1 /*
   2  * Copyright (c) 1997, 2022, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
   3  * DO NOT ALTER OR REMOVE COPYRIGHT NOTICES OR THIS FILE HEADER.
   4  *
   5  * This code is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
   6  * under the terms of the GNU General Public License version 2 only, as
   7  * published by the Free Software Foundation.
   8  *
   9  * This code is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT
  10  * ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or
  11  * FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License
  12  * version 2 for more details (a copy is included in the LICENSE file that
  13  * accompanied this code).
  14  *
  15  * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License version
  16  * 2 along with this work; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation,
  17  * Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA.
  18  *
  19  * Please contact Oracle, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA 94065 USA
  20  * or visit www.oracle.com if you need additional information or have any
  21  * questions.
  22  *
  23  */
  24 
  25 #include "precompiled.hpp"
  26 #include "cds/archiveHeapLoader.hpp"
  27 #include "cds/dynamicArchive.hpp"
  28 #include "cds/heapShared.hpp"
  29 #include "cds/metaspaceShared.hpp"
  30 #include "classfile/classLoader.hpp"
  31 #include "classfile/classLoaderDataGraph.hpp"
  32 #include "classfile/javaClasses.hpp"
  33 #include "classfile/stringTable.hpp"
  34 #include "classfile/symbolTable.hpp"
  35 #include "classfile/systemDictionary.hpp"
  36 #include "classfile/vmClasses.hpp"
  37 #include "classfile/vmSymbols.hpp"
  38 #include "code/codeBehaviours.hpp"
  39 #include "code/codeCache.hpp"
  40 #include "compiler/oopMap.hpp"
  41 #include "gc/shared/collectedHeap.inline.hpp"
  42 #include "gc/shared/gcArguments.hpp"
  43 #include "gc/shared/gcConfig.hpp"
  44 #include "gc/shared/gcLogPrecious.hpp"
  45 #include "gc/shared/gcTraceTime.inline.hpp"
  46 #include "gc/shared/oopStorageSet.hpp"
  47 #include "gc/shared/plab.hpp"
  48 #include "gc/shared/stringdedup/stringDedup.hpp"
  49 #include "gc/shared/tlab_globals.hpp"
  50 #include "logging/log.hpp"
  51 #include "logging/logStream.hpp"
  52 #include "memory/metadataFactory.hpp"
  53 #include "memory/metaspaceClosure.hpp"
  54 #include "memory/metaspaceCounters.hpp"
  55 #include "memory/metaspaceUtils.hpp"
  56 #include "memory/oopFactory.hpp"
  57 #include "memory/resourceArea.hpp"
  58 #include "memory/universe.hpp"
  59 #include "oops/compressedOops.hpp"
  60 #include "oops/instanceKlass.hpp"
  61 #include "oops/instanceMirrorKlass.hpp"
  62 #include "oops/klass.inline.hpp"
  63 #include "oops/objArrayOop.inline.hpp"
  64 #include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
  65 #include "oops/oopHandle.inline.hpp"
  66 #include "oops/typeArrayKlass.hpp"
  67 #include "prims/resolvedMethodTable.hpp"
  68 #include "runtime/arguments.hpp"
  69 #include "runtime/atomic.hpp"
  70 #include "runtime/flags/jvmFlagLimit.hpp"
  71 #include "runtime/handles.inline.hpp"
  72 #include "runtime/init.hpp"
  73 #include "runtime/java.hpp"
  74 #include "runtime/javaThread.hpp"
  75 #include "runtime/jniHandles.hpp"
  76 #include "runtime/threads.hpp"
  77 #include "runtime/timerTrace.hpp"
  78 #include "services/memoryService.hpp"
  79 #include "utilities/align.hpp"
  80 #include "utilities/autoRestore.hpp"
  81 #include "utilities/debug.hpp"
  82 #include "utilities/formatBuffer.hpp"
  83 #include "utilities/macros.hpp"
  84 #include "utilities/ostream.hpp"
  85 #include "utilities/preserveException.hpp"
  86 
  87 // Known objects
  88 Klass* Universe::_typeArrayKlassObjs[T_LONG+1]        = { NULL /*, NULL...*/ };
  89 Klass* Universe::_objectArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  90 Klass* Universe::_fillerArrayKlassObj                 = NULL;
  91 OopHandle Universe::_mirrors[T_VOID+1];
  92 
  93 OopHandle Universe::_main_thread_group;
  94 OopHandle Universe::_system_thread_group;
  95 OopHandle Universe::_the_empty_class_array;
  96 OopHandle Universe::_the_null_string;
  97 OopHandle Universe::_the_min_jint_string;
  98 
  99 OopHandle Universe::_the_null_sentinel;
 100 
 101 // _out_of_memory_errors is an objArray
 102 enum OutOfMemoryInstance { _oom_java_heap,
 103                            _oom_c_heap,
 104                            _oom_metaspace,
 105                            _oom_class_metaspace,
 106                            _oom_array_size,
 107                            _oom_gc_overhead_limit,
 108                            _oom_realloc_objects,
 109                            _oom_retry,
 110                            _oom_count };
 111 
 112 OopHandle Universe::_out_of_memory_errors;
 113 OopHandle Universe::_delayed_stack_overflow_error_message;
 114 OopHandle Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array;
 115 volatile jint Universe::_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = 0;
 116 
 117 // Message details for OOME objects, preallocate these objects since they could be
 118 // used when throwing OOME, we should try to avoid further allocation in such case
 119 OopHandle Universe::_msg_metaspace;
 120 OopHandle Universe::_msg_class_metaspace;
 121 
 122 OopHandle Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance;
 123 OopHandle Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance;
 124 OopHandle Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance;
 125 
 126 OopHandle Universe::_reference_pending_list;
 127 
 128 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_array_interfaces_array = NULL;
 129 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = NULL;
 130 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = NULL;
 131 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache = NULL;
 132 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_throw_no_such_method_error_cache = NULL;
 133 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_do_stack_walk_cache     = NULL;
 134 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_is_substitutable_cache  = NULL;
 135 LatestMethodCache* Universe::_primitive_type_hash_code_cache = NULL;
 136 
 137 long Universe::verify_flags                           = Universe::Verify_All;
 138 
 139 Array<int>* Universe::_the_empty_int_array            = NULL;
 140 Array<u2>* Universe::_the_empty_short_array           = NULL;
 141 Array<Klass*>* Universe::_the_empty_klass_array     = NULL;
 142 Array<InstanceKlass*>* Universe::_the_empty_instance_klass_array  = NULL;
 143 Array<Method*>* Universe::_the_empty_method_array   = NULL;
 144 
 145 // These variables are guarded by FullGCALot_lock.
