      if (_verbose) {
1179        os::print_cpu_info(st, buf, sizeof(buf));
1180        st->cr();
1181      }
1182 
1183   STEP("printing memory info")
1184 
1185      if (_verbose) {
1186        os::print_memory_info(st);
1187        st->cr();
1188      }
1189 
1190   STEP("printing internal vm info")
1191 
1192      if (_verbose) {
1193        st->print_cr("vm_info: %s", VM_Version::internal_vm_info_string());
1194        st->cr();
1195      }
1196 
1197   // print a defined marker to show that error handling finished correctly.
1198   STEP("printing end marker")
1199 
1200      if (_verbose) {
1201        st->print_cr("END.");
1202      }
1203 
1204   END
1205 
1206 # undef BEGIN
1207 # undef STEP
1208 # undef END
1209 }
1210 
1211 // Report for the vm_info_cmd. This prints out the information above omitting
1212 // crash and thread specific information.  If output is added above, it should be added
1213 // here also, if it is safe to call during a running process.
1214 void VMError::print_vm_info(outputStream* st) {
1215 
1216   char buf[O_BUFLEN];
1217   report_vm_version(st, buf, sizeof(buf));
1218 
1219   // STEP("printing summary")
1220 
1221   st->cr();
1222   st->print_cr("---------------  S U M M A R Y ------------");
1223   st->cr();
1224 
1225   // STEP("printing VM option summary")
1226 
1227   // VM options
1228   Arguments::print_summary_on(st);
1229   st->cr();
1230 
1231   // STEP("printing summary machine and OS info")
1232 
1233   os::print_summary_info(st, buf, sizeof(buf));
1234 
1235   // STEP("printing date and time")
1236 
1237   os::print_date_and_time(st, buf, sizeof(buf));
1238 
1239   // Skip: STEP("printing thread")
1240 
1241   // STEP("printing process")
1242 
1243   st->cr();
1244   st->print_cr("---------------  P R O C E S S  ---------------");
1245   st->cr();
1246 
1247   // STEP("printing number of OutOfMemoryError and StackOverflow exceptions")
1248 
1249   if (Exceptions::has_exception_counts()) {
1250     st->print_cr("OutOfMemory and StackOverflow Exception counts:");
1251     Exceptions::print_exception_counts_on_error(st);
1252     st->cr();
1253   }
1254 
1255 #ifdef _LP64
1256   // STEP("printing compressed oops mode")
1257   if (UseCompressedOops) {
1258     CompressedOops::print_mode(st);
1259     st->cr();
1260   }
1261 
1262   // STEP("printing compressed class ptrs mode")
1263   if (UseCompressedClassPointers) {
1264     CDS_ONLY(MetaspaceShared::print_on(st);)
1265     Metaspace::print_compressed_class_space(st);
1266     CompressedKlassPointers::print_mode(st);
1267     st->cr();
1268   }
1269 #endif
1270 
1271   // STEP("printing heap information")
1272 
1273   if (Universe::is_fully_initialized()) {
1274     MutexLocker hl(Heap_lock);
1275     GCLogPrecious::print_on_error(st);
1276     Universe::heap()->print_on_error(st);
1277     st->cr();
1278     st->print_cr("Polling page: " INTPTR_FORMAT, p2i(SafepointMechanism::get_polling_page()));
1279     st->cr();
1280   }
1281 
1282   // STEP("printing metaspace information")
1283 
1284   if (Universe::is_fully_initialized()) {
1285     st->print_cr("Metaspace:");
1286     MetaspaceUtils::print_basic_report(st, 0);
1287   }
1288 
1289   // STEP("printing code cache information")
1290 
1291   if (Universe::is_fully_initialized()) {
1292     // print code cache information before vm abort
1293     CodeCache::print_summary(st);
1294     st->cr();
1295   }
1296 
1297   // STEP("printing ring buffers")
1298 
1299   Events::print_all(st);
1300   st->cr();
1301 
1302   // STEP("printing dynamic libraries")
1303 
1304   // dynamic libraries, or memory map
1305   os::print_dll_info(st);
1306   st->cr();
1307 
1308   // STEP("printing VM options")
1309 
1310   // VM options
1311   Arguments::print_on(st);
1312   st->cr();
