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src/hotspot/share/services/heapDumper.cpp

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  23  */
  24 
  25 #include "precompiled.hpp"
  26 #include "jvm.h"
  27 #include "classfile/classLoaderData.inline.hpp"
  28 #include "classfile/classLoaderDataGraph.hpp"
  29 #include "classfile/javaClasses.inline.hpp"
  30 #include "classfile/symbolTable.hpp"
  31 #include "classfile/vmClasses.hpp"
  32 #include "classfile/vmSymbols.hpp"
  33 #include "gc/shared/gcLocker.hpp"
  34 #include "gc/shared/gcVMOperations.hpp"
  35 #include "gc/shared/workerThread.hpp"
  36 #include "jfr/jfrEvents.hpp"
  37 #include "memory/allocation.inline.hpp"
  38 #include "memory/resourceArea.hpp"
  39 #include "memory/universe.hpp"
  40 #include "oops/klass.inline.hpp"
  41 #include "oops/objArrayKlass.hpp"
  42 #include "oops/objArrayOop.inline.hpp"


  43 #include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
  44 #include "oops/typeArrayOop.inline.hpp"

  45 #include "runtime/frame.inline.hpp"
  46 #include "runtime/handles.inline.hpp"
  47 #include "runtime/javaCalls.hpp"
  48 #include "runtime/javaThread.inline.hpp"
  49 #include "runtime/jniHandles.hpp"
  50 #include "runtime/os.hpp"
  51 #include "runtime/reflectionUtils.hpp"
  52 #include "runtime/threads.hpp"
  53 #include "runtime/threadSMR.hpp"
  54 #include "runtime/vframe.hpp"
  55 #include "runtime/vmOperations.hpp"
  56 #include "runtime/vmThread.hpp"
  57 #include "services/heapDumper.hpp"
  58 #include "services/heapDumperCompression.hpp"
  59 #include "services/threadService.hpp"
  60 #include "utilities/macros.hpp"
  61 #include "utilities/ostream.hpp"
  62 
  63 /*
  64  * HPROF binary format - description copied from:

 292  *                                     7:  double array
 293  *                                     8:  byte array
 294  *                                     9:  short array
 295  *                                     10: int array
 296  *                                     11: long array
 297  *                          [u1]*      elements
 298  *
 299  * HPROF_CPU_SAMPLES        a set of sample traces of running threads
 300  *
 301  *                u4        total number of samples
 302  *                u4        # of traces
 303  *               [u4        # of samples
 304  *                u4]*      stack trace serial number
 305  *
 306  * HPROF_CONTROL_SETTINGS   the settings of on/off switches
 307  *
 308  *                u4        0x00000001: alloc traces on/off
 309  *                          0x00000002: cpu sampling on/off
 310  *                u2        stack trace depth
 311  *






















 312  *
 313  * When the header is "JAVA PROFILE 1.0.2" a heap dump can optionally
 314  * be generated as a sequence of heap dump segments. This sequence is
 315  * terminated by an end record. The additional tags allowed by format
 316  * "JAVA PROFILE 1.0.2" are:
 317  *
 318  * HPROF_HEAP_DUMP_SEGMENT  denote a heap dump segment
 319  *
 320  *               [heap dump sub-records]*
 321  *               The same sub-record types allowed by HPROF_HEAP_DUMP
 322  *
 323  * HPROF_HEAP_DUMP_END      denotes the end of a heap dump
 324  *
 325  */
 326 
 327 
 328 // HPROF tags
 329 
 330 enum hprofTag : u1 {
 331   // top-level records
 332   HPROF_UTF8                    = 0x01,
 333   HPROF_LOAD_CLASS              = 0x02,
 334   HPROF_UNLOAD_CLASS            = 0x03,
 335   HPROF_FRAME                   = 0x04,
 336   HPROF_TRACE                   = 0x05,
 337   HPROF_ALLOC_SITES             = 0x06,
 338   HPROF_HEAP_SUMMARY            = 0x07,
 339   HPROF_START_THREAD            = 0x0A,
 340   HPROF_END_THREAD              = 0x0B,
 341   HPROF_HEAP_DUMP               = 0x0C,
 342   HPROF_CPU_SAMPLES             = 0x0D,
 343   HPROF_CONTROL_SETTINGS        = 0x0E,
 344 
 345   // 1.0.2 record types
 346   HPROF_HEAP_DUMP_SEGMENT       = 0x1C,
 347   HPROF_HEAP_DUMP_END           = 0x2C,
 348 







 349   // field types
 350   HPROF_ARRAY_OBJECT            = 0x01,
 351   HPROF_NORMAL_OBJECT           = 0x02,
 352   HPROF_BOOLEAN                 = 0x04,
 353   HPROF_CHAR                    = 0x05,
 354   HPROF_FLOAT                   = 0x06,
 355   HPROF_DOUBLE                  = 0x07,
 356   HPROF_BYTE                    = 0x08,
 357   HPROF_SHORT                   = 0x09,
 358   HPROF_INT                     = 0x0A,
 359   HPROF_LONG                    = 0x0B,
 360 
 361   // data-dump sub-records
 362   HPROF_GC_ROOT_UNKNOWN         = 0xFF,
 363   HPROF_GC_ROOT_JNI_GLOBAL      = 0x01,
 364   HPROF_GC_ROOT_JNI_LOCAL       = 0x02,
 365   HPROF_GC_ROOT_JAVA_FRAME      = 0x03,
 366   HPROF_GC_ROOT_NATIVE_STACK    = 0x04,
 367   HPROF_GC_ROOT_STICKY_CLASS    = 0x05,
 368   HPROF_GC_ROOT_THREAD_BLOCK    = 0x06,
 369   HPROF_GC_ROOT_MONITOR_USED    = 0x07,
 370   HPROF_GC_ROOT_THREAD_OBJ      = 0x08,
 371   HPROF_GC_CLASS_DUMP           = 0x20,
 372   HPROF_GC_INSTANCE_DUMP        = 0x21,
 373   HPROF_GC_OBJ_ARRAY_DUMP       = 0x22,
 374   HPROF_GC_PRIM_ARRAY_DUMP      = 0x23
 375 };
 376 
 377 // Default stack trace ID (used for dummy HPROF_TRACE record)
 378 enum {
 379   STACK_TRACE_ID = 1,
 380   INITIAL_CLASS_COUNT = 200
 381 };
 382 

































































 383 // Supports I/O operations for a dump
 384 // Base class for dump and parallel dump
 385 class AbstractDumpWriter : public StackObj {
 386  protected:
 387   enum {
 388     io_buffer_max_size = 1*M,
 389     io_buffer_max_waste = 10*K,
 390     dump_segment_header_size = 9
 391   };
 392 
 393   char* _buffer;    // internal buffer
 394   size_t _size;
 395   size_t _pos;
 396 
 397   bool _in_dump_segment; // Are we currently in a dump segment?
 398   bool _is_huge_sub_record; // Are we writing a sub-record larger than the buffer size?
 399   DEBUG_ONLY(size_t _sub_record_left;) // The bytes not written for the current sub-record.
 400   DEBUG_ONLY(bool _sub_record_ended;) // True if we have called the end_sub_record().
 401 
 402   virtual void flush(bool force = false) = 0;

 881   }
 882 };
 883 
 884 Monitor* ParDumpWriter::_lock = NULL;
 885 
 886 // Support class with a collection of functions used when dumping the heap
 887 
 888 class DumperSupport : AllStatic {
 889  public:
 890 
 891   // write a header of the given type
 892   static void write_header(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, hprofTag tag, u4 len);
 893 
 894   // returns hprof tag for the given type signature
 895   static hprofTag sig2tag(Symbol* sig);
 896   // returns hprof tag for the given basic type
 897   static hprofTag type2tag(BasicType type);
 898   // Returns the size of the data to write.
 899   static u4 sig2size(Symbol* sig);
 900 
 901   // returns the size of the instance of the given class
 902   static u4 instance_size(Klass* k);
 903 
 904   // dump a jfloat
 905   static void dump_float(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, jfloat f);
 906   // dump a jdouble
 907   static void dump_double(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, jdouble d);
 908   // dumps the raw value of the given field
 909   static void dump_field_value(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, char type, oop obj, int offset);
 910   // returns the size of the static fields; also counts the static fields
 911   static u4 get_static_fields_size(InstanceKlass* ik, u2& field_count);
 912   // dumps static fields of the given class
 913   static void dump_static_fields(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, Klass* k);
 914   // dump the raw values of the instance fields of the given object
 915   static void dump_instance_fields(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, oop o);






 916   // get the count of the instance fields for a given class
 917   static u2 get_instance_fields_count(InstanceKlass* ik);
 918   // dumps the definition of the instance fields for a given class
 919   static void dump_instance_field_descriptors(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, Klass* k);
 920   // creates HPROF_GC_INSTANCE_DUMP record for the given object
 921   static void dump_instance(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, oop o);
 922   // creates HPROF_GC_CLASS_DUMP record for the given instance class
 923   static void dump_instance_class(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, Klass* k);
 924   // creates HPROF_GC_CLASS_DUMP record for a given array class
 925   static void dump_array_class(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, Klass* k);
 926 
 927   // creates HPROF_GC_OBJ_ARRAY_DUMP record for the given object array
 928   static void dump_object_array(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, objArrayOop array);


 929   // creates HPROF_GC_PRIM_ARRAY_DUMP record for the given type array
 930   static void dump_prim_array(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, typeArrayOop array);
 931   // create HPROF_FRAME record for the given method and bci
 932   static void dump_stack_frame(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, int frame_serial_num, int class_serial_num, Method* m, int bci);
 933 
 934   // check if we need to truncate an array
 935   static int calculate_array_max_length(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, arrayOop array, short header_size);



 936 
 937   // fixes up the current dump record and writes HPROF_HEAP_DUMP_END record
 938   static void end_of_dump(AbstractDumpWriter* writer);
 939 
 940   static oop mask_dormant_archived_object(oop o) {
 941     if (o != NULL && o->klass()->java_mirror() == NULL) {
 942       // Ignore this object since the corresponding java mirror is not loaded.
 943       // Might be a dormant archive object.
 944       return NULL;
 945     } else {
 946       return o;
 947     }
 948   }










