1 /*
   2  * Copyright (c) 1997, 2022, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
   3  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   4  *
   5  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   6  * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   7  * published by the Free Software Foundation.
   8  *
   9  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  10  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  11  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  12  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  13  * accompanied this code).
  14  *
  15  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  16  * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  17  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  18  *
  19  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  20  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  21  * questions.
  22  *
  23  */
  24 
  25 #include "precompiled.hpp"
  26 #include "cds/archiveHeapLoader.hpp"
  27 #include "cds/dynamicArchive.hpp"
  28 #include "cds/heapShared.hpp"
  29 #include "cds/metaspaceShared.hpp"
  30 #include "classfile/classLoader.hpp"
  31 #include "classfile/classLoaderDataGraph.hpp"
  32 #include "classfile/javaClasses.hpp"
  33 #include "classfile/stringTable.hpp"
  34 #include "classfile/symbolTable.hpp"
  35 #include "classfile/systemDictionary.hpp"
  36 #include "classfile/vmClasses.hpp"
  37 #include "classfile/vmSymbols.hpp"
  38 #include "code/codeBehaviours.hpp"
  39 #include "code/codeCache.hpp"
  40 #include "compiler/oopMap.hpp"
  41 #include "gc/shared/collectedHeap.inline.hpp"
  42 #include "gc/shared/gcArguments.hpp"
  43 #include "gc/shared/gcConfig.hpp"
  44 #include "gc/shared/gcLogPrecious.hpp"
  45 #include "gc/shared/gcTraceTime.inline.hpp"
  46 #include "gc/shared/oopStorageSet.hpp"
  47 #include "gc/shared/plab.hpp"
  48 #include "gc/shared/stringdedup/stringDedup.hpp"
  49 #include "gc/shared/tlab_globals.hpp"
  50 #include "logging/log.hpp"
  51 #include "logging/logStream.hpp"
  52 #include "memory/metadataFactory.hpp"
  53 #include "memory/metaspaceClosure.hpp"
  54 #include "memory/metaspaceCounters.hpp"
  55 #include "memory/metaspaceUtils.hpp"
  56 #include "memory/oopFactory.hpp"
  57 #include "memory/resourceArea.hpp"
  58 #include "memory/universe.hpp"
  59 #include "oops/compressedOops.hpp"
  60 #include "oops/instanceKlass.hpp"
  61 #include "oops/instanceMirrorKlass.hpp"
  62 #include "oops/klass.inline.hpp"
  63 #include "oops/objArrayOop.inline.hpp"
  64 #include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
  65 #include "oops/oopHandle.inline.hpp"
  66 #include "oops/typeArrayKlass.hpp"
  67 #include "prims/resolvedMethodTable.hpp"
  68 #include "runtime/arguments.hpp"
  69 #include "runtime/atomic.hpp"
  70 #include "runtime/flags/jvmFlagLimit.hpp"
  71 #include "runtime/handles.inline.hpp"
  72 #include "runtime/init.hpp"
  73 #include "runtime/java.hpp"
  74 #include "runtime/javaThread.hpp"
  75 #include "runtime/jniHandles.hpp"
  76 #include "runtime/threads.hpp"
  77 #include "runtime/timerTrace.hpp"
  78 #include "services/memoryService.hpp"
  79 #include "utilities/align.hpp"
  80 #include "utilities/autoRestore.hpp"
  81 #include "utilities/debug.hpp"
  82 #include "utilities/formatBuffer.hpp"
  83 #include "utilities/macros.hpp"
  84 #include "utilities/ostream.hpp"
  85 #include "utilities/preserveException.hpp"
  86 
  87 // Known objects
  88 Klass* Universe::_typeArrayKlassObjs[T_LONG+1]        = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
  89 Klass* Universe::_objectArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  90 Klass* Universe::_fillerArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  91 OopHandle Universe::_mirrors[T_VOID+1];
  92 
  93 OopHandle Universe::_main_thread_group;
  94 OopHandle Universe::_system_thread_group;
  95 OopHandle Universe::_the_empty_class_array;
  96 OopHandle Universe::_the_null_string;
  97 OopHandle Universe::_the_min_jint_string;
  98 
  99 OopHandle Universe::_the_null_sentinel;
 100 
 101 // _out_of_memory_errors is an objArray
 102 enum OutOfMemoryInstance { _oom_java_heap,
 103                            _oom_c_heap,
 104                            _oom_metaspace,
 105                            _oom_class_metaspace,
 106                            _oom_array_size,
 107                            _oom_gc_overhead_limit,
 108                            _oom_realloc_objects,
 109                            _oom_retry,
 110                            _oom_count };
 111 
 112 OopHandle Universe::_out_of_memory_errors;
 113 OopHandle Universe::_delayed_stack_overflow_error_message;
 114 OopHandle Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array;
 115 volatile jint Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = 0;
 116 
 117 // Message details for OOME objects, preallocate these objects since they could be
 118 // used when throwing OOME, we should try to avoid further allocation in such case
 119 OopHandle Universe::_msg_metaspace;
 120 OopHandle Universe::_msg_class_metaspace;
 121 
 122 OopHandle Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance;
 123 OopHandle Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance;
 124 OopHandle Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance;
 125 
 126 OopHandle Universe::_reference_pending_list;
 127 
 128 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_array_interfaces_array = NULL;
 129 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = NULL;
 130 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = NULL;
 131 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache = NULL;
 132 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_throw_no_such_method_error_cache = NULL;
 133 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_do_stack_walk_cache     = NULL;
 134 
 135 long Universe::verify_flags                           = Universe::Verify_All;
 136 
 137 Array<int>* Universe::_the_empty_int_array            = NULL;
 138 Array<u2>* Universe::_the_empty_short_array           = NULL;
 139 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_empty_klass_array     = NULL;
 140 Array<InstanceKlass*>* Universe::_the_empty_instance_klass_array  = NULL;
 141 Array<Method*>* Universe::_the_empty_method_array   = NULL;
 142 
 143 // These variables are guarded by FullGCALot_lock.