1313 
1314   // STEP("printing warning if internal testing API used")
1315 
1316   if (WhiteBox::used()) {
1317     st->print_cr("Unsupported internal testing APIs have been used.");
1318     st->cr();
1319   }
1320 
1321   // STEP("printing log configuration")
1322   st->print_cr("Logging:");
1323   LogConfiguration::describe(st);
1324   st->cr();
1325 
1326   // STEP("printing all environment variables")
1327 
1328   os::print_environment_variables(st, env_list);
1329   st->cr();
1330 
1331   // STEP("printing signal handlers")
1332 
1333   os::print_signal_handlers(st, buf, sizeof(buf));
1334   st->cr();
1335 
1336   // STEP("Native Memory Tracking")
1337 
1338   MemTracker::error_report(st);
1339 
1340   // STEP("printing system")
1341 
1342   st->cr();
1343   st->print_cr("---------------  S Y S T E M  ---------------");
1344   st->cr();
1345 
1346   // STEP("printing OS information")
1347 
1348   os::print_os_info(st);
1349   st->cr();
1350 
1351   // STEP("printing CPU info")
1352 
1353   os::print_cpu_info(st, buf, sizeof(buf));
1354   st->cr();
1355 
1356   // STEP("printing memory info")
1357 
1358   os::print_memory_info(st);
1359   st->cr();
1360 
1361   // STEP("printing internal vm info")
1362 
1363   st->print_cr("vm_info: %s", VM_Version::internal_vm_info_string());
1364   st->cr();
1365 
1366   // print a defined marker to show that error handling finished correctly.
1367   // STEP("printing end marker")
1368 
1369   st->print_cr("END.");
1370 }
1371 
1372 /** Expand a pattern into a buffer starting at pos and open a file using constructed path */
1373 static int expand_and_open(const char* pattern, bool overwrite_existing, char* buf, size_t buflen, size_t pos) {
1374   int fd = -1;
1375   int mode = O_RDWR | O_CREAT;
1376   if (overwrite_existing) {
1377     mode |= O_TRUNC;
1378   } else {
1379     mode |= O_EXCL;
1380   }
1381   if (Arguments::copy_expand_pid(pattern, strlen(pattern), &buf[pos], buflen - pos)) {
1382     fd = open(buf, mode, 0666);
1383   }
1384   return fd;
1385 }
1386 
1387 /**
1388  * Construct file name for a log file and return it's file descriptor.
1389  * Name and location depends on pattern, default_pattern params and access
1390  * permissions.
1391  */
1392 int VMError::prepare_log_file(const char* pattern, const char* default_pattern, bool overwrite_existing, char* buf, size_t buflen) {
1393   int fd = -1;
1394 
1395   // If possible, use specified pattern to construct log file name
1396   if (pattern != NULL) {
1397     fd = expand_and_open(pattern, overwrite_existing, buf, buflen, 0);
1398   }
1399 
1400   // Either user didn't specify, or the user's location failed,
1401   // so use the default name in the current directory
1402   if (fd == -1) {
1403     const char* cwd = os::get_current_directory(buf, buflen);
1404     if (cwd != NULL) {
1405       size_t pos = strlen(cwd);
1406       int fsep_len = jio_snprintf(&buf[pos], buflen-pos, "%s", os::file_separator());
1407       pos += fsep_len;
1408       if (fsep_len > 0) {
1409         fd = expand_and_open(default_pattern, overwrite_existing, buf, buflen, pos);
1410       }
1411     }
1412   }
1413 
1414    // try temp directory if it exists.
1415    if (fd == -1) {
1416      const char* tmpdir = os::get_temp_directory();
1417      if (tmpdir != NULL && strlen(tmpdir) > 0) {
1418        int pos = jio_snprintf(buf, buflen, "%s%s", tmpdir, os::file_separator());
1419        if (pos > 0) {
1420          fd = expand_and_open(default_pattern, overwrite_existing, buf, buflen, pos);
1421        }
1422      }
1423    }
1424 
1425   return fd;
1426 }
1427 
1428 void VMError::report_and_die(Thread* thread, unsigned int sig, address pc, void* siginfo,
1429                              void* context, const char* detail_fmt, ...)