 949 };
 950 
 951 // write a header of the given type
 952 void DumperSupport:: write_header(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, hprofTag tag, u4 len) {
 953   writer->write_u1(tag);
 954   writer->write_u4(0);                  // current ticks
 955   writer->write_u4(len);
 956 }
 957 
 958 // returns hprof tag for the given type signature
 959 hprofTag DumperSupport::sig2tag(Symbol* sig) {
 960   switch (sig->char_at(0)) {
 961     case JVM_SIGNATURE_CLASS    : return HPROF_NORMAL_OBJECT;

 962     case JVM_SIGNATURE_ARRAY    : return HPROF_NORMAL_OBJECT;
 963     case JVM_SIGNATURE_BYTE     : return HPROF_BYTE;
 964     case JVM_SIGNATURE_CHAR     : return HPROF_CHAR;
 965     case JVM_SIGNATURE_FLOAT    : return HPROF_FLOAT;
 966     case JVM_SIGNATURE_DOUBLE   : return HPROF_DOUBLE;
 967     case JVM_SIGNATURE_INT      : return HPROF_INT;
 968     case JVM_SIGNATURE_LONG     : return HPROF_LONG;
 969     case JVM_SIGNATURE_SHORT    : return HPROF_SHORT;
 970     case JVM_SIGNATURE_BOOLEAN  : return HPROF_BOOLEAN;
 971     default : ShouldNotReachHere(); /* to shut up compiler */ return HPROF_BYTE;
 972   }
 973 }
 974 
 975 hprofTag DumperSupport::type2tag(BasicType type) {
 976   switch (type) {
 977     case T_BYTE     : return HPROF_BYTE;
 978     case T_CHAR     : return HPROF_CHAR;
 979     case T_FLOAT    : return HPROF_FLOAT;
 980     case T_DOUBLE   : return HPROF_DOUBLE;
 981     case T_INT      : return HPROF_INT;
 982     case T_LONG     : return HPROF_LONG;
 983     case T_SHORT    : return HPROF_SHORT;
 984     case T_BOOLEAN  : return HPROF_BOOLEAN;
 985     default : ShouldNotReachHere(); /* to shut up compiler */ return HPROF_BYTE;
 986   }
 987 }
 988 
 989 u4 DumperSupport::sig2size(Symbol* sig) {
 990   switch (sig->char_at(0)) {
 991     case JVM_SIGNATURE_CLASS:

 992     case JVM_SIGNATURE_ARRAY: return sizeof(address);
 993     case JVM_SIGNATURE_BOOLEAN:
 994     case JVM_SIGNATURE_BYTE: return 1;
 995     case JVM_SIGNATURE_SHORT:
 996     case JVM_SIGNATURE_CHAR: return 2;
 997     case JVM_SIGNATURE_INT:
 998     case JVM_SIGNATURE_FLOAT: return 4;
 999     case JVM_SIGNATURE_LONG:
1000     case JVM_SIGNATURE_DOUBLE: return 8;
1001     default: ShouldNotReachHere(); /* to shut up compiler */ return 0;
1002   }
1003 }
1004 
1005 template<typename T, typename F> T bit_cast(F from) { // replace with the real thing when we can use c++20
1006   T to;
1007   static_assert(sizeof(to) == sizeof(from), "must be of the same size");
1008   memcpy(&to, &from, sizeof(to));
1009   return to;
1010 }
1011 
1012 // dump a jfloat
1013 void DumperSupport::dump_float(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, jfloat f) {
1014   if (g_isnan(f)) {
1015     writer->write_u4(0x7fc00000); // collapsing NaNs
1016   } else {
1017     writer->write_u4(bit_cast<u4>(f));
1018   }
1019 }
1020 
1021 // dump a jdouble
1022 void DumperSupport::dump_double(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, jdouble d) {
1023   if (g_isnan(d)) {
1024     writer->write_u8(0x7ff80000ull << 32); // collapsing NaNs
1025   } else {
1026     writer->write_u8(bit_cast<u8>(d));
1027   }
1028 }
1029 

1030 // dumps the raw value of the given field
1031 void DumperSupport::dump_field_value(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, char type, oop obj, int offset) {
1032   switch (type) {
1033     case JVM_SIGNATURE_CLASS :

1034     case JVM_SIGNATURE_ARRAY : {
1035       oop o = obj->obj_field_access<ON_UNKNOWN_OOP_REF | AS_NO_KEEPALIVE>(offset);
1036       if (o != NULL && log_is_enabled(Debug, cds, heap) && mask_dormant_archived_object(o) == NULL) {
1037         ResourceMark rm;
1038         log_debug(cds, heap)("skipped dormant archived object " INTPTR_FORMAT " (%s) referenced by " INTPTR_FORMAT " (%s)",
1039                              p2i(o), o->klass()->external_name(),
1040                              p2i(obj), obj->klass()->external_name());
1041       }
1042       o = mask_dormant_archived_object(o);
1043       assert(oopDesc::is_oop_or_null(o), "Expected an oop or NULL at " PTR_FORMAT, p2i(o));
1044       writer->write_objectID(o);
1045       break;
1046     }
1047     case JVM_SIGNATURE_BYTE : {
1048       jbyte b = obj->byte_field(offset);
1049       writer->write_u1(b);
1050       break;
1051     }
1052     case JVM_SIGNATURE_CHAR : {
1053       jchar c = obj->char_field(offset);

1074       writer->write_u4(i);
1075       break;
1076     }
1077     case JVM_SIGNATURE_LONG : {
1078       jlong l = obj->long_field(offset);
1079       writer->write_u8(l);
1080       break;
1081     }
1082     case JVM_SIGNATURE_BOOLEAN : {
1083       jboolean b = obj->bool_field(offset);
1084       writer->write_u1(b);
1085       break;
1086     }
1087     default : {
1088       ShouldNotReachHere();
1089       break;
1090     }
1091   }
1092 }
1093 
1094 // returns the size of the instance of the given class
1095 u4 DumperSupport::instance_size(Klass* k) {
1096   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(k);
1097   u4 size = 0;
1098 
1099   for (FieldStream fld(ik, false, false); !fld.eos(); fld.next()) {
1100     if (!fld.access_flags().is_static()) {
1101       size += sig2size(fld.signature());




1102     }
1103   }
1104   return size;
1105 }
1106 
1107 u4 DumperSupport::get_static_fields_size(InstanceKlass* ik, u2& field_count) {
1108   field_count = 0;
1109   u4 size = 0;
1110 
1111   for (FieldStream fldc(ik, true, true); !fldc.eos(); fldc.next()) {
1112     if (fldc.access_flags().is_static()) {


1113       field_count++;
1114       size += sig2size(fldc.signature());
1115     }
1116   }
1117 
1118   // Add in resolved_references which is referenced by the cpCache
1119   // The resolved_references is an array per InstanceKlass holding the
1120   // strings and other oops resolved from the constant pool.
1121   oop resolved_references = ik->constants()->resolved_references_or_null();
1122   if (resolved_references != NULL) {
1123     field_count++;
1124     size += sizeof(address);
1125 
1126     // Add in the resolved_references of the used previous versions of the class
1127     // in the case of RedefineClasses
1128     InstanceKlass* prev = ik->previous_versions();
1129     while (prev != NULL && prev->constants()->resolved_references_or_null() != NULL) {
1130       field_count++;
1131       size += sizeof(address);
1132       prev = prev->previous_versions();
1133     }
1134   }
1135 
1136   // We write the value itself plus a name and a one byte type tag per field.
1137   return size + field_count * (sizeof(address) + 1);
1138 }
1139 
1140 // dumps static fields of the given class
1141 void DumperSupport::dump_static_fields(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, Klass* k) {
1142   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(k);
1143 
1144   // dump the field descriptors and raw values
1145   for (FieldStream fld(ik, true, true); !fld.eos(); fld.next()) {
1146     if (fld.access_flags().is_static()) {


1147       Symbol* sig = fld.signature();
1148 
1149       writer->write_symbolID(fld.name());   // name
1150       writer->write_u1(sig2tag(sig));       // type
1151 
1152       // value
1153       dump_field_value(writer, sig->char_at(0), ik->java_mirror(), fld.offset());
1154     }
1155   }
1156 
1157   // Add resolved_references for each class that has them
1158   oop resolved_references = ik->constants()->resolved_references_or_null();
1159   if (resolved_references != NULL) {
1160     writer->write_symbolID(vmSymbols::resolved_references_name());  // name
1161     writer->write_u1(sig2tag(vmSymbols::object_array_signature())); // type
1162     writer->write_objectID(resolved_references);
1163 
1164     // Also write any previous versions
1165     InstanceKlass* prev = ik->previous_versions();
1166     while (prev != NULL && prev->constants()->resolved_references_or_null() != NULL) {
1167       writer->write_symbolID(vmSymbols::resolved_references_name());  // name
1168       writer->write_u1(sig2tag(vmSymbols::object_array_signature())); // type
1169       writer->write_objectID(prev->constants()->resolved_references());
1170       prev = prev->previous_versions();
1171     }
1172   }
1173 }
1174 
1175 // dump the raw values of the instance fields of the given object
1176 void DumperSupport::dump_instance_fields(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, oop o) {
1177   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(o->klass());
1178 
1179   for (FieldStream fld(ik, false, false); !fld.eos(); fld.next()) {
1180     if (!fld.access_flags().is_static()) {
1181       Symbol* sig = fld.signature();
1182       dump_field_value(writer, sig->char_at(0), o, fld.offset());







1183     }
1184   }
1185 }
1186 
1187 // dumps the definition of the instance fields for a given class





1188 u2 DumperSupport::get_instance_fields_count(InstanceKlass* ik) {
1189   u2 field_count = 0;
1190 
1191   for (FieldStream fldc(ik, true, true); !fldc.eos(); fldc.next()) {
1192     if (!fldc.access_flags().is_static()) field_count++;