 146 debug_only(OopHandle Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_array;)
 147 debug_only(int Universe::_fullgc_alot_dummy_next = 0;)
 148 
 149 // Heap
 150 int             Universe::_verify_count = 0;
 151 
 152 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
 153 uintptr_t       Universe::_verify_oop_mask = 0;
 154 uintptr_t       Universe::_verify_oop_bits = (uintptr_t) -1;
 155 
 156 int             Universe::_base_vtable_size = 0;
 157 bool            Universe::_bootstrapping = false;
 158 bool            Universe::_module_initialized = false;
 159 bool            Universe::_fully_initialized = false;
 160 
 161 OopStorage*     Universe::_vm_weak = NULL;
 162 OopStorage*     Universe::_vm_global = NULL;
 163 
 164 CollectedHeap*  Universe::_collectedHeap = NULL;
 165 
 166 objArrayOop Universe::the_empty_class_array ()  {
 167   return (objArrayOop)_the_empty_class_array.resolve();
 168 }
 169 
 170 oop Universe::main_thread_group()                 { return _main_thread_group.resolve(); }
 171 void Universe::set_main_thread_group(oop group)   { _main_thread_group = OopHandle(vm_global(), group); }
 172 
 173 oop Universe::system_thread_group()               { return _system_thread_group.resolve(); }
 174 void Universe::set_system_thread_group(oop group) { _system_thread_group = OopHandle(vm_global(), group); }
 175 
 176 oop Universe::the_null_string()                   { return _the_null_string.resolve(); }
 177 oop Universe::the_min_jint_string()               { return _the_min_jint_string.resolve(); }
 178 
 179 oop Universe::null_ptr_exception_instance()       { return _null_ptr_exception_instance.resolve(); }
 180 oop Universe::arithmetic_exception_instance()     { return _arithmetic_exception_instance.resolve(); }
 181 oop Universe::virtual_machine_error_instance()    { return _virtual_machine_error_instance.resolve(); }
 182 
 183 oop Universe::the_null_sentinel()                 { return _the_null_sentinel.resolve(); }
 184 
 185 oop Universe::int_mirror()                        { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_INT].resolve()); }
 186 oop Universe::float_mirror()                      { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_FLOAT].resolve()); }
 187 oop Universe::double_mirror()                     { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_DOUBLE].resolve()); }
 188 oop Universe::byte_mirror()                       { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_BYTE].resolve()); }
 189 oop Universe::bool_mirror()                       { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_BOOLEAN].resolve()); }
 190 oop Universe::char_mirror()                       { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_CHAR].resolve()); }
 191 oop Universe::long_mirror()                       { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_LONG].resolve()); }
 192 oop Universe::short_mirror()                      { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_SHORT].resolve()); }
 193 oop Universe::void_mirror()                       { return check_mirror(_mirrors[T_VOID].resolve()); }
 194 
 195 oop Universe::java_mirror(BasicType t) {
 196   assert((uint)t < T_VOID+1, "range check");
 197   return check_mirror(_mirrors[t].resolve());
 198 }
 199 
 200 // Used by CDS dumping
 201 void Universe::replace_mirror(BasicType t, oop new_mirror) {
 202   Universe::_mirrors[t].replace(new_mirror);
 203 }
 204 
 205 void Universe::basic_type_classes_do(KlassClosure *closure) {
 206   for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 207     closure->do_klass(_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 208   }
 209   // We don't do the following because it will confuse JVMTI.
 210   // _fillerArrayKlassObj is used only by GC, which doesn't need to see
 211   // this klass from basic_type_classes_do().
 212   //
 213   // closure->do_klass(_fillerArrayKlassObj);
 214 }
 215 
 216 void LatestMethodCache::metaspace_pointers_do(MetaspaceClosure* it) {
 217   it->push(&_klass);
 218 }
 219 
 220 void Universe::metaspace_pointers_do(MetaspaceClosure* it) {
 221   it->push(&_fillerArrayKlassObj);
 222   for (int i = 0; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 223     it->push(&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 224   }
 225   it->push(&_objectArrayKlassObj);
 226 
 227   it->push(&_the_empty_int_array);
 228   it->push(&_the_empty_short_array);
 229   it->push(&_the_empty_klass_array);
 230   it->push(&_the_empty_instance_klass_array);
 231   it->push(&_the_empty_method_array);
 232   it->push(&_the_array_interfaces_array);
 233 
 234   _finalizer_register_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 235   _loader_addClass_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 236   _throw_illegal_access_error_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 237   _throw_no_such_method_error_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 238   _do_stack_walk_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 239   _is_substitutable_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 240   _primitive_type_hash_code_cache->metaspace_pointers_do(it);
 241 }
 242 
 243 // Serialize metadata and pointers to primitive type mirrors in and out of CDS archive
 244 void Universe::serialize(SerializeClosure* f) {
 245 
 246 #if INCLUDE_CDS_JAVA_HEAP
 247   {
 248     oop mirror_oop;
 249     for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 250       if (f->reading()) {
 251         f->do_oop(&mirror_oop); // read from archive
 252         assert(oopDesc::is_oop_or_null(mirror_oop), "is oop");
 253         // Only create an OopHandle for non-null mirrors
 254         if (mirror_oop != NULL) {
 255           _mirrors[i] = OopHandle(vm_global(), mirror_oop);
 256         }
 257       } else {
 258         if (HeapShared::can_write()) {
 259           mirror_oop = _mirrors[i].resolve();
 260         } else {
 261           mirror_oop = NULL;
 262         }
 263         f->do_oop(&mirror_oop); // write to archive
 264       }
 265       if (mirror_oop != NULL) { // may be null if archived heap is disabled
 266         java_lang_Class::update_archived_primitive_mirror_native_pointers(mirror_oop);
 267       }
 268     }
 269   }
 270 #endif
 271 
 272   f->do_ptr((void**)&_fillerArrayKlassObj);
 273   for (int i = 0; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 274     f->do_ptr((void**)&_typeArrayKlassObjs[i]);
 275   }
 276 
 277   f->do_ptr((void**)&_objectArrayKlassObj);
 278   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_array_interfaces_array);
 279   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_int_array);
 280   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_short_array);
 281   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_method_array);
 282   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_klass_array);
 283   f->do_ptr((void**)&_the_empty_instance_klass_array);
 284   _finalizer_register_cache->serialize(f);
 285   _loader_addClass_cache->serialize(f);
 286   _throw_illegal_access_error_cache->serialize(f);
 287   _throw_no_such_method_error_cache->serialize(f);
 288   _do_stack_walk_cache->serialize(f);
 289   _is_substitutable_cache->serialize(f);
 290   _primitive_type_hash_code_cache->serialize(f);
 291 }
 292 
 293 
 294 void Universe::check_alignment(uintx size, uintx alignment, const char* name) {
 295   if (size < alignment || size % alignment != 0) {
 296     vm_exit_during_initialization(
 297       err_msg("Size of %s (" UINTX_FORMAT " bytes) must be aligned to " UINTX_FORMAT " bytes", name, size, alignment));
 298   }
 299 }
 300 
 301 void initialize_basic_type_klass(Klass* k, TRAPS) {
 302   Klass* ok = vmClasses::Object_klass();
 303 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 304   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 305     ClassLoaderData* loader_data = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 306     assert(k->super() == ok, "u3");
 307     if (k->is_instance_klass()) {
 308       InstanceKlass::cast(k)->restore_unshareable_info(loader_data, Handle(), NULL, CHECK);
 309     } else {
 310       ArrayKlass::cast(k)->restore_unshareable_info(loader_data, Handle(), CHECK);
 311     }
 312   } else
 313 #endif
 314   {
 315     k->initialize_supers(ok, NULL, CHECK);
 316   }
 317   k->append_to_sibling_list();
 318 }
 319 
 320 void Universe::genesis(TRAPS) {
 321   ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
 322   HandleMark   hm(THREAD);
 323 
 324   { AutoModifyRestore<bool> temporarily(_bootstrapping, true);
 325 
 326     { MutexLocker mc(THREAD, Compile_lock);
 327 
 328       java_lang_Class::allocate_fixup_lists();
 329 
 330       // determine base vtable size; without that we cannot create the array klasses
 331       compute_base_vtable_size();
 332 
 333       if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 334         // Initialization of the fillerArrayKlass must come before regular
 335         // int-TypeArrayKlass so that the int-Array mirror points to the
 336         // int-TypeArrayKlass.