1430 {
1431   va_list detail_args;
1432   va_start(detail_args, detail_fmt);
1433   report_and_die(sig, NULL, detail_fmt, detail_args, thread, pc, siginfo, context, NULL, 0, 0);
1434   va_end(detail_args);
1435 }
1436 
1437 void VMError::report_and_die(Thread* thread, unsigned int sig, address pc, void* siginfo, void* context)
1438 {
1439   report_and_die(thread, sig, pc, siginfo, context, "%s", "");
1440 }
1441 
1442 void VMError::report_and_die(Thread* thread, void* context, const char* filename, int lineno, const char* message,
1443                              const char* detail_fmt, va_list detail_args)
1444 {
1445   report_and_die(INTERNAL_ERROR, message, detail_fmt, detail_args, thread, NULL, NULL, context, filename, lineno, 0);
1446 }
1447 
1448 void VMError::report_and_die(Thread* thread, const char* filename, int lineno, size_t size,
1449                              VMErrorType vm_err_type, const char* detail_fmt, va_list detail_args) {
1450   report_and_die(vm_err_type, NULL, detail_fmt, detail_args, thread, NULL, NULL, NULL, filename, lineno, size);
1451 }
1452 
1453 void VMError::report_and_die(int id, const char* message, const char* detail_fmt, va_list detail_args,
1454                              Thread* thread, address pc, void* siginfo, void* context, const char* filename,
1455                              int lineno, size_t size)
1456 {
1457   // A single scratch buffer to be used from here on.
1458   // Do not rely on it being preserved across function calls.
1459   static char buffer[O_BUFLEN];
1460 
1461   // File descriptor to tty to print an error summary to.
1462   // Hard wired to stdout; see JDK-8215004 (compatibility concerns).
1463   static const int fd_out = 1; // stdout
1464 
1465   // File descriptor to the error log file.
1466   static int fd_log = -1;
1467 
1468 #ifdef CAN_SHOW_REGISTERS_ON_ASSERT
1469   // Disarm assertion poison page, since from this point on we do not need this mechanism anymore and it may
1470   // cause problems in error handling during native OOM, see JDK-8227275.
1471   disarm_assert_poison();
1472 #endif
1473 
1474   // Use local fdStream objects only. Do not use global instances whose initialization
1475   // relies on dynamic initialization (see JDK-8214975). Do not rely on these instances
1476   // to carry over into recursions or invocations from other threads.
1477   fdStream out(fd_out);
1478   out.set_scratch_buffer(buffer, sizeof(buffer));
1479 
1480   // Depending on the re-entrance depth at this point, fd_log may be -1 or point to an open hs-err file.
1481   fdStream log(fd_log);
1482   log.set_scratch_buffer(buffer, sizeof(buffer));
1483 
1484   // How many errors occurred in error handler when reporting first_error.
1485   static int recursive_error_count;
1486 
1487   // We will first print a brief message to standard out (verbose = false),
1488   // then save detailed information in log file (verbose = true).
1489   static bool out_done = false;         // done printing to standard out
1490   static bool log_done = false;         // done saving error log
1491 
1492   intptr_t mytid = os::current_thread_id();
1493   if (_first_error_tid == -1 &&
1494       Atomic::cmpxchg(&_first_error_tid, (intptr_t)-1, mytid) == -1) {
1495 
1496     if (SuppressFatalErrorMessage) {
1497       os::abort(CreateCoredumpOnCrash);
1498     }
1499 
1500     // Initialize time stamps to use the same base.
1501     out.time_stamp().update_to(1);
1502     log.time_stamp().update_to(1);
1503 
1504     _id = id;
1505     _message = message;
1506     _thread = thread;
1507     _pc = pc;
1508     _siginfo = siginfo;
1509     _context = context;
1510     _filename = filename;
1511     _lineno = lineno;
1512     _size = size;
1513     jio_vsnprintf(_detail_msg, sizeof(_detail_msg), detail_fmt, detail_args);
1514 
1515     reporting_started();
1516     if (!TestUnresponsiveErrorHandler) {
1517       // Record reporting_start_time unless we're running the
1518       // TestUnresponsiveErrorHandler test. For that test we record
1519       // reporting_start_time at the beginning of the test.
1520       record_reporting_start_time();
1521     } else {
1522       out.print_raw_cr("Delaying recording reporting_start_time for TestUnresponsiveErrorHandler.");
1523     }
1524 
1525     if (ShowMessageBoxOnError || PauseAtExit) {
1526       show_message_box(buffer, sizeof(buffer));
1527 
1528       // User has asked JVM to abort. Reset ShowMessageBoxOnError so the
1529       // WatcherThread can kill JVM if the error handler hangs.