1193   }
1194 
1195   return field_count;
1196 }
1197 
1198 // dumps the definition of the instance fields for a given class
1199 void DumperSupport::dump_instance_field_descriptors(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, Klass* k) {
1200   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(k);






1201 
1202   // dump the field descriptors
1203   for (FieldStream fld(ik, true, true); !fld.eos(); fld.next()) {
1204     if (!fld.access_flags().is_static()) {
1205       Symbol* sig = fld.signature();






















1206 
1207       writer->write_symbolID(fld.name());   // name
1208       writer->write_u1(sig2tag(sig));       // type

1209     }
1210   }
1211 }
1212 
1213 // creates HPROF_GC_INSTANCE_DUMP record for the given object
1214 void DumperSupport::dump_instance(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, oop o) {
1215   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(o->klass());
1216   u4 is = instance_size(ik);
1217   u4 size = 1 + sizeof(address) + 4 + sizeof(address) + 4 + is;
1218 
1219   writer->start_sub_record(HPROF_GC_INSTANCE_DUMP, size);
1220   writer->write_objectID(o);
1221   writer->write_u4(STACK_TRACE_ID);
1222 
1223   // class ID
1224   writer->write_classID(ik);
1225 
1226   // number of bytes that follow
1227   writer->write_u4(is);
1228 
1229   // field values
1230   dump_instance_fields(writer, o);
1231 
1232   writer->end_sub_record();
1233 }
1234 
1235 // creates HPROF_GC_CLASS_DUMP record for the given instance class
1236 void DumperSupport::dump_instance_class(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, Klass* k) {
1237   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(k);
1238 
1239   // We can safepoint and do a heap dump at a point where we have a Klass,
1240   // but no java mirror class has been setup for it. So we need to check
1241   // that the class is at least loaded, to avoid crash from a null mirror.
1242   if (!ik->is_loaded()) {
1243     return;
1244   }
1245 
1246   u2 static_fields_count = 0;
1247   u4 static_size = get_static_fields_size(ik, static_fields_count);
1248   u2 instance_fields_count = get_instance_fields_count(ik);
1249   u4 instance_fields_size = instance_fields_count * (sizeof(address) + 1);
1250   u4 size = 1 + sizeof(address) + 4 + 6 * sizeof(address) + 4 + 2 + 2 + static_size + 2 + instance_fields_size;

1255   writer->write_classID(ik);
1256   writer->write_u4(STACK_TRACE_ID);
1257 
1258   // super class ID
1259   InstanceKlass* java_super = ik->java_super();
1260   if (java_super == NULL) {
1261     writer->write_objectID(oop(NULL));
1262   } else {
1263     writer->write_classID(java_super);
1264   }
1265 
1266   writer->write_objectID(ik->class_loader());
1267   writer->write_objectID(ik->signers());
1268   writer->write_objectID(ik->protection_domain());
1269 
1270   // reserved
1271   writer->write_objectID(oop(NULL));
1272   writer->write_objectID(oop(NULL));
1273 
1274   // instance size
1275   writer->write_u4(DumperSupport::instance_size(ik));
1276 
1277   // size of constant pool - ignored by HAT 1.1
1278   writer->write_u2(0);
1279 
1280   // static fields
1281   writer->write_u2(static_fields_count);
1282   dump_static_fields(writer, ik);
1283 
1284   // description of instance fields
1285   writer->write_u2(instance_fields_count);
1286   dump_instance_field_descriptors(writer, ik);
1287 
1288   writer->end_sub_record();
1289 }
1290 
1291 // creates HPROF_GC_CLASS_DUMP record for the given array class
1292 void DumperSupport::dump_array_class(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, Klass* k) {
1293   InstanceKlass* ik = NULL; // bottom class for object arrays, NULL for primitive type arrays
1294   if (k->is_objArray_klass()) {
1295     Klass *bk = ObjArrayKlass::cast(k)->bottom_klass();

1309   assert(java_super != NULL, "checking");
1310   writer->write_classID(java_super);
1311 
1312   writer->write_objectID(ik == NULL ? oop(NULL) : ik->class_loader());
1313   writer->write_objectID(ik == NULL ? oop(NULL) : ik->signers());
1314   writer->write_objectID(ik == NULL ? oop(NULL) : ik->protection_domain());
1315 
1316   writer->write_objectID(oop(NULL));    // reserved
1317   writer->write_objectID(oop(NULL));
1318   writer->write_u4(0);             // instance size
1319   writer->write_u2(0);             // constant pool
1320   writer->write_u2(0);             // static fields
1321   writer->write_u2(0);             // instance fields
1322 
1323   writer->end_sub_record();
1324 
1325 }
1326 
1327 // Hprof uses an u4 as record length field,
1328 // which means we need to truncate arrays that are too long.
1329 int DumperSupport::calculate_array_max_length(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, arrayOop array, short header_size) {
1330   BasicType type = ArrayKlass::cast(array->klass())->element_type();
1331   assert(type >= T_BOOLEAN && type <= T_OBJECT, "invalid array element type");
1332 
1333   int length = array->length();
1334 
1335   int type_size;
1336   if (type == T_OBJECT) {
1337     type_size = sizeof(address);
1338   } else {
1339     type_size = type2aelembytes(type);
1340   }
1341 
1342   size_t length_in_bytes = (size_t)length * type_size;
1343   uint max_bytes = max_juint - header_size;
1344 
1345   if (length_in_bytes > max_bytes) {
1346     length = max_bytes / type_size;
1347     length_in_bytes = (size_t)length * type_size;
1348 

1349     warning("cannot dump array of type %s[] with length %d; truncating to length %d",
1350             type2name_tab[type], array->length(), length);
1351   }
1352   return length;
1353 }
1354 













1355 // creates HPROF_GC_OBJ_ARRAY_DUMP record for the given object array
1356 void DumperSupport::dump_object_array(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, objArrayOop array) {
1357   // sizeof(u1) + 2 * sizeof(u4) + sizeof(objectID) + sizeof(classID)
1358   short header_size = 1 + 2 * 4 + 2 * sizeof(address);
1359   int length = calculate_array_max_length(writer, array, header_size);
1360   u4 size = header_size + length * sizeof(address);
1361 
1362   writer->start_sub_record(HPROF_GC_OBJ_ARRAY_DUMP, size);
1363   writer->write_objectID(array);
1364   writer->write_u4(STACK_TRACE_ID);
1365   writer->write_u4(length);
1366 
1367   // array class ID
1368   writer->write_classID(array->klass());
1369 
1370   // [id]* elements
1371   for (int index = 0; index < length; index++) {
1372     oop o = array->obj_at(index);
1373     if (o != NULL && log_is_enabled(Debug, cds, heap) && mask_dormant_archived_object(o) == NULL) {
1374       ResourceMark rm;
1375       log_debug(cds, heap)("skipped dormant archived object " INTPTR_FORMAT " (%s) referenced by " INTPTR_FORMAT " (%s)",
1376                            p2i(o), o->klass()->external_name(),
1377                            p2i(array), array->klass()->external_name());
1378     }
1379     o = mask_dormant_archived_object(o);
1380     writer->write_objectID(o);
1381   }
1382 
1383   writer->end_sub_record();
1384 }
1385 








































1386 #define WRITE_ARRAY(Array, Type, Size, Length) \
1387   for (int i = 0; i < Length; i++) { writer->write_##Size((Size)Array->Type##_at(i)); }
1388 
1389 // creates HPROF_GC_PRIM_ARRAY_DUMP record for the given type array
1390 void DumperSupport::dump_prim_array(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, typeArrayOop array) {
1391   BasicType type = TypeArrayKlass::cast(array->klass())->element_type();
1392   // 2 * sizeof(u1) + 2 * sizeof(u4) + sizeof(objectID)
1393   short header_size = 2 * 1 + 2 * 4 + sizeof(address);
1394 
1395   int length = calculate_array_max_length(writer, array, header_size);
1396   int type_size = type2aelembytes(type);
1397   u4 length_in_bytes = (u4)length * type_size;
1398   u4 size = header_size + length_in_bytes;
1399 
1400   writer->start_sub_record(HPROF_GC_PRIM_ARRAY_DUMP, size);
1401   writer->write_objectID(array);
1402   writer->write_u4(STACK_TRACE_ID);
1403   writer->write_u4(length);
1404   writer->write_u1(type2tag(type));
1405 

1487                                      int bci) {
1488   int line_number;
1489   if (m->is_native()) {
1490     line_number = -3;  // native frame
1491   } else {
1492     line_number = m->line_number_from_bci(bci);
1493   }
1494 
1495   write_header(writer, HPROF_FRAME, 4*oopSize + 2*sizeof(u4));
1496   writer->write_id(frame_serial_num);               // frame serial number
1497   writer->write_symbolID(m->name());                // method's name
1498   writer->write_symbolID(m->signature());           // method's signature
1499 
1500   assert(m->method_holder()->is_instance_klass(), "not InstanceKlass");
1501   writer->write_symbolID(m->method_holder()->source_file_name());  // source file name
1502   writer->write_u4(class_serial_num);               // class serial number
1503   writer->write_u4((u4) line_number);               // line number
1504 }
1505 
1506 








































































































































































































































































1507 // Support class used to generate HPROF_UTF8 records from the entries in the
1508 // SymbolTable.
1509 
1510 class SymbolTableDumper : public SymbolClosure {
1511  private:
1512   AbstractDumpWriter* _writer;
1513   AbstractDumpWriter* writer() const                { return _writer; }
1514  public:
1515   SymbolTableDumper(AbstractDumpWriter* writer)     { _writer = writer; }
1516   void do_symbol(Symbol** p);
1517 };
1518 
1519 void SymbolTableDumper::do_symbol(Symbol** p) {
1520   ResourceMark rm;
1521   Symbol* sym = *p;
1522   int len = sym->utf8_length();
1523   if (len > 0) {
1524     char* s = sym->as_utf8();
1525     DumperSupport::write_header(writer(), HPROF_UTF8, oopSize + len);
1526     writer()->write_symbolID(sym);