 144 debug_only(OopHandle Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_array;)
 145 debug_only(int Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_next = 0;)
 146 
 147 // Heap
 148 int             Universe::_verify_count = 0;
 149 
 150 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
 151 uintptr_t       Universe::_verify_oop_mask = 0;
 152 uintptr_t       Universe::_verify_oop_bits = (uintptr_t) -1;
 153 
 154 int             Universe::_base_vtable_size = 0;
 155 bool            Universe::_bootstrapping = false;
 156 bool            Universe::_module_initialized = false;
 157 bool            Universe::_fully_initialized = false;
 158 
 159 OopStorage*     Universe::_vm_weak = NULL;
 160 OopStorage*     Universe::_vm_global = NULL;
 161 
 162 CollectedHeap*  Universe::_collectedHeap = NULL;
 163 
 164 objArrayOop Universe::the_empty_class_array ()  {
 165   return (objArrayOop)_the_empty_class_array.resolve();
 166 }
 167 
 168 oop Universe::main_thread_group()                 { return _main_thread_group.resolve(); }
 169 void Universe::set_main_thread_group(oop group)   { _main_thread_group = OopHandle(vm_global(), group); }
 170 
 171 oop Universe::system_thread_group()               { return _system_thread_group.resolve(); }
 172 void Universe::set_system_thread_group(oop group) { _system_thread_group = OopHandle(vm_global(), group); }
 173 
 174 oop Universe::the_null_string()                   { return _the_null_string.resolve(); }
 175 oop Universe::the_min_jint_string()               { return _the_min_jint_string.resolve(); }
 176 
 177 oop Universe::null_ptr_exception_instance()       { return _null_ptr_exception_instance.resolve(); }
 178 oop Universe::arithmetic_exception_instance()     { return _arithmetic_exception_instance.resolve(); }
 179 oop Universe::virtual_machine_error_instance()    { return _virtual_machine_error_instance.resolve(); }
 180 
 181 oop Universe::the_null_sentinel()                 { return _the_null_sentinel.resolve(); }
 182 
 183 oop Universe::int_mirror()                        { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_INT].resolve()); }
 184 oop Universe::float_mirror()                      { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_FLOAT].resolve()); }
 185 oop Universe::double_mirror()                     { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_DOUBLE].resolve()); }
 186 oop Universe::byte_mirror()                       { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_BYTE].resolve()); }
 187 oop Universe::bool_mirror()                       { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_BOOLEAN].resolve()); }
 188 oop Universe::char_mirror()                       { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_CHAR].resolve()); }
 189 oop Universe::long_mirror()                       { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_LONG].resolve()); }
 190 oop Universe::short_mirror()                      { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_SHORT].resolve()); }
 191 oop Universe::void_mirror()                       { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_VOID].resolve()); }
 192 
 193 oop Universe::java_mirror(BasicType t) {
 194   assert((uint)t < T_VOID+1, "range check");
 195   return check_mirror(_mirrors[t].resolve());
 196 }
 197 
 198 // Used by CDS dumping
 199 void Universe::replace_mirror(BasicType t, oop new_mirror) {
 200   Universe::_mirrors[t].replace(new_mirror);
 201 }
 202 
 203 void Universe::basic_type_classes_do(KlassClosure *closure) {
 204   for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 205     closure->do_klass(_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 206   }
 207   // We don't do the following because it will confuse JVMTI.
 208   // _fillerArrayKlassObj is used only by GC, which doesn't need to see
 209   // this klass from basic_type_classes_do().
 210   //
 211   // closure->do_klass(_fillerArrayKlassObj);
 212 }
 213 
 214 void LatestMethodCache::metaspace_pointers_do(MetaspaceClosure* it) {
 215   it->push(&_klass);
 216 }
 217 
 218 void Universe::metaspace_pointers_do(MetaspaceClosure* it) {
 219   it->push(&_fillerArrayKlassObj);
 220   for (int i = 0; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 221     it->push(&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 222   }
 223   it->push(&_objectArrayKlassObj);
 224 
 225   it->push(&_the_empty_int_array);
 226   it->push(&_the_empty_short_array);
 227   it->push(&_the_empty_klass_array);
 228   it->push(&_the_empty_instance_klass_array);
 229   it->push(&_the_empty_method_array);
 230   it->push(&_the_array_interfaces_array);
 231 
 232   _finalizer_register_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 233   _loader_addClass_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 234   _throw_illegal_access_error_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 235   _throw_no_such_method_error_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 236   _do_stack_walk_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 237 }
 238 
 239 // Serialize metadata and pointers to primitive type mirrors in and out of CDS archive
 240 void Universe::serialize(SerializeClosure* f) {
 241 
 242 #if INCLUDE_CDS_JAVA_HEAP
 243   {
 244     oop mirror_oop;
 245     for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 246       if (f->reading()) {
 247         f->do_oop(&mirror_oop); // read from archive
 248         assert(oopDesc::is_oop_or_null(mirror_oop), "is oop");
 249         // Only create an OopHandle for non-null mirrors
 250         if (mirror_oop != NULL) {
 251           _mirrors[i] = OopHandle(vm_global(), mirror_oop);
 252         }
 253       } else {
 254         if (HeapShared::can_write()) {
 255           mirror_oop = _mirrors[i].resolve();
 256         } else {
 257           mirror_oop = NULL;
 258         }
 259         f->do_oop(&mirror_oop); // write to archive
 260       }
 261       if (mirror_oop != NULL) { // may be null if archived heap is disabled
 262         java_lang_Class::update_archived_primitive_mirror_native_pointers(mirror_oop);
 263       }
 264     }
 265   }
 266 #endif
 267 
 268   f->do_ptr((void**)&_fillerArrayKlassObj);
 269   for (int i = 0; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 270     f->do_ptr((void**)&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 271   }
 272 
 273   f->do_ptr((void**)&_objectArrayKlassObj);
 274   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_array_interfaces_array);
 275   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_int_array);
 276   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_short_array);
 277   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_method_array);
 278   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_klass_array);
 279   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_instance_klass_array);
 280   _finalizer_register_cache->serialize(f);
 281   _loader_addClass_cache->serialize(f);
 282   _throw_illegal_access_error_cache->serialize(f);
 283   _throw_no_such_method_error_cache->serialize(f);
 284   _do_stack_walk_cache->serialize(f);
 285 }
 286 
 287 
 288 void Universe::check_alignment(uintx size, uintx alignment, const char* name) {
 289   if (size < alignment || size % alignment != 0) {
 290     vm_exit_during_initialization(
 291       err_msg("Size of %s (" UINTX_FORMAT " bytes) must be aligned to " UINTX_FORMAT " bytes", name, size, alignment));
 292   }
 293 }
 294 
 295 void initialize_basic_type_klass(Klass* k, TRAPS) {
 296   Klass* ok = vmClasses::Object_klass();
 297 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 298   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 299     ClassLoaderData* loader_data = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 300     assert(k->super() == ok, "u3");
 301     if (k->is_instance_klass()) {
 302       InstanceKlass::cast(k)->restore_unshareable_info(loader_data, Handle(), NULL, CHECK);
 303     } else {
 304       ArrayKlass::cast(k)->restore_unshareable_info(loader_data, Handle(), CHECK);
 305     }
 306   } else
 307 #endif
 308   {
 309     k->initialize_supers(ok, NULL, CHECK);
 310   }
 311   k->append_to_sibling_list();
 312 }
 313 
 314 void Universe::genesis(TRAPS) {
 315   ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
 316   HandleMark   hm(THREAD);
 317 
 318   { AutoModifyRestore<bool> temporarily(_bootstrapping, true);
 319 
 320     { MutexLocker mc(THREAD, Compile_lock);
 321 
 322       java_lang_Class::allocate_fixup_lists();
 323 
 324       // determine base vtable size; without that we cannot create the array klasses
 325       compute_base_vtable_size();
 326 
 327       if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 328         // Initialization of the fillerArrayKlass must come before regular
 329         // int-TypeArrayKlass so that the int-Array mirror points to the
 330         // int-TypeArrayKlass.