1530       ShowMessageBoxOnError = false;
1531     }
1532 
1533     os::check_dump_limit(buffer, sizeof(buffer));
1534 
1535     // reset signal handlers or exception filter; make sure recursive crashes
1536     // are handled properly.
1537     install_secondary_signal_handler();
1538   } else {
1539 #if defined(_WINDOWS)
1540     // If UseOSErrorReporting we call this for each level of the call stack
1541     // while searching for the exception handler.  Only the first level needs
1542     // to be reported.
1543     if (UseOSErrorReporting && log_done) return;
1544 #endif
1545 
1546     // This is not the first error, see if it happened in a different thread
1547     // or in the same thread during error reporting.
1548     if (_first_error_tid != mytid) {
1549       if (!SuppressFatalErrorMessage) {
1550         char msgbuf[64];
1551         jio_snprintf(msgbuf, sizeof(msgbuf),
1552                      "[thread " INTX_FORMAT " also had an error]",
1553                      mytid);
1554         out.print_raw_cr(msgbuf);
1555       }
1556 
1557       // Error reporting is not MT-safe, nor can we let the current thread
1558       // proceed, so we block it.
1559       os::infinite_sleep();
1560 
1561     } else {
1562       if (recursive_error_count++ > 30) {
1563         if (!SuppressFatalErrorMessage) {
1564           out.print_raw_cr("[Too many errors, abort]");
1565         }
1566         os::die();
1567       }
1568 
1569       if (SuppressFatalErrorMessage) {
1570         // If we already hit a secondary error during abort, then calling
1571         // it again is likely to hit another one. But eventually, if we
1572         // don't deadlock somewhere, we will call os::die() above.
1573         os::abort(CreateCoredumpOnCrash);
1574       }
1575 
1576       outputStream* const st = log.is_open() ? &log : &out;
1577       st->cr();
1578 
1579       // Timeout handling.
1580       if (_step_did_timeout) {
1581         // The current step had a timeout. Lets continue reporting with the next step.
1582         st->print_raw("[timeout occurred during error reporting in step \"");
1583         st->print_raw(_current_step_info);
1584         st->print_cr("\"] after " INT64_FORMAT " s.",
1585                      (int64_t)
1586                      ((get_current_timestamp() - _step_start_time) / TIMESTAMP_TO_SECONDS_FACTOR));
1587       } else if (_reporting_did_timeout) {
1588         // We hit ErrorLogTimeout. Reporting will stop altogether. Let's wrap things
1589         // up, the process is about to be stopped by the WatcherThread.
1590         st->print_cr("------ Timeout during error reporting after " INT64_FORMAT " s. ------",
1591                      (int64_t)
1592                      ((get_current_timestamp() - _reporting_start_time) / TIMESTAMP_TO_SECONDS_FACTOR));
1593         st->flush();
1594         // Watcherthread is about to call os::die. Lets just wait.
1595         os::infinite_sleep();
1596       } else {
1597         // Crash or assert during error reporting. Lets continue reporting with the next step.
1598         stringStream ss(buffer, sizeof(buffer));
1599         // Note: this string does get parsed by a number of jtreg tests,
1600         // see hotspot/jtreg/runtime/ErrorHandling.
1601         ss.print("[error occurred during error reporting (%s), id 0x%x",
1602                    _current_step_info, id);
1603         char signal_name[64];
1604         if (os::exception_name(id, signal_name, sizeof(signal_name))) {
1605           ss.print(", %s (0x%x) at pc=" PTR_FORMAT, signal_name, id, p2i(pc));
1606         } else {
1607           if (should_report_bug(id)) {
1608             ss.print(", Internal Error (%s:%d)",
1609               filename == NULL ? "??" : filename, lineno);
1610           } else {
1611             ss.print(", Out of Memory Error (%s:%d)",
1612               filename == NULL ? "??" : filename, lineno);
1613           }
1614         }
1615         ss.print("]");
1616         st->print_raw_cr(buffer);
1617         st->cr();
1618       }
1619     }
1620   }
1621 
1622   // Part 1: print an abbreviated version (the '#' section) to stdout.
1623   if (!out_done) {
1624     // Suppress this output if we plan to print Part 2 to stdout too.
1625     // No need to have the "#" section twice.