 337         _fillerArrayKlassObj = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass(T_INT, "Ljdk/internal/vm/FillerArray;", CHECK);
 338         for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_LONG+1; i++) {
 339           _typeArrayKlassObjs[i] = TypeArrayKlass::create_klass((BasicType)i, CHECK);
 340         }
 341 
 342         ClassLoaderData* null_cld = ClassLoaderData::the_null_class_loader_data();
 343 
 344         _the_array_interfaces_array     = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 2, NULL, CHECK);
 345         _the_empty_int_array            = MetadataFactory::new_array<int>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 346         _the_empty_short_array          = MetadataFactory::new_array<u2>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 347         _the_empty_method_array         = MetadataFactory::new_array<Method*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 348         _the_empty_klass_array          = MetadataFactory::new_array<Klass*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 349         _the_empty_instance_klass_array = MetadataFactory::new_array<InstanceKlass*>(null_cld, 0, CHECK);
 350       }
 351     }
 352 
 353     vmSymbols::initialize();
 354 
 355     SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK);
 356 
 357     // Create string constants
 358     oop s = StringTable::intern("null", CHECK);
 359     _the_null_string = OopHandle(vm_global(), s);
 360     s = StringTable::intern("-2147483648", CHECK);
 361     _the_min_jint_string = OopHandle(vm_global(), s);
 362 
 363 
 364 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 365     if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 366       // Verify shared interfaces array.
 367       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(0) ==
 368              vmClasses::Cloneable_klass(), "u3");
 369       assert(_the_array_interfaces_array->at(1) ==
 370              vmClasses::Serializable_klass(), "u3");
 371 
 372     } else
 373 #endif
 374     {
 375       // Set up shared interfaces array.  (Do this before supers are set up.)
 376       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(0, vmClasses::Cloneable_klass());
 377       _the_array_interfaces_array->at_put(1, vmClasses::Serializable_klass());
 378     }
 379 
 380     initialize_basic_type_klass(_fillerArrayKlassObj, CHECK);
 381 
 382     initialize_basic_type_klass(boolArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 383     initialize_basic_type_klass(charArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 384     initialize_basic_type_klass(floatArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 385     initialize_basic_type_klass(doubleArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 386     initialize_basic_type_klass(byteArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 387     initialize_basic_type_klass(shortArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 388     initialize_basic_type_klass(intArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 389     initialize_basic_type_klass(longArrayKlassObj(), CHECK);
 390 
 391     assert(_fillerArrayKlassObj != intArrayKlassObj(),
 392            "Internal filler array klass should be different to int array Klass");
 393   } // end of core bootstrapping
 394 
 395   {
 396     Handle tns = java_lang_String::create_from_str("<null_sentinel>", CHECK);
 397     _the_null_sentinel = OopHandle(vm_global(), tns());
 398   }
 399 
 400   // Create a handle for reference_pending_list
 401   _reference_pending_list = OopHandle(vm_global(), NULL);
 402 
 403   // Maybe this could be lifted up now that object array can be initialized
 404   // during the bootstrapping.
 405 
 406   // OLD
 407   // Initialize _objectArrayKlass after core bootstraping to make
 408   // sure the super class is set up properly for _objectArrayKlass.
 409   // ---
 410   // NEW
 411   // Since some of the old system object arrays have been converted to
 412   // ordinary object arrays, _objectArrayKlass will be loaded when
 413   // SystemDictionary::initialize(CHECK); is run. See the extra check
 414   // for Object_klass_loaded in objArrayKlassKlass::allocate_objArray_klass_impl.
 415   _objectArrayKlassObj = InstanceKlass::
 416     cast(vmClasses::Object_klass())->array_klass(1, CHECK);
 417   // OLD
 418   // Add the class to the class hierarchy manually to make sure that
 419   // its vtable is initialized after core bootstrapping is completed.
 420   // ---
 421   // New
 422   // Have already been initialized.
 423   _objectArrayKlassObj->append_to_sibling_list();
 424 
 425   #ifdef ASSERT
 426   if (FullGCALot) {
 427     // Allocate an array of dummy objects.
 428     // We'd like these to be at the bottom of the old generation,
 429     // so that when we free one and then collect,
 430     // (almost) the whole heap moves
 431     // and we find out if we actually update all the oops correctly.
 432     // But we can't allocate directly in the old generation,
 433     // so we allocate wherever, and hope that the first collection
 434     // moves these objects to the bottom of the old generation.
 435     int size = FullGCALotDummies * 2;
 436 
 437     objArrayOop    naked_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(vmClasses::Object_klass(), size, CHECK);
 438     objArrayHandle dummy_array(THREAD, naked_array);
 439     int i = 0;
 440     while (i < size) {
 441         // Allocate dummy in old generation
 442       oop dummy = vmClasses::Object_klass()->allocate_instance(CHECK);
 443       dummy_array->obj_at_put(i++, dummy);
 444     }
 445     {
 446       // Only modify the global variable inside the mutex.
 447       // If we had a race to here, the other dummy_array instances
 448       // and their elements just get dropped on the floor, which is fine.
 449       MutexLocker ml(THREAD, FullGCALot_lock);
 450       if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_array.is_empty()) {
 451         _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = OopHandle(vm_global(), dummy_array());
 452       }
 453     }
 454     assert(i == ((objArrayOop)_fullgc_alot_dummy_array.resolve())->length(), "just checking");
 455   }
 456   #endif
 457 }
 458 
 459 void Universe::initialize_basic_type_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 460 #if INCLUDE_CDS_JAVA_HEAP
 461     if (UseSharedSpaces &&
 462         ArchiveHeapLoader::are_archived_mirrors_available() &&
 463         _mirrors[T_INT].resolve() != NULL) {
 464       assert(ArchiveHeapLoader::can_use(), "Sanity");
 465 
 466       // check that all mirrors are mapped also
 467       for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 468         if (!is_reference_type((BasicType)i)) {
 469           oop m = _mirrors[i].resolve();
 470           assert(m != NULL, "archived mirrors should not be NULL");
 471         }
 472       }
 473     } else
 474       // _mirror[T_INT} could be NULL if archived heap is not mapped.