1709   }
1710 
1711   if (DumperSupport::mask_dormant_archived_object(o) == NULL) {
1712     log_debug(cds, heap)("skipped dormant archived object " INTPTR_FORMAT " (%s)", p2i(o), o->klass()->external_name());
1713     return;
1714   }
1715 
1716   // If large object list exists and it is large object/array,
1717   // add oop into the list and skip scan. VM thread will process it later.
1718   if (_list != NULL && is_large(o)) {
1719     _list->atomic_push(o);
1720     return;
1721   }
1722 
1723   if (o->is_instance()) {
1724     // create a HPROF_GC_INSTANCE record for each object
1725     DumperSupport::dump_instance(writer(), o);
1726   } else if (o->is_objArray()) {
1727     // create a HPROF_GC_OBJ_ARRAY_DUMP record for each object array
1728     DumperSupport::dump_object_array(writer(), objArrayOop(o));


1729   } else if (o->is_typeArray()) {
1730     // create a HPROF_GC_PRIM_ARRAY_DUMP record for each type array
1731     DumperSupport::dump_prim_array(writer(), typeArrayOop(o));
1732   }
1733 }
1734 
1735 bool HeapObjectDumper::is_large(oop o) {
1736   size_t size = 0;
1737   if (o->is_instance()) {
1738     // Use o->size() * 8 as the upper limit of instance size to avoid iterating static fields
1739     size = o->size() * 8;
1740   } else if (o->is_objArray()) {
1741     objArrayOop array = objArrayOop(o);
1742     BasicType type = ArrayKlass::cast(array->klass())->element_type();
1743     assert(type >= T_BOOLEAN && type <= T_OBJECT, "invalid array element type");
1744     int length = array->length();
1745     int type_size = sizeof(address);
1746     size = (size_t)length * type_size;








1747   } else if (o->is_typeArray()) {
1748     typeArrayOop array = typeArrayOop(o);
1749     BasicType type = ArrayKlass::cast(array->klass())->element_type();
1750     assert(type >= T_BOOLEAN && type <= T_OBJECT, "invalid array element type");
1751     int length = array->length();
1752     int type_size = type2aelembytes(type);
1753     size = (size_t)length * type_size;
1754   }
1755   return size > HeapDumpLargeObjectList::LargeObjectSizeThreshold;
1756 }
1757 
1758 // The dumper controller for parallel heap dump
1759 class DumperController : public CHeapObj<mtInternal> {
1760  private:
1761    bool     _started;
1762    Monitor* _lock;
1763    uint   _dumper_number;
1764    uint   _complete_number;
1765 
1766  public:

1799      MonitorLocker ml(_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
1800      while (_complete_number != _dumper_number) {
1801         ml.wait();
1802      }
1803      _started = false;
1804    }
1805 };
1806 
1807 // The VM operation that performs the heap dump
1808 class VM_HeapDumper : public VM_GC_Operation, public WorkerTask {
1809  private:
1810   static VM_HeapDumper*   _global_dumper;
1811   static DumpWriter*      _global_writer;
1812   DumpWriter*             _local_writer;
1813   JavaThread*             _oome_thread;
1814   Method*                 _oome_constructor;
1815   bool                    _gc_before_heap_dump;
1816   GrowableArray<Klass*>*  _klass_map;
1817   ThreadStackTrace**      _stack_traces;
1818   int                     _num_threads;





1819   // parallel heap dump support
1820   uint                    _num_dumper_threads;
1821   uint                    _num_writer_threads;
1822   DumperController*       _dumper_controller;
1823   ParallelObjectIterator* _poi;
1824   HeapDumpLargeObjectList* _large_object_list;
1825 
1826   // VMDumperType is for thread that dumps both heap and non-heap data.
1827   static const size_t VMDumperType = 0;
1828   static const size_t WriterType = 1;
1829   static const size_t DumperType = 2;
1830   // worker id of VMDumper thread.
1831   static const size_t VMDumperWorkerId = 0;
1832 
1833   size_t get_worker_type(uint worker_id) {
1834     assert(_num_writer_threads >= 1, "Must be at least one writer");
1835     // worker id of VMDumper that dump heap and non-heap data
1836     if (worker_id == VMDumperWorkerId) {
1837       return VMDumperType;
1838     }

2211       writer()->writer_loop();
2212       return;
2213     }
2214     if (_num_dumper_threads > 1 && get_worker_type(worker_id) == DumperType) {
2215       _dumper_controller->wait_for_start_signal();
2216     }
2217   } else {
2218     // The worker 0 on all non-heap data dumping and part of heap iteration.
2219     // Write the file header - we always use 1.0.2
2220     const char* header = "JAVA PROFILE 1.0.2";
2221 
2222     // header is few bytes long - no chance to overflow int
2223     writer()->write_raw(header, strlen(header) + 1); // NUL terminated
2224     writer()->write_u4(oopSize);
2225     // timestamp is current time in ms
2226     writer()->write_u8(os::javaTimeMillis());
2227     // HPROF_UTF8 records
2228     SymbolTableDumper sym_dumper(writer());
2229     SymbolTable::symbols_do(&sym_dumper);
2230 







2231     // write HPROF_LOAD_CLASS records
2232     {
2233       LockedClassesDo locked_load_classes(&do_load_class);
2234       ClassLoaderDataGraph::classes_do(&locked_load_classes);
2235     }
2236 
2237     // write HPROF_FRAME and HPROF_TRACE records
2238     // this must be called after _klass_map is built when iterating the classes above.
2239     dump_stack_traces();
2240 
2241     // Writes HPROF_GC_CLASS_DUMP records
2242     {
2243       LockedClassesDo locked_dump_class(&do_class_dump);
2244       ClassLoaderDataGraph::classes_do(&locked_dump_class);
2245     }
2246 
2247     // HPROF_GC_ROOT_THREAD_OBJ + frames + jni locals
2248     do_threads();
2249 
2250     // HPROF_GC_ROOT_JNI_GLOBAL

2289        if (get_worker_type(worker_id) == VMDumperType) {
2290          _dumper_controller->wait_all_dumpers_complete();
2291          // clear internal buffer;
2292          pw.finish_dump_segment(true);
2293          // refresh the global_writer's buffer and position;
2294          writer()->refresh();
2295        } else {
2296          pw.finish_dump_segment(true);
2297          _dumper_controller->dumper_complete();
2298          return;
2299        }
2300     }
2301   }
2302 
2303   assert(get_worker_type(worker_id) == VMDumperType, "Heap dumper must be VMDumper");
2304   // Use writer() rather than ParDumpWriter to avoid memory consumption.
2305   HeapObjectDumper obj_dumper(writer());
2306   dump_large_objects(&obj_dumper);
2307   // Writes the HPROF_HEAP_DUMP_END record.
2308   DumperSupport::end_of_dump(writer());



2309   // We are done with writing. Release the worker threads.
2310   writer()->deactivate();


2311 }
2312 
2313 void VM_HeapDumper::dump_stack_traces() {
2314   // write a HPROF_TRACE record without any frames to be referenced as object alloc sites
2315   DumperSupport::write_header(writer(), HPROF_TRACE, 3*sizeof(u4));
2316   writer()->write_u4((u4) STACK_TRACE_ID);
2317   writer()->write_u4(0);                    // thread number
2318   writer()->write_u4(0);                    // frame count
2319 
2320   _stack_traces = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(ThreadStackTrace*, Threads::number_of_threads(), mtInternal);
2321   int frame_serial_num = 0;
2322   for (JavaThreadIteratorWithHandle jtiwh; JavaThread *thread = jtiwh.next(); ) {
2323     oop threadObj = thread->threadObj();
2324     if (threadObj != NULL && !thread->is_exiting() && !thread->is_hidden_from_external_view()) {
2325       // dump thread stack trace
2326       Thread* current_thread = Thread::current();
2327       ResourceMark rm(current_thread);
2328       HandleMark hm(current_thread);
2329 
2330       ThreadStackTrace* stack_trace = new ThreadStackTrace(thread, false);

  23  */
  24 
  25 #include "precompiled.hpp"
  26 #include "jvm.h"
  27 #include "classfile/classLoaderData.inline.hpp"
  28 #include "classfile/classLoaderDataGraph.hpp"
  29 #include "classfile/javaClasses.inline.hpp"
  30 #include "classfile/symbolTable.hpp"
  31 #include "classfile/vmClasses.hpp"
  32 #include "classfile/vmSymbols.hpp"
  33 #include "gc/shared/gcLocker.hpp"
  34 #include "gc/shared/gcVMOperations.hpp"
  35 #include "gc/shared/workerThread.hpp"
  36 #include "jfr/jfrEvents.hpp"
  37 #include "memory/allocation.inline.hpp"
  38 #include "memory/resourceArea.hpp"
  39 #include "memory/universe.hpp"
  40 #include "oops/klass.inline.hpp"
  41 #include "oops/objArrayKlass.hpp"
  42 #include "oops/objArrayOop.inline.hpp"
  43 #include "oops/flatArrayKlass.hpp"
  44 #include "oops/flatArrayOop.inline.hpp"
  45 #include "oops/oop.inline.hpp"
  46 #include "oops/typeArrayOop.inline.hpp"
  47 #include "runtime/fieldDescriptor.inline.hpp"
  48 #include "runtime/frame.inline.hpp"
  49 #include "runtime/handles.inline.hpp"
  50 #include "runtime/javaCalls.hpp"
  51 #include "runtime/javaThread.inline.hpp"
  52 #include "runtime/jniHandles.hpp"
  53 #include "runtime/os.hpp"
  54 #include "runtime/reflectionUtils.hpp"
  55 #include "runtime/threads.hpp"
  56 #include "runtime/threadSMR.hpp"
  57 #include "runtime/vframe.hpp"
  58 #include "runtime/vmOperations.hpp"
  59 #include "runtime/vmThread.hpp"
  60 #include "services/heapDumper.hpp"
  61 #include "services/heapDumperCompression.hpp"
  62 #include "services/threadService.hpp"
  63 #include "utilities/macros.hpp"
  64 #include "utilities/ostream.hpp"
  65 
  66 /*
  67  * HPROF binary format - description copied from:

 295  *                                     7:  double array
 296  *                                     8:  byte array
 297  *                                     9:  short array
 298  *                                     10: int array
 299  *                                     11: long array
 300  *                          [u1]*      elements
 301  *
 302  * HPROF_CPU_SAMPLES        a set of sample traces of running threads
 303  *
 304  *                u4        total number of samples
 305  *                u4        # of traces
 306  *               [u4        # of samples
 307  *                u4]*      stack trace serial number
 308  *
 309  * HPROF_CONTROL_SETTINGS   the settings of on/off switches
 310  *
 311  *                u4        0x00000001: alloc traces on/off
 312  *                          0x00000002: cpu sampling on/off
 313  *                u2        stack trace depth
 314  *
 315  * HPROF_FLAT_ARRAYS        list of flat arrays
 316  *
 317  *               [flat array sub-records]*
 318  *
 319  *               HPROF_FLAT_ARRAY      flat array
 320  *
 321  *                          id         array object ID (dumped as HPROF_GC_PRIM_ARRAY_DUMP)
 322  *                          id         element class ID (dumped by HPROF_GC_CLASS_DUMP)
 323  *
 324  * HPROF_INLINED_FIELDS     decribes inlined fields
 325  *
 326  *               [class with inlined fields sub-records]*
 327  *
 328  *               HPROF_CLASS_WITH_INLINED_FIELDS
 329  *
 330  *                          id         class ID (dumped as HPROF_GC_CLASS_DUMP)
 331  *
 332  *                          u2         number of instance inlined fields (not including super)
 333  *                          [u2,       inlined field index,
 334  *                           u2,       synthetic field count,
 335  *                           id,       original field name,
 336  *                           id]*      inlined field class ID (dumped by HPROF_GC_CLASS_DUMP)
 337  *
 338  * When the header is "JAVA PROFILE 1.0.2" a heap dump can optionally
 339  * be generated as a sequence of heap dump segments. This sequence is
 340  * terminated by an end record. The additional tags allowed by format
 341  * "JAVA PROFILE 1.0.2" are:
 342  *
 343  * HPROF_HEAP_DUMP_SEGMENT  denote a heap dump segment
 344  *
 345  *               [heap dump sub-records]*
 346  *               The same sub-record types allowed by HPROF_HEAP_DUMP
 347  *
 348  * HPROF_HEAP_DUMP_END      denotes the end of a heap dump
 349  *
 350  */
 351 
 352 
 353 // HPROF tags
 354 
 355 enum hprofTag : u1 {
 356   // top-level records
 357   HPROF_UTF8                    = 0x01,
 358   HPROF_LOAD_CLASS              = 0x02,
 359   HPROF_UNLOAD_CLASS            = 0x03,
 360   HPROF_FRAME                   = 0x04,
 361   HPROF_TRACE                   = 0x05,
 362   HPROF_ALLOC_SITES             = 0x06,
 363   HPROF_HEAP_SUMMARY            = 0x07,
 364   HPROF_START_THREAD            = 0x0A,
 365   HPROF_END_THREAD              = 0x0B,
 366   HPROF_HEAP_DUMP               = 0x0C,
 367   HPROF_CPU_SAMPLES             = 0x0D,
 368   HPROF_CONTROL_SETTINGS        = 0x0E,
 369 
 370   // 1.0.2 record types
 371   HPROF_HEAP_DUMP_SEGMENT       = 0x1C,
 372   HPROF_HEAP_DUMP_END           = 0x2C,
 373 
 374   // inlined object support
 375   HPROF_FLAT_ARRAYS             = 0x12,
 376   HPROF_INLINED_FIELDS          = 0x13,
 377   // inlined object subrecords
 378   HPROF_FLAT_ARRAY                  = 0x01,
 379   HPROF_CLASS_WITH_INLINED_FIELDS   = 0x01,
 380 
 381   // field types
 382   HPROF_ARRAY_OBJECT            = 0x01,
 383   HPROF_NORMAL_OBJECT           = 0x02,
 384   HPROF_BOOLEAN                 = 0x04,
 385   HPROF_CHAR                    = 0x05,
 386   HPROF_FLOAT                   = 0x06,
 387   HPROF_DOUBLE                  = 0x07,
 388   HPROF_BYTE                    = 0x08,
 389   HPROF_SHORT                   = 0x09,
 390   HPROF_INT                     = 0x0A,
 391   HPROF_LONG                    = 0x0B,
 392 
 393   // data-dump sub-records
 394   HPROF_GC_ROOT_UNKNOWN         = 0xFF,
 395   HPROF_GC_ROOT_JNI_GLOBAL      = 0x01,
 396   HPROF_GC_ROOT_JNI_LOCAL       = 0x02,
 397   HPROF_GC_ROOT_JAVA_FRAME      = 0x03,
 398   HPROF_GC_ROOT_NATIVE_STACK    = 0x04,
 399   HPROF_GC_ROOT_STICKY_CLASS    = 0x05,
 400   HPROF_GC_ROOT_THREAD_BLOCK    = 0x06,
 401   HPROF_GC_ROOT_MONITOR_USED    = 0x07,
 402   HPROF_GC_ROOT_THREAD_OBJ      = 0x08,
 403   HPROF_GC_CLASS_DUMP           = 0x20,
 404   HPROF_GC_INSTANCE_DUMP        = 0x21,
 405   HPROF_GC_OBJ_ARRAY_DUMP       = 0x22,
 406   HPROF_GC_PRIM_ARRAY_DUMP      = 0x23
 407 };
 408 
 409 // Default stack trace ID (used for dummy HPROF_TRACE record)
 410 enum {
 411   STACK_TRACE_ID = 1,
 412   INITIAL_CLASS_COUNT = 200
 413 };
 414 
 415 
 416 class AbstractDumpWriter;
 417 
 418 class InlinedObjects {
 419 
 420   struct ClassInlinedFields {
 421     const Klass *klass;
 422     uintx base_index;   // base index of the inlined field names (1st field has index base_index+1).
 423     ClassInlinedFields(const Klass *klass = nullptr, uintx base_index = 0) : klass(klass), base_index(base_index) {}
 424 
 425     // For GrowableArray::find_sorted().
 426     static int compare(const ClassInlinedFields& a, const ClassInlinedFields& b) {
 427       return a.klass - b.klass;
 428     }
 429     // For GrowableArray::sort().
 430     static int compare(ClassInlinedFields* a, ClassInlinedFields* b) {
 431       return compare(*a, *b);
 432     }
 433   };
 434 
 435   uintx _min_string_id;
 436   uintx _max_string_id;
 437 
 438   GrowableArray<ClassInlinedFields> *_inlined_field_map;
 439 
 440   // counters for classes with inlined fields and for the fields
 441   int _classes_count;
 442   int _inlined_fields_count;
 443 
 444   static InlinedObjects *_instance;
 445 
 446   static void inlined_field_names_callback(InlinedObjects* _this, const Klass *klass, uintx base_index, int count);
 447 
 448   GrowableArray<oop> *_flat_arrays;
 449 
 450 public:
 451   InlinedObjects()
 452     : _min_string_id(0), _max_string_id(0),
 453     _inlined_field_map(nullptr),
 454     _classes_count(0), _inlined_fields_count(0),
 455     _flat_arrays(nullptr) {
 456   }
 457 
 458   static InlinedObjects* get_instance() {
 459     return _instance;
 460   }
 461 
 462   void init();
 463   void release();
 464 
 465   void dump_inlined_field_names(AbstractDumpWriter *writer);
 466 
 467   uintx get_base_index_for(Klass* k);
 468   uintx get_next_string_id(uintx id);
 469 
 470   void dump_classed_with_inlined_fields(AbstractDumpWriter* writer);
 471 
 472   void add_flat_array(oop array);
 473   void dump_flat_arrays(AbstractDumpWriter* writer);
 474 
 475 };
 476 
 477 InlinedObjects *InlinedObjects::_instance = nullptr;
 478 
 479 
 480 // Supports I/O operations for a dump
 481 // Base class for dump and parallel dump
 482 class AbstractDumpWriter : public StackObj {
 483  protected:
 484   enum {
 485     io_buffer_max_size = 1*M,
 486     io_buffer_max_waste = 10*K,
 487     dump_segment_header_size = 9
 488   };
 489 
 490   char* _buffer;    // internal buffer
 491   size_t _size;
 492   size_t _pos;
 493 
 494   bool _in_dump_segment; // Are we currently in a dump segment?
 495   bool _is_huge_sub_record; // Are we writing a sub-record larger than the buffer size?
 496   DEBUG_ONLY(size_t _sub_record_left;) // The bytes not written for the current sub-record.
 497   DEBUG_ONLY(bool _sub_record_ended;) // True if we have called the end_sub_record().
 498 
 499   virtual void flush(bool force = false) = 0;