1626     if (!(ErrorFileToStdout && out.fd() == 1)) {
1627       report(&out, false);
1628     }
1629 
1630     out_done = true;
1631 
1632     _current_step = 0;
1633     _current_step_info = "";
1634   }
1635 
1636   // Part 2: print a full error log file (optionally to stdout or stderr).
1637   // print to error log file
1638   if (!log_done) {
1639     // see if log file is already open
1640     if (!log.is_open()) {
1641       // open log file
1642       if (ErrorFileToStdout) {
1643         fd_log = 1;
1644       } else if (ErrorFileToStderr) {
1645         fd_log = 2;
1646       } else {
1647         fd_log = prepare_log_file(ErrorFile, "hs_err_pid%p.log", true,
1648                  buffer, sizeof(buffer));
1649         if (fd_log != -1) {
1650           out.print_raw("# An error report file with more information is saved as:\n# ");
1651           out.print_raw_cr(buffer);
1652         } else {
1653           out.print_raw_cr("# Can not save log file, dump to screen..");
1654           fd_log = 1;
1655         }
1656       }
1657       log.set_fd(fd_log);
1658     }
1659 
1660     report(&log, true);
1661     log_done = true;
1662     _current_step = 0;
1663     _current_step_info = "";
1664 
1665     if (fd_log > 3) {
1666       ::close(fd_log);
1667       fd_log = -1;
1668     }
1669 
1670     log.set_fd(-1);
1671   }
1672 
1673   JFR_ONLY(Jfr::on_vm_shutdown(true);)
1674 
1675   if (PrintNMTStatistics) {
1676     fdStream fds(fd_out);
1677     MemTracker::final_report(&fds);
1678   }
1679 
1680   static bool skip_replay = ReplayCompiles; // Do not overwrite file during replay
1681   if (DumpReplayDataOnError && _thread && _thread->is_Compiler_thread() && !skip_replay) {
1682     skip_replay = true;
1683     ciEnv* env = ciEnv::current();
1684     if (env != NULL) {
1685       const bool overwrite = false; // We do not overwrite an existing replay file.
1686       int fd = prepare_log_file(ReplayDataFile, "replay_pid%p.log", overwrite, buffer, sizeof(buffer));
1687       if (fd != -1) {
1688         FILE* replay_data_file = os::fdopen(fd, "w");
1689         if (replay_data_file != NULL) {
1690           fileStream replay_data_stream(replay_data_file, /*need_close=*/true);
1691           env->dump_replay_data_unsafe(&replay_data_stream);
1692           out.print_raw("#\n# Compiler replay data is saved as:\n# ");
1693           out.print_raw_cr(buffer);
1694         } else {
1695           int e = errno;
1696           out.print_raw("#\n# Can't open file to dump replay data. Error: ");
1697           out.print_raw_cr(os::strerror(e));
1698         }
1699       }
1700     }
1701   }
1702 
1703 #if INCLUDE_JVMCI
1704   if (JVMCI::fatal_log_filename() != NULL) {
1705     out.print_raw("#\n# The JVMCI shared library error report file is saved as:\n# ");
1706     out.print_raw_cr(JVMCI::fatal_log_filename());
1707   }
1708 #endif
1709 
1710   static bool skip_bug_url = !should_submit_bug_report(_id);
1711   if (!skip_bug_url) {
1712     skip_bug_url = true;
1713 
1714     out.print_raw_cr("#");
1715     print_bug_submit_message(&out, _thread);
1716   }
1717 
1718   static bool skip_OnError = false;
1719   if (!skip_OnError && OnError && OnError[0]) {
1720     skip_OnError = true;
1721 
1722     // Flush output and finish logs before running OnError commands.
1723     ostream_abort();
1724 
1725     out.print_raw_cr("#");
1726     out.print_raw   ("# -XX:OnError=\"");
1727     out.print_raw   (OnError);
1728     out.print_raw_cr("\"");
1729 
1730     char* cmd;
1731     const char* ptr = OnError;
1732     while ((cmd = next_OnError_command(buffer, sizeof(buffer), &ptr)) != NULL){
1733       out.print_raw   ("#   Executing ");
1734 #if defined(LINUX) || defined(_ALLBSD_SOURCE)
1735       out.print_raw   ("/bin/sh -c ");
1736 #elif defined(_WINDOWS)
1737       out.print_raw   ("cmd /C ");
1738 #endif
1739       out.print_raw   ("\"");
1740       out.print_raw   (cmd);
1741       out.print_raw_cr("\" ...");
1742 
1743       if (os::fork_and_exec(cmd) < 0) {
1744         out.print_cr("os::fork_and_exec failed: %s (%s=%d)",
1745                      os::strerror(errno), os::errno_name(errno), errno);
1746       }
1747     }
1748 
1749     // done with OnError
1750     OnError = NULL;
1751   }
1752 
1753   if (WINDOWS_ONLY(!UseOSErrorReporting) NOT_WINDOWS(true)) {
1754     // os::abort() will call abort hooks, try it first.