 331         _fillerArrayKlassObj = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_INT, "Ljdk/internal/vm/FillerArray;", CHECK);
 332         for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 333           _typeArrayKlassObjs[i] = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass((BasicType)i, CHECK);
 334         }
 335 
 336         ClassLoaderData* null_cld = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 337 
 338         _the_array_interfaces_array     = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 2, NULL, CHECK);
 339         _the_empty_int_array            = MetadataFactory::new_array<int>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 340         _the_empty_short_array          = MetadataFactory::new_array<u2>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 341         _the_empty_method_array         = MetadataFactory::new_array<Method*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 342         _the_empty_klass_array          = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 343         _the_empty_instance_klass_array = MetadataFactory::new_array<InstanceKlass*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 344       }
 345     }
 346 
 347     vmSymbols::initialize();
 348 
 349     SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK);
 350 
 351     // Create string constants
 352     oop s = StringTable::intern("null", CHECK);
 353     _the_null_string = OopHandle(vm_global(), s);
 354     s = StringTable::intern("-2147483648", CHECK);
 355     _the_min_jint_string = OopHandle(vm_global(), s);
 356 
 357 
 358 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 359     if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 360       // Verify shared interfaces array.
 361       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(0) ==
 362              vmClasses::Cloneable_klass(), "u3");
 363       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(1) ==
 364              vmClasses::Serializable_klass(), "u3");
 365     } else
 366 #endif
 367     {
 368       // Set up shared interfaces array.  (Do this before supers are set up.)
 369       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(0, vmClasses::Cloneable_klass());
 370       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(1, vmClasses::Serializable_klass());
 371     }
 372 
 373     initialize_basic_type_klass(_fillerArrayKlassObj, CHECK);
 374 
 375     initialize_basic_type_klass(boolArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 376     initialize_basic_type_klass(charArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 377     initialize_basic_type_klass(floatArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 378     initialize_basic_type_klass(doubleArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 379     initialize_basic_type_klass(byteArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 380     initialize_basic_type_klass(shortArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 381     initialize_basic_type_klass(intArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 382     initialize_basic_type_klass(longArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 383 
 384     assert(_fillerArrayKlassObj != intArrayKlassObj(),
 385            "Internal filler array klass should be different to int array Klass");
 386   } // end of core bootstrapping
 387 
 388   {
 389     Handle tns = java_lang_String::create_from_str("<null_sentinel>", CHECK);
 390     _the_null_sentinel = OopHandle(vm_global(), tns());
 391   }
 392 
 393   // Create a handle for reference_pending_list
 394   _reference_pending_list = OopHandle(vm_global(), NULL);
 395 
 396   // Maybe this could be lifted up now that object array can be initialized
 397   // during the bootstrapping.
 398 
 399   // OLD
 400   // Initialize _objectArrayKlass after core bootstraping to make
 401   // sure the super class is set up properly for _objectArrayKlass.
 402   // ---
 403   // NEW
 404   // Since some of the old system object arrays have been converted to
 405   // ordinary object arrays, _objectArrayKlass will be loaded when
 406   // SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK); is run. See the extra check
 407   // for Object_klass_loaded in objArrayKlassKlass::allocate_objArray_klass_impl.
 408   _objectArrayKlassObj = InstanceKlass::
 409     cast(vmClasses::Object_klass())->array_klass(1, CHECK);
 410   // OLD
 411   // Add the class to the class hierarchy manually to make sure that
 412   // its vtable is initialized after core bootstrapping is completed.
 413   // ---
 414   // New
 415   // Have already been initialized.
 416   _objectArrayKlassObj->append_to_sibling_list();
 417 
 418   #ifdef ASSERT
 419   if (FullGCALot) {
 420     // Allocate an array of dummy objects.
 421     // We'd like these to be at the bottom of the old generation,
 422     // so that when we free one and then collect,
 423     // (almost) the whole heap moves
 424     // and we find out if we actually update all the oops correctly.
 425     // But we can't allocate directly in the old generation,
 426     // so we allocate wherever, and hope that the first collection
 427     // moves these objects to the bottom of the old generation.
 428     int size = FullGCALotDummies * 2;
 429 
 430     objArrayOop    naked_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(vmClasses::Object_klass(), size, CHECK);
 431     objArrayHandle dummy_array(THREAD, naked_array);
 432     int i = 0;
 433     while (i < size) {
 434         // Allocate dummy in old generation
 435       oop dummy = vmClasses::Object_klass()->allocate_instance(CHECK);
 436       dummy_array->obj_at_put(i++, dummy);
 437     }
 438     {
 439       // Only modify the global variable inside the mutex.
 440       // If we had a race to here, the other dummy_array instances
 441       // and their elements just get dropped on the floor, which is fine.
 442       MutexLocker ml(THREAD, FullGCALot_lock);
 443       if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_array.is_empty()) {
 444         _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = OopHandle(vm_global(), dummy_array());
 445       }
 446     }
 447     assert(i == ((objArrayOop)_fullgc_alot_dummy_array.resolve())->length(), "just checking");
 448   }
 449   #endif
 450 }
 451 
 452 void Universe::initialize_basic_type_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 453 #if INCLUDE_CDS_JAVA_HEAP
 454     if (UseSharedSpaces &&
 455         ArchiveHeapLoader::are_archived_mirrors_available() &&
 456         _mirrors[T_INT].resolve() != NULL) {
 457       assert(ArchiveHeapLoader::can_use(), "Sanity");
 458 
 459       // check that all mirrors are mapped also
 460       for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 461         if (!is_reference_type((BasicType)i)) {
 462           oop m = _mirrors[i].resolve();
 463           assert(m != NULL, "archived mirrors should not be NULL");
 464         }
 465       }
 466     } else
 467       // _mirror[T_INT} could be NULL if archived heap is not mapped.