 978   }
 979 };
 980 
 981 Monitor* ParDumpWriter::_lock = NULL;
 982 
 983 // Support class with a collection of functions used when dumping the heap
 984 
 985 class DumperSupport : AllStatic {
 986  public:
 987 
 988   // write a header of the given type
 989   static void write_header(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, hprofTag tag, u4 len);
 990 
 991   // returns hprof tag for the given type signature
 992   static hprofTag sig2tag(Symbol* sig);
 993   // returns hprof tag for the given basic type
 994   static hprofTag type2tag(BasicType type);
 995   // Returns the size of the data to write.
 996   static u4 sig2size(Symbol* sig);
 997 
 998   // calculates the total size of the all fields of the given class.
 999   static u4 instance_size(InstanceKlass* ik);
1000 
1001   // dump a jfloat
1002   static void dump_float(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, jfloat f);
1003   // dump a jdouble
1004   static void dump_double(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, jdouble d);
1005   // dumps the raw value of the given field
1006   static void dump_field_value(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, char type, oop obj, int offset);
1007   // returns the size of the static fields; also counts the static fields
1008   static u4 get_static_fields_size(InstanceKlass* ik, u2& field_count);
1009   // dumps static fields of the given class
1010   static void dump_static_fields(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, Klass* k);
1011   // dump the raw values of the instance fields of the given identity or inlined object;
1012   // for identity objects offset is 0 and 'klass' is o->klass(),
1013   // for inlined objects offset is the offset in the holder object, 'klass' is inlined object class
1014   static void dump_instance_fields(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, oop o, int offset, InstanceKlass* klass);
1015   // dump the raw values of the instance fields of the given inlined object;
1016   // dump_instance_fields wrapper for inlined objects
1017   static void dump_inlined_object_fields(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, oop o, int offset, InlineKlass* klass);
1018 
1019   // get the count of the instance fields for a given class
1020   static u2 get_instance_fields_count(InstanceKlass* ik);
1021   // dumps the definition of the instance fields for a given class
1022   static void dump_instance_field_descriptors(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, InstanceKlass* k, uintx *inlined_fields_index = nullptr);
1023   // creates HPROF_GC_INSTANCE_DUMP record for the given object
1024   static void dump_instance(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, oop o);
1025   // creates HPROF_GC_CLASS_DUMP record for the given instance class
1026   static void dump_instance_class(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, Klass* k);
1027   // creates HPROF_GC_CLASS_DUMP record for a given array class
1028   static void dump_array_class(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, Klass* k);
1029 
1030   // creates HPROF_GC_OBJ_ARRAY_DUMP record for the given object array
1031   static void dump_object_array(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, objArrayOop array);
1032   // creates HPROF_GC_PRIM_ARRAY_DUMP record for the given flat array
1033   static void dump_flat_array(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, flatArrayOop array);
1034   // creates HPROF_GC_PRIM_ARRAY_DUMP record for the given type array
1035   static void dump_prim_array(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, typeArrayOop array);
1036   // create HPROF_FRAME record for the given method and bci
1037   static void dump_stack_frame(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, int frame_serial_num, int class_serial_num, Method* m, int bci);
1038 
1039   // check if we need to truncate an array
1040   static int calculate_array_max_length(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, arrayOop array, short header_size);
1041   // extended version to dump flat arrays as primitive arrays;
1042   // type_size specifies size of the inlined objects.
1043   static int calculate_array_max_length(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, arrayOop array, int type_size, short header_size);
1044 
1045   // fixes up the current dump record and writes HPROF_HEAP_DUMP_END record
1046   static void end_of_dump(AbstractDumpWriter* writer);
1047 
1048   static oop mask_dormant_archived_object(oop o) {
1049     if (o != NULL && o->klass()->java_mirror() == NULL) {
1050       // Ignore this object since the corresponding java mirror is not loaded.
1051       // Might be a dormant archive object.
1052       return NULL;
1053     } else {
1054       return o;
1055     }
1056   }
1057 
1058   // helper methods for inlined fields.
1059   static bool is_inlined_field(const FieldStream& fld) {
1060     return fld.field_descriptor().is_inlined();
1061   }
1062   static InlineKlass* get_inlined_field_klass(const FieldStream &fld) {
1063     assert(is_inlined_field(fld), "must be inlined field");
1064     InstanceKlass* holder_klass = fld.field_descriptor().field_holder();
1065     return InlineKlass::cast(holder_klass->get_inline_type_field_klass(fld.index()));
1066   }
1067 };
1068 
1069 // write a header of the given type
1070 void DumperSupport:: write_header(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, hprofTag tag, u4 len) {
1071   writer->write_u1(tag);
1072   writer->write_u4(0);                  // current ticks
1073   writer->write_u4(len);
1074 }
1075 
1076 // returns hprof tag for the given type signature
1077 hprofTag DumperSupport::sig2tag(Symbol* sig) {
1078   switch (sig->char_at(0)) {
1079     case JVM_SIGNATURE_CLASS    : return HPROF_NORMAL_OBJECT;
1080     case JVM_SIGNATURE_PRIMITIVE_OBJECT: return HPROF_NORMAL_OBJECT; // not inlined Q-object, i.e. identity object.
1081     case JVM_SIGNATURE_ARRAY    : return HPROF_NORMAL_OBJECT;
1082     case JVM_SIGNATURE_BYTE     : return HPROF_BYTE;
1083     case JVM_SIGNATURE_CHAR     : return HPROF_CHAR;
1084     case JVM_SIGNATURE_FLOAT    : return HPROF_FLOAT;
1085     case JVM_SIGNATURE_DOUBLE   : return HPROF_DOUBLE;
1086     case JVM_SIGNATURE_INT      : return HPROF_INT;
1087     case JVM_SIGNATURE_LONG     : return HPROF_LONG;
1088     case JVM_SIGNATURE_SHORT    : return HPROF_SHORT;
1089     case JVM_SIGNATURE_BOOLEAN  : return HPROF_BOOLEAN;
1090     default : ShouldNotReachHere(); /* to shut up compiler */ return HPROF_BYTE;
1091   }
1092 }
1093 
1094 hprofTag DumperSupport::type2tag(BasicType type) {
1095   switch (type) {
1096     case T_BYTE     : return HPROF_BYTE;
1097     case T_CHAR     : return HPROF_CHAR;
1098     case T_FLOAT    : return HPROF_FLOAT;
1099     case T_DOUBLE   : return HPROF_DOUBLE;
1100     case T_INT      : return HPROF_INT;
1101     case T_LONG     : return HPROF_LONG;
1102     case T_SHORT    : return HPROF_SHORT;
1103     case T_BOOLEAN  : return HPROF_BOOLEAN;
1104     default : ShouldNotReachHere(); /* to shut up compiler */ return HPROF_BYTE;
1105   }
1106 }
1107 
1108 u4 DumperSupport::sig2size(Symbol* sig) {
1109   switch (sig->char_at(0)) {
1110     case JVM_SIGNATURE_CLASS:
1111     case JVM_SIGNATURE_PRIMITIVE_OBJECT:
1112     case JVM_SIGNATURE_ARRAY: return sizeof(address);
1113     case JVM_SIGNATURE_BOOLEAN:
1114     case JVM_SIGNATURE_BYTE: return 1;
1115     case JVM_SIGNATURE_SHORT:
1116     case JVM_SIGNATURE_CHAR: return 2;
1117     case JVM_SIGNATURE_INT:
1118     case JVM_SIGNATURE_FLOAT: return 4;
1119     case JVM_SIGNATURE_LONG:
1120     case JVM_SIGNATURE_DOUBLE: return 8;
1121     default: ShouldNotReachHere(); /* to shut up compiler */ return 0;
1122   }
1123 }
1124 
1125 template<typename T, typename F> T bit_cast(F from) { // replace with the real thing when we can use c++20
1126   T to;
1127   static_assert(sizeof(to) == sizeof(from), "must be of the same size");
1128   memcpy(&to, &from, sizeof(to));
1129   return to;
1130 }
1131 
1132 // dump a jfloat
1133 void DumperSupport::dump_float(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, jfloat f) {
1134   if (g_isnan(f)) {
1135     writer->write_u4(0x7fc00000); // collapsing NaNs
1136   } else {
1137     writer->write_u4(bit_cast<u4>(f));
1138   }
1139 }
1140 
1141 // dump a jdouble
1142 void DumperSupport::dump_double(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, jdouble d) {
1143   if (g_isnan(d)) {
1144     writer->write_u8(0x7ff80000ull << 32); // collapsing NaNs
1145   } else {
1146     writer->write_u8(bit_cast<u8>(d));
1147   }
1148 }
1149 
1150 
1151 // dumps the raw value of the given field
1152 void DumperSupport::dump_field_value(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, char type, oop obj, int offset) {
1153   switch (type) {
1154     case JVM_SIGNATURE_CLASS :
1155     case JVM_SIGNATURE_PRIMITIVE_OBJECT: // not inlined Q-object, i.e. identity object.
1156     case JVM_SIGNATURE_ARRAY : {
1157       oop o = obj->obj_field_access<ON_UNKNOWN_OOP_REF | AS_NO_KEEPALIVE>(offset);
1158       if (o != NULL && log_is_enabled(Debug, cds, heap) && mask_dormant_archived_object(o) == NULL) {
1159         ResourceMark rm;
1160         log_debug(cds, heap)("skipped dormant archived object " INTPTR_FORMAT " (%s) referenced by " INTPTR_FORMAT " (%s)",
1161                              p2i(o), o->klass()->external_name(),
1162                              p2i(obj), obj->klass()->external_name());
1163       }
1164       o = mask_dormant_archived_object(o);
1165       assert(oopDesc::is_oop_or_null(o), "Expected an oop or NULL at " PTR_FORMAT, p2i(o));
1166       writer->write_objectID(o);
1167       break;
1168     }
1169     case JVM_SIGNATURE_BYTE : {
1170       jbyte b = obj->byte_field(offset);
1171       writer->write_u1(b);
1172       break;
1173     }
1174     case JVM_SIGNATURE_CHAR : {
1175       jchar c = obj->char_field(offset);

1196       writer->write_u4(i);
1197       break;
1198     }
1199     case JVM_SIGNATURE_LONG : {
1200       jlong l = obj->long_field(offset);
1201       writer->write_u8(l);
1202       break;
1203     }
1204     case JVM_SIGNATURE_BOOLEAN : {
1205       jboolean b = obj->bool_field(offset);
1206       writer->write_u1(b);
1207       break;
1208     }
1209     default : {
1210       ShouldNotReachHere();
1211       break;
1212     }
1213   }
1214 }
1215 
1216 // calculates the total size of the all fields of the given class.
1217 u4 DumperSupport::instance_size(InstanceKlass *ik) {