1755     static bool skip_os_abort = false;
1756     if (!skip_os_abort) {
1757       skip_os_abort = true;
1758       bool dump_core = should_report_bug(_id);
1759       os::abort(dump_core && CreateCoredumpOnCrash, _siginfo, _context);
1760     }
1761 
1762     // if os::abort() doesn't abort, try os::die();
1763     os::die();
1764   }
1765 }
1766 
1767 /*
1768  * OnOutOfMemoryError scripts/commands executed while VM is a safepoint - this
1769  * ensures utilities such as jmap can observe the process is a consistent state.
1770  */
1771 class VM_ReportJavaOutOfMemory : public VM_Operation {
1772  private:
1773   const char* _message;
1774  public:
1775   VM_ReportJavaOutOfMemory(const char* message) { _message = message; }
1776   VMOp_Type type() const                        { return VMOp_ReportJavaOutOfMemory; }
1777   void doit();
1778 };
1779 
1780 void VM_ReportJavaOutOfMemory::doit() {
1781   // Don't allocate large buffer on stack
1782   static char buffer[O_BUFLEN];
1783 
1784   tty->print_cr("#");
1785   tty->print_cr("# java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: %s", _message);
1786   tty->print_cr("# -XX:OnOutOfMemoryError=\"%s\"", OnOutOfMemoryError);
1787 
1788   // make heap parsability
1789   Universe::heap()->ensure_parsability(false);  // no need to retire TLABs
1790 
1791   char* cmd;
1792   const char* ptr = OnOutOfMemoryError;
1793   while ((cmd = next_OnError_command(buffer, sizeof(buffer), &ptr)) != NULL){
1794     tty->print("#   Executing ");
1795 #if defined(LINUX)
1796     tty->print  ("/bin/sh -c ");
1797 #endif
1798     tty->print_cr("\"%s\"...", cmd);
1799 
1800     if (os::fork_and_exec(cmd) < 0) {
1801       tty->print_cr("os::fork_and_exec failed: %s (%s=%d)",
1802                      os::strerror(errno), os::errno_name(errno), errno);
1803     }
1804   }
1805 }
1806 
1807 void VMError::report_java_out_of_memory(const char* message) {
1808   if (OnOutOfMemoryError && OnOutOfMemoryError[0]) {
1809     MutexLocker ml(Heap_lock);
1810     VM_ReportJavaOutOfMemory op(message);
1811     VMThread::execute(&op);
1812   }
1813 }
1814 
1815 void VMError::show_message_box(char *buf, int buflen) {
1816   bool yes;
1817   do {
1818     error_string(buf, buflen);
1819     yes = os::start_debugging(buf,buflen);
1820   } while (yes);
1821 }
1822 
1823 // Timeout handling: check if a timeout happened (either a single step did
1824 // timeout or the whole of error reporting hit ErrorLogTimeout). Interrupt
1825 // the reporting thread if that is the case.
1826 bool VMError::check_timeout() {
1827 
1828   if (ErrorLogTimeout == 0) {
1829     return false;
1830   }
1831 
1832   // Do not check for timeouts if we still have a message box to show to the
1833   // user or if there are OnError handlers to be run.
1834   if (ShowMessageBoxOnError
1835       || (OnError != NULL && OnError[0] != '\0')
1836       || Arguments::abort_hook() != NULL) {
1837     return false;
1838   }
1839 
1840   const jlong reporting_start_time_l = get_reporting_start_time();
1841   const jlong now = get_current_timestamp();
1842   // Timestamp is stored in nanos.
1843   if (reporting_start_time_l > 0) {
1844     const jlong end = reporting_start_time_l + (jlong)ErrorLogTimeout * TIMESTAMP_TO_SECONDS_FACTOR;
1845     if (end <= now && !_reporting_did_timeout) {
1846       // We hit ErrorLogTimeout and we haven't interrupted the reporting
1847       // thread yet.