 468 #endif
 469     {
 470       for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 471         BasicType bt = (BasicType)i;
 472         if (!is_reference_type(bt)) {
 473           oop m = java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror(type2name(bt), bt, CHECK);
 474           _mirrors[i] = OopHandle(vm_global(), m);
 475         }
 476       }
 477     }
 478 }
 479 
 480 void Universe::fixup_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 481   // Bootstrap problem: all classes gets a mirror (java.lang.Class instance) assigned eagerly,
 482   // but we cannot do that for classes created before java.lang.Class is loaded. Here we simply
 483   // walk over permanent objects created so far (mostly classes) and fixup their mirrors. Note
 484   // that the number of objects allocated at this point is very small.
 485   assert(vmClasses::Class_klass_loaded(), "java.lang.Class should be loaded");
 486   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 487 
 488   if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 489     // Cache the start of the static fields
 490     InstanceMirrorKlass::init_offset_of_static_fields();
 491   }
 492 
 493   GrowableArray <Klass*>* list = java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 494   int list_length = list->length();
 495   for (int i = 0; i < list_length; i++) {
 496     Klass* k = list->at(i);
 497     assert(k->is_klass(), "List should only hold classes");
 498     java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror(k, CATCH);
 499   }
 500   delete java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 501   java_lang_Class::set_fixup_mirror_list(NULL);
 502 }
 503 
 504 #define assert_pll_locked(test) \
 505   assert(Heap_lock->test(), "Reference pending list access requires lock")
 506 
 507 #define assert_pll_ownership() assert_pll_locked(owned_by_self)
 508 
 509 oop Universe::reference_pending_list() {
 510   if (Thread::current()->is_VM_thread()) {
 511     assert_pll_locked(is_locked);
 512   } else {
 513     assert_pll_ownership();
 514   }
 515   return _reference_pending_list.resolve();
 516 }
 517 
 518 void Universe::clear_reference_pending_list() {
 519   assert_pll_ownership();
 520   _reference_pending_list.replace(NULL);
 521 }
 522 
 523 bool Universe::has_reference_pending_list() {
 524   assert_pll_ownership();
 525   return _reference_pending_list.peek() != NULL;
 526 }
 527 
 528 oop Universe::swap_reference_pending_list(oop list) {
 529   assert_pll_locked(is_locked);
 530   return _reference_pending_list.xchg(list);
 531 }
 532 
 533 #undef assert_pll_locked
 534 #undef assert_pll_ownership
 535 
 536 static void reinitialize_vtables() {
 537   // The vtables are initialized by starting at java.lang.Object and
 538   // initializing through the subclass links, so that the super
 539   // classes are always initialized first.
 540   for (ClassHierarchyIterator iter(vmClasses::Object_klass()); !iter.done(); iter.next()) {
 541     Klass* sub = iter.klass();
 542     sub->vtable().initialize_vtable();
 543   }
 544 }
 545 
 546 static void reinitialize_itables() {
 547 
 548   class ReinitTableClosure : public KlassClosure {
 549    public:
 550     void do_klass(Klass* k) {
 551       if (k->is_instance_klass()) {
 552          InstanceKlass::cast(k)->itable().initialize_itable();
 553       }
 554     }
 555   };
 556 
 557   MutexLocker mcld(ClassLoaderDataGraph_lock);
 558   ReinitTableClosure cl;
 559   ClassLoaderDataGraph::classes_do(&cl);
 560 }
 561 
 562 bool Universe::on_page_boundary(void* addr) {
 563   return is_aligned(addr, os::vm_page_size());
 564 }
 565 
 566 // the array of preallocated errors with backtraces
 567 objArrayOop Universe::preallocated_out_of_memory_errors() {
 568   return (objArrayOop)_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array.resolve();
 569 }
 570 
 571 objArrayOop Universe::out_of_memory_errors() { return (objArrayOop)_out_of_memory_errors.resolve(); }
 572 
 573 oop Universe::out_of_memory_error_java_heap() {
 574   return gen_out_of_memory_error(out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(_oom_java_heap));
 575 }
 576 
 577 oop Universe::out_of_memory_error_c_heap() {
 578   return gen_out_of_memory_error(out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(_oom_c_heap));
 579 }
 580 
 581 oop Universe::out_of_memory_error_metaspace() {
 582   return gen_out_of_memory_error(out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(_oom_metaspace));
 583 }
 584 
 585 oop Universe::out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace() {
 586   return gen_out_of_memory_error(out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(_oom_class_metaspace));
 587 }
 588 
 589 oop Universe::out_of_memory_error_array_size() {
 590   return gen_out_of_memory_error(out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(_oom_array_size));
 591 }
 592 
 593 oop Universe::out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit() {
 594   return gen_out_of_memory_error(out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(_oom_gc_overhead_limit));
 595 }
 596 
 597 oop Universe::out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects() {
 598   return gen_out_of_memory_error(out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(_oom_realloc_objects));
 599 }
 600 
 601 // Throw default _out_of_memory_error_retry object as it will never propagate out of the VM
 602 oop Universe::out_of_memory_error_retry()              { return out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(_oom_retry);  }
 603 oop Universe::delayed_stack_overflow_error_message()   { return _delayed_stack_overflow_error_message.resolve(); }
 604 
 605 
 606 bool Universe::should_fill_in_stack_trace(Handle throwable) {
 607   // never attempt to fill in the stack trace of preallocated errors that do not have
 608   // backtrace. These errors are kept alive forever and may be "re-used" when all
 609   // preallocated errors with backtrace have been consumed. Also need to avoid
 610   // a potential loop which could happen if an out of memory occurs when attempting
 611   // to allocate the backtrace.
 612   objArrayOop preallocated_oom = out_of_memory_errors();
 613   for (int i = 0; i < _oom_count; i++) {
 614     if (throwable() == preallocated_oom->obj_at(i)) {
 615       return false;
 616     }
 617   }
 618   return true;
 619 }
 620 
 621 
 622 oop Universe::gen_out_of_memory_error(oop default_err) {
 623   // generate an out of memory error:
 624   // - if there is a preallocated error and stack traces are available
 625   //   (j.l.Throwable is initialized), then return the preallocated
 626   //   error with a filled in stack trace, and with the message
 627   //   provided by the default error.
 628   // - otherwise, return the default error, without a stack trace.