 475 #endif
 476     {
 477       for (int i = T_BOOLEAN; i < T_VOID+1; i++) {
 478         BasicType bt = (BasicType)i;
 479         if (!is_reference_type(bt)) {
 480           oop m = java_lang_Class::create_basic_type_mirror(type2name(bt), bt, CHECK);
 481           _mirrors[i] = OopHandle(vm_global(), m);
 482         }
 483       }
 484     }
 485 }
 486 
 487 void Universe::fixup_mirrors(TRAPS) {
 488   // Bootstrap problem: all classes gets a mirror (java.lang.Class instance) assigned eagerly,
 489   // but we cannot do that for classes created before java.lang.Class is loaded. Here we simply
 490   // walk over permanent objects created so far (mostly classes) and fixup their mirrors. Note
 491   // that the number of objects allocated at this point is very small.
 492   assert(vmClasses::Class_klass_loaded(), "java.lang.Class should be loaded");
 493   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
 494 
 495   if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
 496     // Cache the start of the static fields
 497     InstanceMirrorKlass::init_offset_of_static_fields();
 498   }
 499 
 500   GrowableArray <Klass*>* list = java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 501   int list_length = list->length();
 502   for (int i = 0; i < list_length; i++) {
 503     Klass* k = list->at(i);
 504     assert(k->is_klass(), "List should only hold classes");
 505     java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror(k, CATCH);
 506   }
 507   delete java_lang_Class::fixup_mirror_list();
 508   java_lang_Class::set_fixup_mirror_list(NULL);
 509 }
 510 
 511 #define assert_pll_locked(test) \
 512   assert(Heap_lock->test(), "Reference pending list access requires lock")
 513 
 514 #define assert_pll_ownership() assert_pll_locked(owned_by_self)
 515 
 516 oop Universe::reference_pending_list() {
 517   if (Thread::current()->is_VM_thread()) {
 518     assert_pll_locked(is_locked);
 519   } else {
 520     assert_pll_ownership();
 521   }
 522   return _reference_pending_list.resolve();
 523 }
 524 
 525 void Universe::clear_reference_pending_list() {
 526   assert_pll_ownership();
 527   _reference_pending_list.replace(NULL);
 528 }
 529 
 530 bool Universe::has_reference_pending_list() {
 531   assert_pll_ownership();
 532   return _reference_pending_list.peek() != NULL;
 533 }
 534 
 535 oop Universe::swap_reference_pending_list(oop list) {
 536   assert_pll_locked(is_locked);
 537   return _reference_pending_list.xchg(list);
 538 }
 539 
 540 #undef assert_pll_locked
 541 #undef assert_pll_ownership
 542 
 543 static void reinitialize_vtables() {
 544   // The vtables are initialized by starting at java.lang.Object and
 545   // initializing through the subclass links, so that the super
 546   // classes are always initialized first.
 547   for (ClassHierarchyIterator iter(vmClasses::Object_klass()); !iter.done(); iter.next()) {
 548     Klass* sub = iter.klass();
 549     sub->vtable().initialize_vtable();
 550   }
 551 }
 552 
 553 static void reinitialize_itables() {
 554 
 555   class ReinitTableClosure : public KlassClosure {
 556    public:
 557     void do_klass(Klass* k) {
 558       if (k->is_instance_klass()) {
 559          InstanceKlass::cast(k)->itable().initialize_itable();
 560       }
 561     }
 562   };
 563 
 564   MutexLocker mcld(ClassLoaderDataGraph_lock);
 565   ReinitTableClosure cl;
 566   ClassLoaderDataGraph::classes_do(&cl);
 567 }
 568 
 569 bool Universe::on_page_boundary(void* addr) {
 570   return is_aligned(addr, os::vm_page_size());
 571 }
 572 
 573 // the array of preallocated errors with backtraces
 574 objArrayOop Universe::preallocated_out_of_memory_errors() {
 575   return (objArrayOop)_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array.resolve();
 576 }
 577 
 578 objArrayOop Universe::out_of_memory_errors() { return (objArrayOop)_out_of_memory_errors.resolve(); }
 579 
 580 oop Universe::out_of_memory_error_java_heap() {
 581   return gen_out_of_memory_error(out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(_oom_java_heap));
 582 }
 583 
 584 oop Universe::out_of_memory_error_c_heap() {
 585   return gen_out_of_memory_error(out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(_oom_c_heap));
 586 }
 587 
 588 oop Universe::out_of_memory_error_metaspace() {
 589   return gen_out_of_memory_error(out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(_oom_metaspace));
 590 }
 591 
 592 oop Universe::out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace() {
 593   return gen_out_of_memory_error(out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(_oom_class_metaspace));
 594 }
 595 
 596 oop Universe::out_of_memory_error_array_size() {
 597   return gen_out_of_memory_error(out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(_oom_array_size));
 598 }
 599 
 600 oop Universe::out_of_memory_error_gc_overhead_limit() {
 601   return gen_out_of_memory_error(out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(_oom_gc_overhead_limit));
 602 }
 603 
 604 oop Universe::out_of_memory_error_realloc_objects() {
 605   return gen_out_of_memory_error(out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(_oom_realloc_objects));
 606 }
 607 
 608 // Throw default _out_of_memory_error_retry object as it will never propagate out of the VM
 609 oop Universe::out_of_memory_error_retry()              { return out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(_oom_retry);  }
 610 oop Universe::delayed_stack_overflow_error_message()   { return _delayed_stack_overflow_error_message.resolve(); }
 611 
 612 
 613 bool Universe::should_fill_in_stack_trace(Handle throwable) {
 614   // never attempt to fill in the stack trace of preallocated errors that do not have
 615   // backtrace. These errors are kept alive forever and may be "re-used" when all
 616   // preallocated errors with backtrace have been consumed. Also need to avoid
 617   // a potential loop which could happen if an out of memory occurs when attempting
 618   // to allocate the backtrace.
 619   objArrayOop preallocated_oom = out_of_memory_errors();
 620   for (int i = 0; i < _oom_count; i++) {
 621     if (throwable() == preallocated_oom->obj_at(i)) {
 622       return false;
 623     }
 624   }
 625   return true;
 626 }
 627 
 628 
 629 oop Universe::gen_out_of_memory_error(oop default_err) {
 630   // generate an out of memory error:
 631   // - if there is a preallocated error and stack traces are available
 632   //   (j.l.Throwable is initialized), then return the preallocated
 633   //   error with a filled in stack trace, and with the message
 634   //   provided by the default error.
 635   // - otherwise, return the default error, without a stack trace.
 636   int next;
 637   if ((_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count > 0) &&
 638       vmClasses::Throwable_klass()->is_initialized()) {
 639     next = (int)Atomic::add(&_preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count, -1);
 640     assert(next < (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount, "avail count is corrupt");
 641   } else {
 642     next = -1;
 643   }
 644   if (next < 0) {
 645     // all preallocated errors have been used.