1218   u4 size = 0;
1219 
1220   for (FieldStream fld(ik, false, false); !fld.eos(); fld.next()) {
1221     if (!fld.access_flags().is_static()) {
1222       if (is_inlined_field(fld)) {
1223         size += instance_size(get_inlined_field_klass(fld));
1224       } else {
1225         size += sig2size(fld.signature());
1226       }
1227     }
1228   }
1229   return size;
1230 }
1231 
1232 u4 DumperSupport::get_static_fields_size(InstanceKlass* ik, u2& field_count) {
1233   field_count = 0;
1234   u4 size = 0;
1235 
1236   for (FieldStream fldc(ik, true, true); !fldc.eos(); fldc.next()) {
1237     if (fldc.access_flags().is_static()) {
1238       assert(!is_inlined_field(fldc), "static fields cannot be inlined");
1239 
1240       field_count++;
1241       size += sig2size(fldc.signature());
1242     }
1243   }
1244 
1245   // Add in resolved_references which is referenced by the cpCache
1246   // The resolved_references is an array per InstanceKlass holding the
1247   // strings and other oops resolved from the constant pool.
1248   oop resolved_references = ik->constants()->resolved_references_or_null();
1249   if (resolved_references != NULL) {
1250     field_count++;
1251     size += sizeof(address);
1252 
1253     // Add in the resolved_references of the used previous versions of the class
1254     // in the case of RedefineClasses
1255     InstanceKlass* prev = ik->previous_versions();
1256     while (prev != NULL && prev->constants()->resolved_references_or_null() != NULL) {
1257       field_count++;
1258       size += sizeof(address);
1259       prev = prev->previous_versions();
1260     }
1261   }
1262 
1263   // We write the value itself plus a name and a one byte type tag per field.
1264   return size + field_count * (sizeof(address) + 1);
1265 }
1266 
1267 // dumps static fields of the given class
1268 void DumperSupport::dump_static_fields(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, Klass* k) {
1269   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(k);
1270 
1271   // dump the field descriptors and raw values
1272   for (FieldStream fld(ik, true, true); !fld.eos(); fld.next()) {
1273     if (fld.access_flags().is_static()) {
1274       assert(!is_inlined_field(fld), "static fields cannot be inlined");
1275 
1276       Symbol* sig = fld.signature();
1277 
1278       writer->write_symbolID(fld.name());   // name
1279       writer->write_u1(sig2tag(sig));       // type
1280 
1281       // value
1282       dump_field_value(writer, sig->char_at(0), ik->java_mirror(), fld.offset());
1283     }
1284   }
1285 
1286   // Add resolved_references for each class that has them
1287   oop resolved_references = ik->constants()->resolved_references_or_null();
1288   if (resolved_references != NULL) {
1289     writer->write_symbolID(vmSymbols::resolved_references_name());  // name
1290     writer->write_u1(sig2tag(vmSymbols::object_array_signature())); // type
1291     writer->write_objectID(resolved_references);
1292 
1293     // Also write any previous versions
1294     InstanceKlass* prev = ik->previous_versions();
1295     while (prev != NULL && prev->constants()->resolved_references_or_null() != NULL) {
1296       writer->write_symbolID(vmSymbols::resolved_references_name());  // name
1297       writer->write_u1(sig2tag(vmSymbols::object_array_signature())); // type
1298       writer->write_objectID(prev->constants()->resolved_references());
1299       prev = prev->previous_versions();
1300     }
1301   }
1302 }
1303 
1304 // dump the raw values of the instance fields of the given identity or inlined object;
1305 // for identity objects offset is 0 and 'klass' is o->klass(),
1306 // for inlined objects offset is the offset in the holder object, 'klass' is inlined object class.
1307 void DumperSupport::dump_instance_fields(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, oop o, int offset, InstanceKlass *klass) {
1308   for (FieldStream fld(klass, false, false); !fld.eos(); fld.next()) {
1309     if (!fld.access_flags().is_static()) {
1310       if (is_inlined_field(fld)) {
1311         InlineKlass* field_klass = get_inlined_field_klass(fld);
1312         // the field is inlined, so all its fields are stored without headers.
1313         int fields_offset = offset + fld.offset() - field_klass->first_field_offset();
1314         dump_inlined_object_fields(writer, o, offset + fld.offset(), field_klass);
1315       } else {
1316         Symbol* sig = fld.signature();
1317         dump_field_value(writer, sig->char_at(0), o, offset + fld.offset());
1318       }
1319     }
1320   }
1321 }
1322 
1323 void DumperSupport::dump_inlined_object_fields(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, oop o, int offset, InlineKlass* klass) {
1324   // the object is inlined, so all its fields are stored without headers.
1325   dump_instance_fields(writer, o, offset - klass->first_field_offset(), klass);
1326 }
1327 
1328 // gets the count of the instance fields for a given class
1329 u2 DumperSupport::get_instance_fields_count(InstanceKlass* ik) {
1330   u2 field_count = 0;
1331 
1332   for (FieldStream fldc(ik, true, true); !fldc.eos(); fldc.next()) {
1333     if (!fldc.access_flags().is_static()) {
1334       if (is_inlined_field(fldc)) {
1335         // add "synthetic" fields for inlined fields.
1336         field_count += get_instance_fields_count(get_inlined_field_klass(fldc));
1337       } else {
1338         field_count++;
1339       }
1340     }
1341   }
1342 
1343   return field_count;
1344 }
1345 
1346 // dumps the definition of the instance fields for a given class
1347 // inlined_fields_id is not-NULL for inlined fields (to get synthetic field name IDs
1348 // by using InlinedObjects::get_next_string_id()).
1349 void DumperSupport::dump_instance_field_descriptors(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, InstanceKlass* ik, uintx* inlined_fields_id) {
1350   // inlined_fields_id != NULL means ik is a class of inlined field.
1351   // Inlined field id pointer for this class; lazyly initialized
1352   // if the class has inlined field(s) and the caller didn't provide inlined_fields_id.
1353   uintx *this_klass_inlined_fields_id = inlined_fields_id;
1354   uintx inlined_id = 0;
1355 
1356   // dump the field descriptors
1357   for (FieldStream fld(ik, true, true); !fld.eos(); fld.next()) {
1358     if (!fld.access_flags().is_static()) {
1359       if (is_inlined_field(fld)) {
1360         // dump "synthetic" fields for inlined fields.
1361         if (this_klass_inlined_fields_id == nullptr) {
1362           inlined_id = InlinedObjects::get_instance()->get_base_index_for(ik);
1363           this_klass_inlined_fields_id = &inlined_id;
1364         }
1365         dump_instance_field_descriptors(writer, get_inlined_field_klass(fld), this_klass_inlined_fields_id);
1366       } else {
1367         Symbol* sig = fld.signature();
1368         Symbol* name = nullptr;
1369         // Use inlined_fields_id provided by caller.
1370         if (inlined_fields_id != nullptr) {
1371           uintx name_id = InlinedObjects::get_instance()->get_next_string_id(*inlined_fields_id);
1372 
1373           // name_id == 0 is returned on error. use original field signature.
1374           if (name_id != 0) {
1375             *inlined_fields_id = name_id;
1376             name = reinterpret_cast<Symbol*>(name_id);
1377           }
1378         }
1379         if (name == nullptr) {
1380           name = fld.name();
1381         }
1382 
1383         writer->write_symbolID(name);         // name
1384         writer->write_u1(sig2tag(sig));       // type
1385       }
1386     }
1387   }
1388 }
1389 
1390 // creates HPROF_GC_INSTANCE_DUMP record for the given object
1391 void DumperSupport::dump_instance(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, oop o) {
1392   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(o->klass());
1393   u4 is = instance_size(ik);
1394   u4 size = 1 + sizeof(address) + 4 + sizeof(address) + 4 + is;
1395 
1396   writer->start_sub_record(HPROF_GC_INSTANCE_DUMP, size);
1397   writer->write_objectID(o);
1398   writer->write_u4(STACK_TRACE_ID);
1399 
1400   // class ID
1401   writer->write_classID(ik);
1402 
1403   // number of bytes that follow
1404   writer->write_u4(is);
1405 
1406   // field values
1407   dump_instance_fields(writer, o, 0, ik);
1408 
1409   writer->end_sub_record();
1410 }
1411 
1412 // creates HPROF_GC_CLASS_DUMP record for the given instance class
1413 void DumperSupport::dump_instance_class(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, Klass* k) {
1414   InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(k);
1415 
1416   // We can safepoint and do a heap dump at a point where we have a Klass,
1417   // but no java mirror class has been setup for it. So we need to check
1418   // that the class is at least loaded, to avoid crash from a null mirror.
1419   if (!ik->is_loaded()) {
1420     return;
1421   }
1422 
1423   u2 static_fields_count = 0;
1424   u4 static_size = get_static_fields_size(ik, static_fields_count);
1425   u2 instance_fields_count = get_instance_fields_count(ik);
1426   u4 instance_fields_size = instance_fields_count * (sizeof(address) + 1);
1427   u4 size = 1 + sizeof(address) + 4 + 6 * sizeof(address) + 4 + 2 + 2 + static_size + 2 + instance_fields_size;

1432   writer->write_classID(ik);
1433   writer->write_u4(STACK_TRACE_ID);
1434 
1435   // super class ID
1436   InstanceKlass* java_super = ik->java_super();
1437   if (java_super == NULL) {
1438     writer->write_objectID(oop(NULL));
1439   } else {
1440     writer->write_classID(java_super);
1441   }
1442 
1443   writer->write_objectID(ik->class_loader());
1444   writer->write_objectID(ik->signers());
1445   writer->write_objectID(ik->protection_domain());
1446 
1447   // reserved
1448   writer->write_objectID(oop(NULL));
1449   writer->write_objectID(oop(NULL));
1450 
1451   // instance size
1452   writer->write_u4(HeapWordSize * ik->size_helper());
1453 
1454   // size of constant pool - ignored by HAT 1.1
1455   writer->write_u2(0);
1456 
1457   // static fields
1458   writer->write_u2(static_fields_count);
1459   dump_static_fields(writer, ik);
1460 
1461   // description of instance fields
1462   writer->write_u2(instance_fields_count);
1463   dump_instance_field_descriptors(writer, ik);
1464 
1465   writer->end_sub_record();
1466 }
1467 
1468 // creates HPROF_GC_CLASS_DUMP record for the given array class
1469 void DumperSupport::dump_array_class(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, Klass* k) {
1470   InstanceKlass* ik = NULL; // bottom class for object arrays, NULL for primitive type arrays
1471   if (k->is_objArray_klass()) {
1472     Klass *bk = ObjArrayKlass::cast(k)->bottom_klass();