 629   int next;
 630   if ((_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count > 0) &&
 631       vmClasses::Throwable_klass()->is_initialized()) {
 632     next = (int)Atomic::add(&_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count, -1);
 633     assert(next < (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount, "avail count is corrupt");
 634   } else {
 635     next = -1;
 636   }
 637   if (next < 0) {
 638     // all preallocated errors have been used.
 639     // return default
 640     return default_err;
 641   } else {
 642     JavaThread* current = JavaThread::current();
 643     Handle default_err_h(current, default_err);
 644     // get the error object at the slot and set set it to NULL so that the
 645     // array isn't keeping it alive anymore.
 646     Handle exc(current, preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(next));
 647     assert(exc() != NULL, "slot has been used already");
 648     preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at_put(next, NULL);
 649 
 650     // use the message from the default error
 651     oop msg = java_lang_Throwable::message(default_err_h());
 652     assert(msg != NULL, "no message");
 653     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(exc(), msg);
 654 
 655     // populate the stack trace and return it.
 656     java_lang_Throwable::fill_in_stack_trace_of_preallocated_backtrace(exc);
 657     return exc();
 658   }
 659 }
 660 
 661 bool Universe::is_out_of_memory_error_metaspace(oop ex_obj) {
 662   return java_lang_Throwable::message(ex_obj) == _msg_metaspace.resolve();
 663 }
 664 
 665 bool Universe::is_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace(oop ex_obj) {
 666   return java_lang_Throwable::message(ex_obj) == _msg_class_metaspace.resolve();
 667 }
 668 
 669 // Setup preallocated OutOfMemoryError errors
 670 void Universe::create_preallocated_out_of_memory_errors(TRAPS) {
 671   InstanceKlass* ik = vmClasses::OutOfMemoryError_klass();
 672   objArrayOop oa = oopFactory::new_objArray(ik, _oom_count, CHECK);
 673   objArrayHandle oom_array(THREAD, oa);
 674 
 675   for (int i = 0; i < _oom_count; i++) {
 676     oop oom_obj = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK);
 677     oom_array->obj_at_put(i, oom_obj);
 678   }
 679   _out_of_memory_errors = OopHandle(vm_global(), oom_array());
 680 
 681   Handle msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space", CHECK);
 682   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oom_array->obj_at(_oom_java_heap), msg());
 683 
 684   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("C heap space", CHECK);
 685   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oom_array->obj_at(_oom_c_heap), msg());
 686 
 687   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Metaspace", CHECK);
 688   _msg_metaspace = OopHandle(vm_global(), msg());
 689   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oom_array->obj_at(_oom_metaspace), msg());
 690 
 691   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Compressed class space", CHECK);
 692   _msg_class_metaspace = OopHandle(vm_global(), msg());
 693   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oom_array->obj_at(_oom_class_metaspace), msg());
 694 
 695   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Requested array size exceeds VM limit", CHECK);
 696   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oom_array->obj_at(_oom_array_size), msg());
 697 
 698   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("GC overhead limit exceeded", CHECK);
 699   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oom_array->obj_at(_oom_gc_overhead_limit), msg());
 700 
 701   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space: failed reallocation of scalar replaced objects", CHECK);
 702   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oom_array->obj_at(_oom_realloc_objects), msg());
 703 
 704   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space: failed retryable allocation", CHECK);
 705   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oom_array->obj_at(_oom_retry), msg());
 706 
 707   // Setup the array of errors that have preallocated backtrace
 708   int len = (StackTraceInThrowable) ? (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount : 0;
 709   objArrayOop instance = oopFactory::new_objArray(ik, len, CHECK);
 710   _preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array = OopHandle(vm_global(), instance);
 711   objArrayHandle preallocated_oom_array(THREAD, instance);
 712 
 713   for (int i=0; i<len; i++) {
 714     oop err = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK);
 715     Handle err_h(THREAD, err);
 716     java_lang_Throwable::allocate_backtrace(err_h, CHECK);
 717     preallocated_oom_array->obj_at_put(i, err_h());
 718   }
 719   _preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = (jint)len;
 720 }
 721 
 722 intptr_t Universe::_non_oop_bits = 0;
 723 
 724 void* Universe::non_oop_word() {
 725   // Neither the high bits nor the low bits of this value is allowed
 726   // to look like (respectively) the high or low bits of a real oop.
 727   //
 728   // High and low are CPU-specific notions, but low always includes
 729   // the low-order bit.  Since oops are always aligned at least mod 4,
 730   // setting the low-order bit will ensure that the low half of the
 731   // word will never look like that of a real oop.
 732   //
 733   // Using the OS-supplied non-memory-address word (usually 0 or -1)
 734   // will take care of the high bits, however many there are.
 735 
 736   if (_non_oop_bits == 0) {
 737     _non_oop_bits = (intptr_t)os::non_memory_address_word() | 1;
 738   }
 739 
 740   return (void*)_non_oop_bits;
 741 }
 742 
 743 bool Universe::contains_non_oop_word(void* p) {
 744   return *(void**)p == non_oop_word();
 745 }
 746 
 747 static void initialize_global_behaviours() {
 748   CompiledICProtectionBehaviour::set_current(new DefaultICProtectionBehaviour());
 749 }
 750 
 751 jint universe_init() {
 752   assert(!Universe::_fully_initialized, "called after initialize_vtables");
 753   guarantee(1 << LogHeapWordSize == sizeof(HeapWord),
 754          "LogHeapWordSize is incorrect.");
 755   guarantee(sizeof(oop) >= sizeof(HeapWord), "HeapWord larger than oop?");
 756   guarantee(sizeof(oop) % sizeof(HeapWord) == 0,
 757             "oop size is not not a multiple of HeapWord size");
 758 
 759   TraceTime timer("Genesis", TRACETIME_LOG(Info, startuptime));
 760 
 761   initialize_global_behaviours();
 762 
 763   GCLogPrecious::initialize();
 764 
 765 #ifdef _LP64
 766   MetaspaceShared::adjust_heap_sizes_for_dumping();
 767 #endif // _LP64
 768 
 769   GCConfig::arguments()->initialize_heap_sizes();
 770 
 771   jint status = Universe::initialize_heap();
 772   if (status != JNI_OK) {
 773     return status;
 774   }
 775 
 776   Universe::initialize_tlab();
 777 
 778   Metaspace::global_initialize();
 779 
 780   // Initialize performance counters for metaspaces
 781   MetaspaceCounters::initialize_performance_counters();
 782 
 783   // Checks 'AfterMemoryInit' constraints.
 784   if (!JVMFlagLimit::check_all_constraints(JVMFlagConstraintPhase::AfterMemoryInit)) {
 785     return JNI_EINVAL;
 786   }
 787 
 788   // Create memory for metadata.  Must be after initializing heap for
 789   // DumpSharedSpaces.