 646     // return default
 647     return default_err;
 648   } else {
 649     JavaThread* current = JavaThread::current();
 650     Handle default_err_h(current, default_err);
 651     // get the error object at the slot and set set it to NULL so that the
 652     // array isn't keeping it alive anymore.
 653     Handle exc(current, preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at(next));
 654     assert(exc() != NULL, "slot has been used already");
 655     preallocated_out_of_memory_errors()->obj_at_put(next, NULL);
 656 
 657     // use the message from the default error
 658     oop msg = java_lang_Throwable::message(default_err_h());
 659     assert(msg != NULL, "no message");
 660     java_lang_Throwable::set_message(exc(), msg);
 661 
 662     // populate the stack trace and return it.
 663     java_lang_Throwable::fill_in_stack_trace_of_preallocated_backtrace(exc);
 664     return exc();
 665   }
 666 }
 667 
 668 bool Universe::is_out_of_memory_error_metaspace(oop ex_obj) {
 669   return java_lang_Throwable::message(ex_obj) == _msg_metaspace.resolve();
 670 }
 671 
 672 bool Universe::is_out_of_memory_error_class_metaspace(oop ex_obj) {
 673   return java_lang_Throwable::message(ex_obj) == _msg_class_metaspace.resolve();
 674 }
 675 
 676 // Setup preallocated OutOfMemoryError errors
 677 void Universe::create_preallocated_out_of_memory_errors(TRAPS) {
 678   InstanceKlass* ik = vmClasses::OutOfMemoryError_klass();
 679   objArrayOop oa = oopFactory::new_objArray(ik, _oom_count, CHECK);
 680   objArrayHandle oom_array(THREAD, oa);
 681 
 682   for (int i = 0; i < _oom_count; i++) {
 683     oop oom_obj = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK);
 684     oom_array->obj_at_put(i, oom_obj);
 685   }
 686   _out_of_memory_errors = OopHandle(vm_global(), oom_array());
 687 
 688   Handle msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space", CHECK);
 689   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oom_array->obj_at(_oom_java_heap), msg());
 690 
 691   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("C heap space", CHECK);
 692   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oom_array->obj_at(_oom_c_heap), msg());
 693 
 694   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Metaspace", CHECK);
 695   _msg_metaspace = OopHandle(vm_global(), msg());
 696   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oom_array->obj_at(_oom_metaspace), msg());
 697 
 698   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Compressed class space", CHECK);
 699   _msg_class_metaspace = OopHandle(vm_global(), msg());
 700   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oom_array->obj_at(_oom_class_metaspace), msg());
 701 
 702   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Requested array size exceeds VM limit", CHECK);
 703   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oom_array->obj_at(_oom_array_size), msg());
 704 
 705   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("GC overhead limit exceeded", CHECK);
 706   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oom_array->obj_at(_oom_gc_overhead_limit), msg());
 707 
 708   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space: failed reallocation of scalar replaced objects", CHECK);
 709   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oom_array->obj_at(_oom_realloc_objects), msg());
 710 
 711   msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("Java heap space: failed retryable allocation", CHECK);
 712   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(oom_array->obj_at(_oom_retry), msg());
 713 
 714   // Setup the array of errors that have preallocated backtrace
 715   int len = (StackTraceInThrowable) ? (int)PreallocatedOutOfMemoryErrorCount : 0;
 716   objArrayOop instance = oopFactory::new_objArray(ik, len, CHECK);
 717   _preallocated_out_of_memory_error_array = OopHandle(vm_global(), instance);
 718   objArrayHandle preallocated_oom_array(THREAD, instance);
 719 
 720   for (int i=0; i<len; i++) {
 721     oop err = ik->allocate_instance(CHECK);
 722     Handle err_h(THREAD, err);
 723     java_lang_Throwable::allocate_backtrace(err_h, CHECK);
 724     preallocated_oom_array->obj_at_put(i, err_h());
 725   }
 726   _preallocated_out_of_memory_error_avail_count = (jint)len;
 727 }
 728 
 729 intptr_t Universe::_non_oop_bits = 0;
 730 
 731 void* Universe::non_oop_word() {
 732   // Neither the high bits nor the low bits of this value is allowed
 733   // to look like (respectively) the high or low bits of a real oop.
 734   //
 735   // High and low are CPU-specific notions, but low always includes
 736   // the low-order bit.  Since oops are always aligned at least mod 4,
 737   // setting the low-order bit will ensure that the low half of the
 738   // word will never look like that of a real oop.
 739   //
 740   // Using the OS-supplied non-memory-address word (usually 0 or -1)
 741   // will take care of the high bits, however many there are.
 742 
 743   if (_non_oop_bits == 0) {
 744     _non_oop_bits = (intptr_t)os::non_memory_address_word() | 1;
 745   }
 746 
 747   return (void*)_non_oop_bits;
 748 }
 749 
 750 bool Universe::contains_non_oop_word(void* p) {
 751   return *(void**)p == non_oop_word();
 752 }
 753 
 754 static void initialize_global_behaviours() {
 755   CompiledICProtectionBehaviour::set_current(new DefaultICProtectionBehaviour());
 756 }
 757 
 758 jint universe_init() {
 759   assert(!Universe::_fully_initialized, "called after initialize_vtables");
 760   guarantee(1 << LogHeapWordSize == sizeof(HeapWord),
 761          "LogHeapWordSize is incorrect.");
 762   guarantee(sizeof(oop) >= sizeof(HeapWord), "HeapWord larger than oop?");
 763   guarantee(sizeof(oop) % sizeof(HeapWord) == 0,
 764             "oop size is not not a multiple of HeapWord size");
 765 
 766   TraceTime timer("Genesis", TRACETIME_LOG(Info, startuptime));
 767 
 768   initialize_global_behaviours();
 769 
 770   GCLogPrecious::initialize();
 771 
 772 #ifdef _LP64
 773   MetaspaceShared::adjust_heap_sizes_for_dumping();
 774 #endif // _LP64
 775 
 776   GCConfig::arguments()->initialize_heap_sizes();
 777 
 778   jint status = Universe::initialize_heap();
 779   if (status != JNI_OK) {
 780     return status;
 781   }
 782 
 783   Universe::initialize_tlab();
 784 
 785   Metaspace::global_initialize();
 786   // Initialize performance counters for metaspaces
 787   MetaspaceCounters::initialize_performance_counters();
 788 
 789   // Checks 'AfterMemoryInit' constraints.
 790   if (!JVMFlagLimit::check_all_constraints(JVMFlagConstraintPhase::AfterMemoryInit)) {
 791     return JNI_EINVAL;
 792   }
 793 
 794   // Create memory for metadata.  Must be after initializing heap for
 795   // DumpSharedSpaces.
 796   ClassLoaderData::init_null_class_loader_data();
 797 
 798   // We have a heap so create the Method* caches before
 799   // Metaspace::initialize_shared_spaces() tries to populate them.