1848       _reporting_did_timeout = true;
1849       interrupt_reporting_thread();
1850       return true; // global timeout
1851     }
1852   }
1853 
1854   const jlong step_start_time_l = get_step_start_time();
1855   if (step_start_time_l > 0) {
1856     // A step times out after a quarter of the total timeout. Steps are mostly fast unless they
1857     // hang for some reason, so this simple rule allows for three hanging step and still
1858     // hopefully leaves time enough for the rest of the steps to finish.
1859     const jlong end = step_start_time_l + (jlong)ErrorLogTimeout * TIMESTAMP_TO_SECONDS_FACTOR / 4;
1860     if (end <= now && !_step_did_timeout) {
1861       // The step timed out and we haven't interrupted the reporting
1862       // thread yet.
1863       _step_did_timeout = true;
1864       interrupt_reporting_thread();
1865       return false; // (Not a global timeout)
1866     }
1867   }
1868 
1869   return false;
1870 
1871 }
1872 
1873 #ifdef ASSERT
1874 typedef void (*voidfun_t)();
1875 
1876 // Crash with an authentic sigfpe
1877 volatile int sigfpe_int = 0;
1878 static void crash_with_sigfpe() {
1879 
1880   // generate a native synchronous SIGFPE where possible;
1881   sigfpe_int = sigfpe_int/sigfpe_int;
1882 
1883   // if that did not cause a signal (e.g. on ppc), just
1884   // raise the signal.
1885 #ifndef _WIN32
1886   // OSX implements raise(sig) incorrectly so we need to
1887   // explicitly target the current thread
1888   pthread_kill(pthread_self(), SIGFPE);
1889 #endif
1890 
1891 } // end: crash_with_sigfpe
1892 
1893 // crash with sigsegv at non-null address.
1894 static void crash_with_segfault() {
1895 
1896   int* crash_addr = reinterpret_cast<int*>(VMError::segfault_address);
1897   *crash_addr = 1;
1898 
1899 } // end: crash_with_segfault
1900 
1901 // crash in a controlled way:
1902 // 1  - assert
1903 // 2  - guarantee
1904 // 14 - SIGSEGV
1905 // 15 - SIGFPE
1906 void VMError::controlled_crash(int how) {
1907 
1908   // Case 14 is tested by test/hotspot/jtreg/runtime/ErrorHandling/SafeFetchInErrorHandlingTest.java.
1909   // Case 15 is tested by test/hotspot/jtreg/runtime/ErrorHandling/SecondaryErrorTest.java.
1910   // Case 16 is tested by test/hotspot/jtreg/runtime/ErrorHandling/ThreadsListHandleInErrorHandlingTest.java.
1911   // Case 17 is tested by test/hotspot/jtreg/runtime/ErrorHandling/NestedThreadsListHandleInErrorHandlingTest.java.
1912 
1913   // We try to grab Threads_lock to keep ThreadsSMRSupport::print_info_on()
1914   // from racing with Threads::add() or Threads::remove() as we
1915   // generate the hs_err_pid file. This makes our ErrorHandling tests
1916   // more stable.
1917   if (!Threads_lock->owned_by_self()) {
1918     Threads_lock->try_lock();
1919     // The VM is going to die so no need to unlock Thread_lock.
1920   }
1921 
1922   switch (how) {
1923     case 1: assert(how == 0, "test assert"); break;
1924     case 2: guarantee(how == 0, "test guarantee"); break;
1925 
1926     // The other cases are unused.
1927     case 14: crash_with_segfault(); break;
1928     case 15: crash_with_sigfpe(); break;
1929     case 16: {
1930       ThreadsListHandle tlh;
1931       fatal("Force crash with an active ThreadsListHandle.");
1932     }
1933     case 17: {
1934       ThreadsListHandle tlh;
1935       {
1936         ThreadsListHandle tlh2;
1937         fatal("Force crash with a nested ThreadsListHandle.");
1938       }
1939     }
1940     default:
1941       // If another number is given, give a generic crash.
1942       fatal("Crashing with number %d", how);
1943   }
1944   tty->print_cr("controlled_crash: survived intentional crash. Did you suppress the assert?");
1945   ShouldNotReachHere();
1946 }
1947 #endif // !ASSERT