 790   ClassLoaderData::init_null_class_loader_data();
 791 
 792   // We have a heap so create the Method* caches before
 793   // Metaspace::initialize_shared_spaces() tries to populate them.
 794   Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 795   Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = new LatestMethodCache();
 796   Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 797   Universe::_throw_no_such_method_error_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 798   Universe::_do_stack_walk_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 799 
 800 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 801   DynamicArchive::check_for_dynamic_dump();
 802   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 803     // Read the data structures supporting the shared spaces (shared
 804     // system dictionary, symbol table, etc.).  After that, access to
 805     // the file (other than the mapped regions) is no longer needed, and
 806     // the file is closed. Closing the file does not affect the
 807     // currently mapped regions.
 808     MetaspaceShared::initialize_shared_spaces();
 809     StringTable::create_table();
 810     if (ArchiveHeapLoader::is_loaded()) {
 811       StringTable::transfer_shared_strings_to_local_table();
 812     }
 813   } else
 814 #endif
 815   {
 816     SymbolTable::create_table();
 817     StringTable::create_table();
 818   }
 819 
 820 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 821   if (Arguments::is_dumping_archive()) {
 822     MetaspaceShared::prepare_for_dumping();
 823   }
 824 #endif
 825 
 826   if (strlen(VerifySubSet) > 0) {
 827     Universe::initialize_verify_flags();
 828   }
 829 
 830   ResolvedMethodTable::create_table();
 831 
 832   return JNI_OK;
 833 }
 834 
 835 jint Universe::initialize_heap() {
 836   assert(_collectedHeap == NULL, "Heap already created");
 837   _collectedHeap = GCConfig::arguments()->create_heap();
 838 
 839   log_info(gc)("Using %s", _collectedHeap->name());
 840   return _collectedHeap->initialize();
 841 }
 842 
 843 void Universe::initialize_tlab() {
 844   ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::set_max_size(Universe::heap()->max_tlab_size());
 845   PLAB::startup_initialization();
 846   if (UseTLAB) {
 847     ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::startup_initialization();
 848   }
 849 }
 850 
 851 ReservedHeapSpace Universe::reserve_heap(size_t heap_size, size_t alignment) {
 852 
 853   assert(alignment <= Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment(),
 854          "actual alignment " SIZE_FORMAT " must be within maximum heap alignment " SIZE_FORMAT,
 855          alignment, Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment());
 856 
 857   size_t total_reserved = align_up(heap_size, alignment);
 858   assert(!UseCompressedOops || (total_reserved <= (OopEncodingHeapMax - os::vm_page_size())),
 859       "heap size is too big for compressed oops");
 860 
 861   size_t page_size = os::vm_page_size();
 862   if (UseLargePages && is_aligned(alignment, os::large_page_size())) {
 863     page_size = os::large_page_size();
 864   } else {
 865     // Parallel is the only collector that might opt out of using large pages
 866     // for the heap.
 867     assert(!UseLargePages || UseParallelGC , "Wrong alignment to use large pages");
 868   }
 869 
 870   // Now create the space.
 871   ReservedHeapSpace total_rs(total_reserved, alignment, page_size, AllocateHeapAt);
 872 
 873   if (total_rs.is_reserved()) {
 874     assert((total_reserved == total_rs.size()) && ((uintptr_t)total_rs.base() % alignment == 0),
 875            "must be exactly of required size and alignment");
 876     // We are good.
 877 
 878     if (AllocateHeapAt != NULL) {
 879       log_info(gc,heap)("Successfully allocated Java heap at location %s", AllocateHeapAt);
 880     }
 881 
 882     if (UseCompressedOops) {
 883       CompressedOops::initialize(total_rs);
 884     }
 885 
 886     Universe::calculate_verify_data((HeapWord*)total_rs.base(), (HeapWord*)total_rs.end());
 887 
 888     return total_rs;
 889   }
 890 
 891   vm_exit_during_initialization(
 892     err_msg("Could not reserve enough space for " SIZE_FORMAT "KB object heap",
 893             total_reserved/K));
 894 
 895   // satisfy compiler
 896   ShouldNotReachHere();
 897   return ReservedHeapSpace(0, 0, os::vm_page_size());
 898 }
 899 
 900 OopStorage* Universe::vm_weak() {
 901   return Universe::_vm_weak;
 902 }
 903 
 904 OopStorage* Universe::vm_global() {
 905   return Universe::_vm_global;
 906 }
 907 
 908 void Universe::oopstorage_init() {
 909   Universe::_vm_global = OopStorageSet::create_strong("VM Global", mtInternal);
 910   Universe::_vm_weak = OopStorageSet::create_weak("VM Weak", mtInternal);
 911 }
 912 
 913 void universe_oopstorage_init() {
 914   Universe::oopstorage_init();
 915 }
 916 
 917 void initialize_known_method(LatestMethodCache* method_cache,
 918                              InstanceKlass* ik,
 919                              const char* method,
 920                              Symbol* signature,
 921                              bool is_static, TRAPS)
 922 {
 923   TempNewSymbol name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(method);
 924   Method* m = NULL;
 925   // The klass must be linked before looking up the method.
 926   if (!ik->link_class_or_fail(THREAD) ||
 927       ((m = ik->find_method(name, signature)) == NULL) ||
 928       is_static != m->is_static()) {
 929     ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
 930     // NoSuchMethodException doesn't actually work because it tries to run the
 931     // <init> function before java_lang_Class is linked. Print error and exit.