 800   Universe::_finalizer_register_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 801   Universe::_loader_addClass_cache    = new LatestMethodCache();
 802   Universe::_throw_illegal_access_error_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 803   Universe::_throw_no_such_method_error_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 804   Universe::_do_stack_walk_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 805   Universe::_is_substitutable_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 806   Universe::_primitive_type_hash_code_cache = new LatestMethodCache();
 807 
 808 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 809   DynamicArchive::check_for_dynamic_dump();
 810   if (UseSharedSpaces) {
 811     // Read the data structures supporting the shared spaces (shared
 812     // system dictionary, symbol table, etc.).  After that, access to
 813     // the file (other than the mapped regions) is no longer needed, and
 814     // the file is closed. Closing the file does not affect the
 815     // currently mapped regions.
 816     MetaspaceShared::initialize_shared_spaces();
 817     StringTable::create_table();
 818     if (ArchiveHeapLoader::is_loaded()) {
 819       StringTable::transfer_shared_strings_to_local_table();
 820     }
 821   } else
 822 #endif
 823   {
 824     SymbolTable::create_table();
 825     StringTable::create_table();
 826   }
 827 
 828 #if INCLUDE_CDS
 829   if (Arguments::is_dumping_archive()) {
 830     MetaspaceShared::prepare_for_dumping();
 831   }
 832 #endif
 833 
 834   if (strlen(VerifySubSet) > 0) {
 835     Universe::initialize_verify_flags();
 836   }
 837 
 838   ResolvedMethodTable::create_table();
 839 
 840   return JNI_OK;
 841 }
 842 
 843 jint Universe::initialize_heap() {
 844   assert(_collectedHeap == NULL, "Heap already created");
 845   _collectedHeap = GCConfig::arguments()->create_heap();
 846 
 847   log_info(gc)("Using %s", _collectedHeap->name());
 848   return _collectedHeap->initialize();
 849 }
 850 
 851 void Universe::initialize_tlab() {
 852   ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::set_max_size(Universe::heap()->max_tlab_size());
 853   PLAB::startup_initialization();
 854   if (UseTLAB) {
 855     ThreadLocalAllocBuffer::startup_initialization();
 856   }
 857 }
 858 
 859 ReservedHeapSpace Universe::reserve_heap(size_t heap_size, size_t alignment) {
 860 
 861   assert(alignment <= Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment(),
 862          "actual alignment " SIZE_FORMAT " must be within maximum heap alignment " SIZE_FORMAT,
 863          alignment, Arguments::conservative_max_heap_alignment());
 864 
 865   size_t total_reserved = align_up(heap_size, alignment);
 866   assert(!UseCompressedOops || (total_reserved <= (OopEncodingHeapMax - os::vm_page_size())),
 867       "heap size is too big for compressed oops");
 868 
 869   size_t page_size = os::vm_page_size();
 870   if (UseLargePages && is_aligned(alignment, os::large_page_size())) {
 871     page_size = os::large_page_size();
 872   } else {
 873     // Parallel is the only collector that might opt out of using large pages
 874     // for the heap.
 875     assert(!UseLargePages || UseParallelGC , "Wrong alignment to use large pages");
 876   }
 877 
 878   // Now create the space.
 879   ReservedHeapSpace total_rs(total_reserved, alignment, page_size, AllocateHeapAt);
 880 
 881   if (total_rs.is_reserved()) {
 882     assert((total_reserved == total_rs.size()) && ((uintptr_t)total_rs.base() % alignment == 0),
 883            "must be exactly of required size and alignment");
 884     // We are good.
 885 
 886     if (AllocateHeapAt != NULL) {
 887       log_info(gc,heap)("Successfully allocated Java heap at location %s", AllocateHeapAt);
 888     }
 889 
 890     if (UseCompressedOops) {
 891       CompressedOops::initialize(total_rs);
 892     }
 893 
 894     Universe::calculate_verify_data((HeapWord*)total_rs.base(), (HeapWord*)total_rs.end());
 895 
 896     return total_rs;
 897   }
 898 
 899   vm_exit_during_initialization(
 900     err_msg("Could not reserve enough space for " SIZE_FORMAT "KB object heap",
 901             total_reserved/K));
 902 
 903   // satisfy compiler
 904   ShouldNotReachHere();
 905   return ReservedHeapSpace(0, 0, os::vm_page_size());
 906 }
 907 
 908 OopStorage* Universe::vm_weak() {
 909   return Universe::_vm_weak;
 910 }
 911 
 912 OopStorage* Universe::vm_global() {
 913   return Universe::_vm_global;
 914 }
 915 
 916 void Universe::oopstorage_init() {
 917   Universe::_vm_global = OopStorageSet::create_strong("VM Global", mtInternal);
 918   Universe::_vm_weak = OopStorageSet::create_weak("VM Weak", mtInternal);
 919 }
 920 
 921 void universe_oopstorage_init() {
 922   Universe::oopstorage_init();
 923 }
 924 
 925 void initialize_known_method(LatestMethodCache* method_cache,
 926                              InstanceKlass* ik,
 927                              const char* method,
 928                              Symbol* signature,
 929                              bool is_static, TRAPS)
 930 {
 931   TempNewSymbol name = SymbolTable::new_symbol(method);
 932   Method* m = NULL;
 933   // The klass must be linked before looking up the method.
 934   if (!ik->link_class_or_fail(THREAD) ||
 935       ((m = ik->find_method(name, signature)) == NULL) ||
 936       is_static != m->is_static()) {
 937     ResourceMark rm(THREAD);
 938     // NoSuchMethodException doesn't actually work because it tries to run the
 939     // <init> function before java_lang_Class is linked. Print error and exit.
 940     vm_exit_during_initialization(err_msg("Unable to link/verify %s.%s method",
 941                                  ik->name()->as_C_string(), method));
 942   }
 943   method_cache->init(ik, m);
 944 }
 945 
 946 void Universe::initialize_known_methods(TRAPS) {
 947   // Set up static method for registering finalizers
 948   initialize_known_method(_finalizer_register_cache,
 949                           vmClasses::Finalizer_klass(),
 950                           "register",
 951                           vmSymbols::object_void_signature(), true, CHECK);
 952 
 953   initialize_known_method(_throw_illegal_access_error_cache,
 954                           vmClasses::internal_Unsafe_klass(),
 955                           "throwIllegalAccessError",
 956                           vmSymbols::void_method_signature(), true, CHECK);
 957 
 958   initialize_known_method(_throw_no_such_method_error_cache,
 959                           vmClasses::internal_Unsafe_klass(),
 960                           "throwNoSuchMethodError",
 961                           vmSymbols::void_method_signature(), true, CHECK);
 962 
 963   // Set up method for registering loaded classes in class loader vector
 964   initialize_known_method(_loader_addClass_cache,
 965                           vmClasses::ClassLoader_klass(),
 966                           "addClass",
 967                           vmSymbols::class_void_signature(), false, CHECK);
 968 
 969   // Set up method for stack walking
 970   initialize_known_method(_do_stack_walk_cache,
 971                           vmClasses::AbstractStackWalker_klass(),
 972                           "doStackWalk",
 973                           vmSymbols::doStackWalk_signature(), false, CHECK);
 974 
 975   // Set up substitutability testing
 976   ResourceMark rm;
 977   initialize_known_method(_is_substitutable_cache,
 978                           vmClasses::PrimitiveObjectMethods_klass(),
 979                           vmSymbols::isSubstitutable_name()->as_C_string(),
 980                           vmSymbols::object_object_boolean_signature(), true, CHECK);
 981   initialize_known_method(_primitive_type_hash_code_cache,
 982                           vmClasses::PrimitiveObjectMethods_klass(),
 983                           vmSymbols::primitiveObjectHashCode_name()->as_C_string(),
 984                           vmSymbols::object_int_signature(), true, CHECK);
 985 }
 986 
 987 void universe2_init() {
 988   EXCEPTION_MARK;
 989   Universe::genesis(CATCH);
 990 }
 991 
 992 // Set after initialization of the module runtime, call_initModuleRuntime
 993 void universe_post_module_init() {
 994   Universe::_module_initialized = true;
 995 }
 996 
 997 bool universe_post_init() {
 998   assert(!is_init_completed(), "Error: initialization not yet completed!");
 999   Universe::_fully_initialized = true;
1000   EXCEPTION_MARK;
1001   if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
1002     reinitialize_vtables();
1003     reinitialize_itables();
1004   }
1005 
1006   HandleMark hm(THREAD);
1007   // Setup preallocated empty java.lang.Class array for Method reflection.