 932     vm_exit_during_initialization(err_msg("Unable to link/verify %s.%s method",
 933                                  ik->name()->as_C_string(), method));
 934   }
 935   method_cache->init(ik, m);
 936 }
 937 
 938 void Universe::initialize_known_methods(TRAPS) {
 939   // Set up static method for registering finalizers
 940   initialize_known_method(_finalizer_register_cache,
 941                           vmClasses::Finalizer_klass(),
 942                           "register",
 943                           vmSymbols::object_void_signature(), true, CHECK);
 944 
 945   initialize_known_method(_throw_illegal_access_error_cache,
 946                           vmClasses::internal_Unsafe_klass(),
 947                           "throwIllegalAccessError",
 948                           vmSymbols::void_method_signature(), true, CHECK);
 949 
 950   initialize_known_method(_throw_no_such_method_error_cache,
 951                           vmClasses::internal_Unsafe_klass(),
 952                           "throwNoSuchMethodError",
 953                           vmSymbols::void_method_signature(), true, CHECK);
 954 
 955   // Set up method for registering loaded classes in class loader vector
 956   initialize_known_method(_loader_addClass_cache,
 957                           vmClasses::ClassLoader_klass(),
 958                           "addClass",
 959                           vmSymbols::class_void_signature(), false, CHECK);
 960 
 961   // Set up method for stack walking
 962   initialize_known_method(_do_stack_walk_cache,
 963                           vmClasses::AbstractStackWalker_klass(),
 964                           "doStackWalk",
 965                           vmSymbols::doStackWalk_signature(), false, CHECK);
 966 }
 967 
 968 void universe2_init() {
 969   EXCEPTION_MARK;
 970   Universe::genesis(CATCH);
 971 }
 972 
 973 // Set after initialization of the module runtime, call_initModuleRuntime
 974 void universe_post_module_init() {
 975   Universe::_module_initialized = true;
 976 }
 977 
 978 bool universe_post_init() {
 979   assert(!is_init_completed(), "Error: initialization not yet completed!");
 980   Universe::_fully_initialized = true;
 981   EXCEPTION_MARK;
 982   if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 983     reinitialize_vtables();
 984     reinitialize_itables();
 985   }
 986 
 987   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 988   // Setup preallocated empty java.lang.Class array for Method reflection.
 989 
 990   objArrayOop the_empty_class_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(vmClasses::Class_klass(), 0, CHECK_false);
 991   Universe::_the_empty_class_array = OopHandle(Universe::vm_global(), the_empty_class_array);
 992 
 993   // Setup preallocated OutOfMemoryError errors
 994   Universe::create_preallocated_out_of_memory_errors(CHECK_false);
 995 
 996   oop instance;
 997   // Setup preallocated cause message for delayed StackOverflowError
 998   if (StackReservedPages > 0) {
 999     instance = java_lang_String::create_oop_from_str("Delayed StackOverflowError due to ReservedStackAccess annotated method", CHECK_false);
1000     Universe::_delayed_stack_overflow_error_message = OopHandle(Universe::vm_global(), instance);
1001   }
1002 
1003   // Setup preallocated NullPointerException
1004   // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
1005   Klass* k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException(), true, CHECK_false);
1006   instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1007   Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance = OopHandle(Universe::vm_global(), instance);
1008 
1009   // Setup preallocated ArithmeticException
1010   // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
1011   k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_ArithmeticException(), true, CHECK_false);
1012   instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1013   Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance = OopHandle(Universe::vm_global(), instance);
1014 
1015   // Virtual Machine Error for when we get into a situation we can't resolve
1016   k = vmClasses::VirtualMachineError_klass();
1017   bool linked = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->link_class_or_fail(CHECK_false);
1018   if (!linked) {
1019      tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify VirtualMachineError class");
1020      return false; // initialization failed
1021   }
1022   instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1023   Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance = OopHandle(Universe::vm_global(), instance);
1024 
1025   Handle msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("/ by zero", CHECK_false);
1026   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::arithmetic_exception_instance(), msg());
1027 
1028   Universe::initialize_known_methods(CHECK_false);
1029 
1030   // This needs to be done before the first scavenge/gc, since
1031   // it's an input to soft ref clearing policy.
1032   {
1033     MutexLocker x(THREAD, Heap_lock);
1034     Universe::heap()->update_capacity_and_used_at_gc();
1035   }
1036 
1037   // ("weak") refs processing infrastructure initialization
1038   Universe::heap()->post_initialize();
1039 
1040   MemoryService::add_metaspace_memory_pools();
1041 
1042   MemoryService::set_universe_heap(Universe::heap());
1043 #if INCLUDE_CDS
1044   MetaspaceShared::post_initialize(CHECK_false);
1045 #endif
1046   return true;
1047 }
1048 
1049 
1050 void Universe::compute_base_vtable_size() {
1051   _base_vtable_size = ClassLoader::compute_Object_vtable();
1052 }
1053 
1054 void Universe::print_on(outputStream* st) {
1055   GCMutexLocker hl(Heap_lock); // Heap_lock might be locked by caller thread.
1056   st->print_cr("Heap");
1057   heap()->print_on(st);
1058 }
1059 
1060 void Universe::print_heap_at_SIGBREAK() {
1061   if (PrintHeapAtSIGBREAK) {
1062     print_on(tty);
1063     tty->cr();
1064     tty->flush();
1065   }
1066 }
1067 
1068 void Universe::initialize_verify_flags() {
1069   verify_flags = 0;
1070   const char delimiter[] = " ,";
1071 
1072   size_t length = strlen(VerifySubSet);
1073   char* subset_list = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, length + 1, mtInternal);
1074   strncpy(subset_list, VerifySubSet, length + 1);
1075   char* save_ptr;
1076 
1077   char* token = strtok_r(subset_list, delimiter, &save_ptr);
1078   while (token != NULL) {
1079     if (strcmp(token, "threads") == 0) {
1080       verify_flags |= Verify_Threads;
1081     } else if (strcmp(token, "heap") == 0) {
1082       verify_flags |= Verify_Heap;
1083     } else if (strcmp(token, "symbol_table") == 0) {
1084       verify_flags |= Verify_SymbolTable;
1085     } else if (strcmp(token, "string_table") == 0) {
1086       verify_flags |= Verify_StringTable;
1087     } else if (strcmp(token, "codecache") == 0) {
1088       verify_flags |= Verify_CodeCache;
1089     } else if (strcmp(token, "dictionary") == 0) {
1090       verify_flags |= Verify_SystemDictionary;
1091     } else if (strcmp(token, "classloader_data_graph") == 0) {
1092       verify_flags |= Verify_ClassLoaderDataGraph;
1093     } else if (strcmp(token, "metaspace") == 0) {
1094       verify_flags |= Verify_MetaspaceUtils;
1095     } else if (strcmp(token, "jni_handles") == 0) {
1096       verify_flags |= Verify_JNIHandles;
1097     } else if (strcmp(token, "codecache_oops") == 0) {
1098       verify_flags |= Verify_CodeCacheOops;
1099     } else if (strcmp(token, "resolved_method_table") == 0) {
1100       verify_flags |= Verify_ResolvedMethodTable;
1101     } else if (strcmp(token, "stringdedup") == 0) {
1102       verify_flags |= Verify_StringDedup;
1103     } else {
1104       vm_exit_during_initialization(err_msg("VerifySubSet: \'%s\' memory sub-system is unknown, please correct it", token));
1105     }
1106     token = strtok_r(NULL, delimiter, &save_ptr);
1107   }
1108   FREE_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, subset_list);
1109 }
1110 
1111 bool Universe::should_verify_subset(uint subset) {
1112   if (verify_flags & subset) {
1113     return true;
1114   }
1115   return false;
1116 }
1117 
1118 void Universe::verify(VerifyOption option, const char* prefix) {
1119   COMPILER2_PRESENT(
1120     assert(!DerivedPointerTable::is_active(),
1121          "DPT should not be active during verification "
1122          "(of thread stacks below)");
1123   )
1124 
1125   Thread* thread = Thread::current();
1126   ResourceMark rm(thread);
1127   HandleMark hm(thread);  // Handles created during verification can be zapped
1128   _verify_count++;
1129 
1130   FormatBuffer<> title("Verifying %s", prefix);
1131   GCTraceTime(Info, gc, verify) tm(title.buffer());
1132   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_Threads)) {
1133     log_debug(gc, verify)("Threads");
1134     Threads::verify();
1135   }
1136   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_Heap)) {
1137     log_debug(gc, verify)("Heap");
1138     heap()->verify(option);
1139   }
1140   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_SymbolTable)) {
1141     log_debug(gc, verify)("SymbolTable");
1142     SymbolTable::verify();
1143   }
1144   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_StringTable)) {
1145     log_debug(gc, verify)("StringTable");
1146     StringTable::verify();
1147   }
1148   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_CodeCache)) {
1149     log_debug(gc, verify)("CodeCache");
1150     CodeCache::verify();
1151   }
1152   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_SystemDictionary)) {
1153     log_debug(gc, verify)("SystemDictionary");
1154     SystemDictionary::verify();
1155   }
1156   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_ClassLoaderDataGraph)) {
1157     log_debug(gc, verify)("ClassLoaderDataGraph");
1158     ClassLoaderDataGraph::verify();
1159   }
1160   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_MetaspaceUtils)) {
1161     log_debug(gc, verify)("MetaspaceUtils");
1162     DEBUG_ONLY(MetaspaceUtils::verify();)
1163   }
1164   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_JNIHandles)) {
1165     log_debug(gc, verify)("JNIHandles");
1166     JNIHandles::verify();
1167   }
1168   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_CodeCacheOops)) {
1169     log_debug(gc, verify)("CodeCache Oops");
1170     CodeCache::verify_oops();
1171   }
1172   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_ResolvedMethodTable)) {
1173     log_debug(gc, verify)("ResolvedMethodTable Oops");
1174     ResolvedMethodTable::verify();
1175   }
1176   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_StringDedup)) {
1177     log_debug(gc, verify)("String Deduplication");
1178     StringDedup::verify();
1179   }
1180 }
1181 
1182 
1183 #ifndef PRODUCT
1184 void Universe::calculate_verify_data(HeapWord* low_boundary, HeapWord* high_boundary) {
1185   assert(low_boundary < high_boundary, "bad interval");
1186 
1187   // decide which low-order bits we require to be clear:
1188   size_t alignSize = MinObjAlignmentInBytes;
1189   size_t min_object_size = CollectedHeap::min_fill_size();
1190 
1191   // make an inclusive limit:
1192   uintptr_t max = (uintptr_t)high_boundary - min_object_size*wordSize;
1193   uintptr_t min = (uintptr_t)low_boundary;
1194   assert(min < max, "bad interval");
1195   uintptr_t diff = max ^ min;
1196 
1197   // throw away enough low-order bits to make the diff vanish
1198   uintptr_t mask = (uintptr_t)(-1);
1199   while ((mask & diff) != 0)
1200     mask <<= 1;
1201   uintptr_t bits = (min & mask);
1202   assert(bits == (max & mask), "correct mask");
1203   // check an intermediate value between min and max, just to make sure:
1204   assert(bits == ((min + (max-min)/2) & mask), "correct mask");
1205 
1206   // require address alignment, too:
1207   mask |= (alignSize - 1);
1208 
1209   if (!(_verify_oop_mask == 0 && _verify_oop_bits == (uintptr_t)-1)) {
1210     assert(_verify_oop_mask == mask && _verify_oop_bits == bits, "mask stability");
1211   }
1212   _verify_oop_mask = mask;
1213   _verify_oop_bits = bits;
1214 }
1215 
1216 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
1217 
1218 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_mask() {
1219   return _verify_oop_mask;
1220 }
1221 
1222 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_bits() {
1223   return _verify_oop_bits;
1224 }
1225 
1226 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_mask() {
1227   return markWord::lock_mask_in_place;
1228 }
1229 
1230 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_bits() {
1231   intptr_t mask = verify_mark_mask();
1232   intptr_t bits = (intptr_t)markWord::prototype().value();
1233   assert((bits & ~mask) == 0, "no stray header bits");
1234   return bits;
1235 }
1236 #endif // PRODUCT
1237 
1238 
1239 void LatestMethodCache::init(Klass* k, Method* m) {
1240   if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
1241     _klass = k;
1242   }
1243 #ifndef PRODUCT
1244   else {
1245     // sharing initialization should have already set up _klass
1246     assert(_klass != NULL, "just checking");
1247   }
1248 #endif
1249 
1250   _method_idnum = m->method_idnum();
1251   assert(_method_idnum >= 0, "sanity check");
1252 }
1253 
1254 
1255 Method* LatestMethodCache::get_method() {
1256   if (klass() == NULL) return NULL;
1257   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(klass());
1258   Method* m = ik->method_with_idnum(method_idnum());
1259   assert(m != NULL, "sanity check");
1260   return m;
1261 }
1262 
1263 #ifdef ASSERT
1264 // Release dummy object(s) at bottom of heap
1265 bool Universe::release_fullgc_alot_dummy() {
1266   MutexLocker ml(FullGCALot_lock);
1267   objArrayOop fullgc_alot_dummy_array = (objArrayOop)_fullgc_alot_dummy_array.resolve();
1268   if (fullgc_alot_dummy_array != NULL) {
1269     if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_next >= fullgc_alot_dummy_array->length()) {
1270       // No more dummies to release, release entire array instead
1271       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array.release(Universe::vm_global());
1272       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = OopHandle(); // NULL out OopStorage pointer.
1273       return false;
1274     }
1275 
1276     // Release dummy at bottom of old generation
1277     fullgc_alot_dummy_array->obj_at_put(_fullgc_alot_dummy_next++, NULL);
1278   }
1279   return true;
1280 }
1281 
1282 bool Universe::is_gc_active() {
1283   return heap()->is_gc_active();
1284 }
1285 
1286 bool Universe::is_in_heap(const void* p) {
1287   return heap()->is_in(p);
1288 }
1289 
1290 #endif // ASSERT