1008 
1009   objArrayOop the_empty_class_array = oopFactory::new_objArray(vmClasses::Class_klass(), 0, CHECK_false);
1010   Universe::_the_empty_class_array = OopHandle(Universe::vm_global(), the_empty_class_array);
1011 
1012   // Setup preallocated OutOfMemoryError errors
1013   Universe::create_preallocated_out_of_memory_errors(CHECK_false);
1014 
1015   oop instance;
1016   // Setup preallocated cause message for delayed StackOverflowError
1017   if (StackReservedPages > 0) {
1018     instance = java_lang_String::create_oop_from_str("Delayed StackOverflowError due to ReservedStackAccess annotated method", CHECK_false);
1019     Universe::_delayed_stack_overflow_error_message = OopHandle(Universe::vm_global(), instance);
1020   }
1021 
1022   // Setup preallocated NullPointerException
1023   // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
1024   Klass* k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_NullPointerException(), true, CHECK_false);
1025   instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1026   Universe::_null_ptr_exception_instance = OopHandle(Universe::vm_global(), instance);
1027 
1028   // Setup preallocated ArithmeticException
1029   // (this is currently used for a cheap & dirty solution in compiler exception handling)
1030   k = SystemDictionary::resolve_or_fail(vmSymbols::java_lang_ArithmeticException(), true, CHECK_false);
1031   instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1032   Universe::_arithmetic_exception_instance = OopHandle(Universe::vm_global(), instance);
1033 
1034   // Virtual Machine Error for when we get into a situation we can't resolve
1035   k = vmClasses::VirtualMachineError_klass();
1036   bool linked = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->link_class_or_fail(CHECK_false);
1037   if (!linked) {
1038      tty->print_cr("Unable to link/verify VirtualMachineError class");
1039      return false; // initialization failed
1040   }
1041   instance = InstanceKlass::cast(k)->allocate_instance(CHECK_false);
1042   Universe::_virtual_machine_error_instance = OopHandle(Universe::vm_global(), instance);
1043 
1044   Handle msg = java_lang_String::create_from_str("/ by zero", CHECK_false);
1045   java_lang_Throwable::set_message(Universe::arithmetic_exception_instance(), msg());
1046 
1047   Universe::initialize_known_methods(CHECK_false);
1048 
1049   // This needs to be done before the first scavenge/gc, since
1050   // it's an input to soft ref clearing policy.
1051   {
1052     MutexLocker x(THREAD, Heap_lock);
1053     Universe::heap()->update_capacity_and_used_at_gc();
1054   }
1055 
1056   // ("weak") refs processing infrastructure initialization
1057   Universe::heap()->post_initialize();
1058 
1059   MemoryService::add_metaspace_memory_pools();
1060 
1061   MemoryService::set_universe_heap(Universe::heap());
1062 #if INCLUDE_CDS
1063   MetaspaceShared::post_initialize(CHECK_false);
1064 #endif
1065   return true;
1066 }
1067 
1068 
1069 void Universe::compute_base_vtable_size() {
1070   _base_vtable_size = ClassLoader::compute_Object_vtable();
1071 }
1072 
1073 void Universe::print_on(outputStream* st) {
1074   GCMutexLocker hl(Heap_lock); // Heap_lock might be locked by caller thread.
1075   st->print_cr("Heap");
1076   heap()->print_on(st);
1077 }
1078 
1079 void Universe::print_heap_at_SIGBREAK() {
1080   if (PrintHeapAtSIGBREAK) {
1081     print_on(tty);
1082     tty->cr();
1083     tty->flush();
1084   }
1085 }
1086 
1087 void Universe::initialize_verify_flags() {
1088   verify_flags = 0;
1089   const char delimiter[] = " ,";
1090 
1091   size_t length = strlen(VerifySubSet);
1092   char* subset_list = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, length + 1, mtInternal);
1093   strncpy(subset_list, VerifySubSet, length + 1);
1094   char* save_ptr;
1095 
1096   char* token = strtok_r(subset_list, delimiter, &save_ptr);
1097   while (token != NULL) {
1098     if (strcmp(token, "threads") == 0) {
1099       verify_flags |= Verify_Threads;
1100     } else if (strcmp(token, "heap") == 0) {
1101       verify_flags |= Verify_Heap;
1102     } else if (strcmp(token, "symbol_table") == 0) {
1103       verify_flags |= Verify_SymbolTable;
1104     } else if (strcmp(token, "string_table") == 0) {
1105       verify_flags |= Verify_StringTable;
1106     } else if (strcmp(token, "codecache") == 0) {
1107       verify_flags |= Verify_CodeCache;
1108     } else if (strcmp(token, "dictionary") == 0) {
1109       verify_flags |= Verify_SystemDictionary;
1110     } else if (strcmp(token, "classloader_data_graph") == 0) {
1111       verify_flags |= Verify_ClassLoaderDataGraph;
1112     } else if (strcmp(token, "metaspace") == 0) {
1113       verify_flags |= Verify_MetaspaceUtils;
1114     } else if (strcmp(token, "jni_handles") == 0) {
1115       verify_flags |= Verify_JNIHandles;
1116     } else if (strcmp(token, "codecache_oops") == 0) {
1117       verify_flags |= Verify_CodeCacheOops;
1118     } else if (strcmp(token, "resolved_method_table") == 0) {
1119       verify_flags |= Verify_ResolvedMethodTable;
1120     } else if (strcmp(token, "stringdedup") == 0) {
1121       verify_flags |= Verify_StringDedup;
1122     } else {
1123       vm_exit_during_initialization(err_msg("VerifySubSet: \'%s\' memory sub-system is unknown, please correct it", token));
1124     }
1125     token = strtok_r(NULL, delimiter, &save_ptr);
1126   }
1127   FREE_C_HEAP_ARRAY(char, subset_list);
1128 }
1129 
1130 bool Universe::should_verify_subset(uint subset) {
1131   if (verify_flags & subset) {
1132     return true;
1133   }
1134   return false;
1135 }
1136 
1137 void Universe::verify(VerifyOption option, const char* prefix) {
1138   COMPILER2_PRESENT(
1139     assert(!DerivedPointerTable::is_active(),
1140          "DPT should not be active during verification "
1141          "(of thread stacks below)");
1142   )
1143 
1144   Thread* thread = Thread::current();
1145   ResourceMark rm(thread);
1146   HandleMark hm(thread);  // Handles created during verification can be zapped
1147   _verify_count++;
1148 
1149   FormatBuffer<> title("Verifying %s", prefix);
1150   GCTraceTime(Info, gc, verify) tm(title.buffer());
1151   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_Threads)) {
1152     log_debug(gc, verify)("Threads");
1153     Threads::verify();
1154   }
1155   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_Heap)) {
1156     log_debug(gc, verify)("Heap");
1157     heap()->verify(option);
1158   }
1159   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_SymbolTable)) {
1160     log_debug(gc, verify)("SymbolTable");
1161     SymbolTable::verify();
1162   }
1163   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_StringTable)) {
1164     log_debug(gc, verify)("StringTable");
1165     StringTable::verify();
1166   }
1167   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_CodeCache)) {
1168     log_debug(gc, verify)("CodeCache");
1169     CodeCache::verify();
1170   }
1171   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_SystemDictionary)) {
1172     log_debug(gc, verify)("SystemDictionary");
1173     SystemDictionary::verify();
1174   }
1175   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_ClassLoaderDataGraph)) {
1176     log_debug(gc, verify)("ClassLoaderDataGraph");
1177     ClassLoaderDataGraph::verify();
1178   }
1179   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_MetaspaceUtils)) {
1180     log_debug(gc, verify)("MetaspaceUtils");
1181     DEBUG_ONLY(MetaspaceUtils::verify();)
1182   }
1183   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_JNIHandles)) {
1184     log_debug(gc, verify)("JNIHandles");
1185     JNIHandles::verify();
1186   }
1187   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_CodeCacheOops)) {
1188     log_debug(gc, verify)("CodeCache Oops");
1189     CodeCache::verify_oops();
1190   }
1191   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_ResolvedMethodTable)) {
1192     log_debug(gc, verify)("ResolvedMethodTable Oops");
1193     ResolvedMethodTable::verify();
1194   }
1195   if (should_verify_subset(Verify_StringDedup)) {
1196     log_debug(gc, verify)("String Deduplication");
1197     StringDedup::verify();
1198   }
1199 }
1200 
1201 
1202 #ifndef PRODUCT
1203 void Universe::calculate_verify_data(HeapWord* low_boundary, HeapWord* high_boundary) {
1204   assert(low_boundary < high_boundary, "bad interval");
1205 
1206   // decide which low-order bits we require to be clear:
1207   size_t alignSize = MinObjAlignmentInBytes;
1208   size_t min_object_size = CollectedHeap::min_fill_size();
1209 
1210   // make an inclusive limit:
1211   uintptr_t max = (uintptr_t)high_boundary - min_object_size*wordSize;
1212   uintptr_t min = (uintptr_t)low_boundary;
1213   assert(min < max, "bad interval");
1214   uintptr_t diff = max ^ min;
1215 
1216   // throw away enough low-order bits to make the diff vanish
1217   uintptr_t mask = (uintptr_t)(-1);
1218   while ((mask & diff) != 0)
1219     mask <<= 1;
1220   uintptr_t bits = (min & mask);
1221   assert(bits == (max & mask), "correct mask");
1222   // check an intermediate value between min and max, just to make sure:
1223   assert(bits == ((min + (max-min)/2) & mask), "correct mask");
1224 
1225   // require address alignment, too:
1226   mask |= (alignSize - 1);
1227 
1228   if (!(_verify_oop_mask == 0 && _verify_oop_bits == (uintptr_t)-1)) {
1229     assert(_verify_oop_mask == mask && _verify_oop_bits == bits, "mask stability");
1230   }
1231   _verify_oop_mask = mask;
1232   _verify_oop_bits = bits;
1233 }
1234 
1235 // Oop verification (see MacroAssembler::verify_oop)
1236 
1237 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_mask() {
1238   return _verify_oop_mask;
1239 }
1240 
1241 uintptr_t Universe::verify_oop_bits() {
1242   return _verify_oop_bits;
1243 }
1244 
1245 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_mask() {
1246   return markWord::lock_mask_in_place;
1247 }
1248 
1249 uintptr_t Universe::verify_mark_bits() {
1250   intptr_t mask = verify_mark_mask();
1251   intptr_t bits = (intptr_t)markWord::prototype().value();
1252   assert((bits & ~mask) == 0, "no stray header bits");
1253   return bits;
1254 }
1255 #endif // PRODUCT
1256 
1257 
1258 void LatestMethodCache::init(Klass* k, Method* m) {
1259   if (!UseSharedSpaces) {
1260     _klass = k;
1261   }
1262 #ifndef PRODUCT
1263   else {
1264     // sharing initialization should have already set up _klass
1265     assert(_klass != NULL, "just checking");
1266   }
1267 #endif
1268 
1269   _method_idnum = m->method_idnum();
1270   assert(_method_idnum >= 0, "sanity check");
1271 }
1272 
1273 
1274 Method* LatestMethodCache::get_method() {
1275   if (klass() == NULL) return NULL;
1276   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(klass());
1277   Method* m = ik->method_with_idnum(method_idnum());
1278   assert(m != NULL, "sanity check");
1279   return m;
1280 }
1281 
1282 #ifdef ASSERT
1283 // Release dummy object(s) at bottom of heap
1284 bool Universe::release_fullgc_alot_dummy() {
1285   MutexLocker ml(FullGCALot_lock);
1286   objArrayOop fullgc_alot_dummy_array = (objArrayOop)_fullgc_alot_dummy_array.resolve();
1287   if (fullgc_alot_dummy_array != NULL) {
1288     if (_fullgc_alot_dummy_next >= fullgc_alot_dummy_array->length()) {
1289       // No more dummies to release, release entire array instead
1290       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array.release(Universe::vm_global());
1291       _fullgc_alot_dummy_array = OopHandle(); // NULL out OopStorage pointer.
1292       return false;
1293     }
1294 
1295     // Release dummy at bottom of old generation
1296     fullgc_alot_dummy_array->obj_at_put(_fullgc_alot_dummy_next++, NULL);
1297   }
1298   return true;
1299 }
1300 
1301 bool Universe::is_gc_active() {
1302   return heap()->is_gc_active();
1303 }
1304 
1305 bool Universe::is_in_heap(const void* p) {
1306   return heap()->is_in(p);
1307 }
1308 
1309 #endif // ASSERT