1486   assert(java_super != NULL, "checking");
1487   writer->write_classID(java_super);
1488 
1489   writer->write_objectID(ik == NULL ? oop(NULL) : ik->class_loader());
1490   writer->write_objectID(ik == NULL ? oop(NULL) : ik->signers());
1491   writer->write_objectID(ik == NULL ? oop(NULL) : ik->protection_domain());
1492 
1493   writer->write_objectID(oop(NULL));    // reserved
1494   writer->write_objectID(oop(NULL));
1495   writer->write_u4(0);             // instance size
1496   writer->write_u2(0);             // constant pool
1497   writer->write_u2(0);             // static fields
1498   writer->write_u2(0);             // instance fields
1499 
1500   writer->end_sub_record();
1501 
1502 }
1503 
1504 // Hprof uses an u4 as record length field,
1505 // which means we need to truncate arrays that are too long.
1506 int DumperSupport::calculate_array_max_length(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, arrayOop array, int type_size, short header_size) {



1507   int length = array->length();
1508 







1509   size_t length_in_bytes = (size_t)length * type_size;
1510   uint max_bytes = max_juint - header_size;
1511 
1512   if (length_in_bytes > max_bytes) {
1513     length = max_bytes / type_size;
1514     length_in_bytes = (size_t)length * type_size;
1515 
1516     BasicType type = ArrayKlass::cast(array->klass())->element_type();
1517     warning("cannot dump array of type %s[] with length %d; truncating to length %d",
1518             type2name_tab[type], array->length(), length);
1519   }
1520   return length;
1521 }
1522 
1523 int DumperSupport::calculate_array_max_length(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, arrayOop array, short header_size) {
1524   BasicType type = ArrayKlass::cast(array->klass())->element_type();
1525   assert((type >= T_BOOLEAN && type <= T_OBJECT) || type == T_PRIMITIVE_OBJECT, "invalid array element type");
1526   int type_size;
1527   if (type == T_OBJECT || type == T_PRIMITIVE_OBJECT) {  // TODO: FIXME
1528     type_size = sizeof(address);
1529   } else {
1530     type_size = type2aelembytes(type);
1531   }
1532 
1533   return calculate_array_max_length(writer, array, type_size, header_size);
1534 }
1535 
1536 // creates HPROF_GC_OBJ_ARRAY_DUMP record for the given object array
1537 void DumperSupport::dump_object_array(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, objArrayOop array) {
1538   // sizeof(u1) + 2 * sizeof(u4) + sizeof(objectID) + sizeof(classID)
1539   short header_size = 1 + 2 * 4 + 2 * sizeof(address);
1540   int length = calculate_array_max_length(writer, array, header_size);
1541   u4 size = header_size + length * sizeof(address);
1542 
1543   writer->start_sub_record(HPROF_GC_OBJ_ARRAY_DUMP, size);
1544   writer->write_objectID(array);
1545   writer->write_u4(STACK_TRACE_ID);
1546   writer->write_u4(length);
1547 
1548   // array class ID
1549   writer->write_classID(array->klass());
1550 
1551   // [id]* elements
1552   for (int index = 0; index < length; index++) {
1553     oop o = array->obj_at(index);
1554     if (o != NULL && log_is_enabled(Debug, cds, heap) && mask_dormant_archived_object(o) == NULL) {
1555       ResourceMark rm;
1556       log_debug(cds, heap)("skipped dormant archived object " INTPTR_FORMAT " (%s) referenced by " INTPTR_FORMAT " (%s)",
1557                            p2i(o), o->klass()->external_name(),
1558                            p2i(array), array->klass()->external_name());
1559     }
1560     o = mask_dormant_archived_object(o);
1561     writer->write_objectID(o);
1562   }
1563 
1564   writer->end_sub_record();
1565 }
1566 
1567 // creates HPROF_GC_PRIM_ARRAY_DUMP record for the given flat array
1568 void DumperSupport::dump_flat_array(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, flatArrayOop array) {
1569   FlatArrayKlass* array_klass = FlatArrayKlass::cast(array->klass());
1570   InlineKlass* element_klass = array_klass->element_klass();
1571   int element_size = instance_size(element_klass);
1572   /*                          id         array object ID
1573    *                          u4         stack trace serial number
1574    *                          u4         number of elements
1575    *                          u1         element type
1576    */
1577   short header_size = 1 + sizeof(address) + 2 * 4 + 1;
1578 
1579   // TODO: use T_SHORT/T_INT/T_LONG if needed to avoid truncation
1580   BasicType type = T_BYTE;
1581   int type_size = type2aelembytes(type);
1582   int length = calculate_array_max_length(writer, array, element_size, header_size);
1583   u4 length_in_bytes = (u4)(length * element_size);
1584   u4 size = header_size + length_in_bytes;
1585 
1586   writer->start_sub_record(HPROF_GC_PRIM_ARRAY_DUMP, size);
1587   writer->write_objectID(array);
1588   writer->write_u4(STACK_TRACE_ID);
1589   // TODO: round up array length for T_SHORT/T_INT/T_LONG
1590   writer->write_u4(length * element_size);
1591   writer->write_u1(type2tag(type));
1592 
1593   for (int index = 0; index < length; index++) {
1594     // need offset in the holder to read inlined object. calculate it from flatArrayOop::value_at_addr()
1595     int offset = (int)((address)array->value_at_addr(index, array_klass->layout_helper())
1596                   - cast_from_oop<address>(array));
1597     dump_inlined_object_fields(writer, array, offset, element_klass);
1598   }
1599 
1600   // TODO: write padding bytes for T_SHORT/T_INT/T_LONG
1601 
1602   InlinedObjects::get_instance()->add_flat_array(array);
1603 
1604   writer->end_sub_record();
1605 }
1606 
1607 #define WRITE_ARRAY(Array, Type, Size, Length) \
1608   for (int i = 0; i < Length; i++) { writer->write_##Size((Size)Array->Type##_at(i)); }
1609 
1610 // creates HPROF_GC_PRIM_ARRAY_DUMP record for the given type array
1611 void DumperSupport::dump_prim_array(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, typeArrayOop array) {
1612   BasicType type = TypeArrayKlass::cast(array->klass())->element_type();
1613   // 2 * sizeof(u1) + 2 * sizeof(u4) + sizeof(objectID)
1614   short header_size = 2 * 1 + 2 * 4 + sizeof(address);
1615 
1616   int length = calculate_array_max_length(writer, array, header_size);
1617   int type_size = type2aelembytes(type);
1618   u4 length_in_bytes = (u4)length * type_size;
1619   u4 size = header_size + length_in_bytes;
1620 
1621   writer->start_sub_record(HPROF_GC_PRIM_ARRAY_DUMP, size);
1622   writer->write_objectID(array);
1623   writer->write_u4(STACK_TRACE_ID);
1624   writer->write_u4(length);
1625   writer->write_u1(type2tag(type));
1626 

1708                                      int bci) {
1709   int line_number;
1710   if (m->is_native()) {
1711     line_number = -3;  // native frame
1712   } else {
1713     line_number = m->line_number_from_bci(bci);
1714   }
1715 
1716   write_header(writer, HPROF_FRAME, 4*oopSize + 2*sizeof(u4));
1717   writer->write_id(frame_serial_num);               // frame serial number
1718   writer->write_symbolID(m->name());                // method's name
1719   writer->write_symbolID(m->signature());           // method's signature
1720 
1721   assert(m->method_holder()->is_instance_klass(), "not InstanceKlass");
1722   writer->write_symbolID(m->method_holder()->source_file_name());  // source file name
1723   writer->write_u4(class_serial_num);               // class serial number
1724   writer->write_u4((u4) line_number);               // line number
1725 }
1726 
1727 
1728 class InlinedFieldNameDumper : public LockedClassesDo {
1729 public:
1730   typedef void (*Callback)(InlinedObjects *owner, const Klass *klass, uintx base_index, int count);
1731 
1732 private:
1733   AbstractDumpWriter* _writer;
1734   InlinedObjects *_owner;
1735   Callback       _callback;
1736   uintx _index;
1737 
1738   void dump_inlined_field_names(GrowableArray<Symbol*>* super_names, Symbol* field_name, InlineKlass* klass) {
1739     super_names->push(field_name);
1740     for (FieldStream fld(klass, false, false); !fld.eos(); fld.next()) {
1741       if (!fld.access_flags().is_static()) {
1742         if (DumperSupport::is_inlined_field(fld)) {
1743           dump_inlined_field_names(super_names, fld.name(), DumperSupport::get_inlined_field_klass(fld));
1744         } else {
1745           // get next string ID.
1746           uintx next_index = _owner->get_next_string_id(_index);
1747           if (next_index == 0) {
1748             // something went wrong (overflow?)
1749             // stop generation; the rest of inlined objects will have original field names.
1750             return;
1751           }
1752           _index = next_index;
1753 
1754           // Calculate length.
1755           int len = fld.name()->utf8_length();
1756           for (GrowableArrayIterator<Symbol*> it = super_names->begin(); it != super_names->end(); ++it) {
1757             len += (*it)->utf8_length() + 1;    // +1 for ".".
1758           }
1759 
1760           DumperSupport::write_header(_writer, HPROF_UTF8, oopSize + len);
1761           _writer->write_symbolID(reinterpret_cast<Symbol*>(_index));
1762           // Write the string value.
1763           // 1) super_names.
1764           for (GrowableArrayIterator<Symbol*> it = super_names->begin(); it != super_names->end(); ++it) {
1765             _writer->write_raw((*it)->bytes(), (*it)->utf8_length());
1766             _writer->write_u1('.');
1767           }
1768           // 2) field name.
1769           _writer->write_raw(fld.name()->bytes(), fld.name()->utf8_length());
1770         }
1771       }
1772     }
1773     super_names->pop();
1774   }
1775 
1776   void dump_inlined_field_names(Symbol* field_name, InlineKlass* field_klass) {
1777     GrowableArray<Symbol*> super_names(4, mtServiceability);
1778     dump_inlined_field_names(&super_names, field_name, field_klass);
1779   }
1780 
1781 public:
1782   InlinedFieldNameDumper(AbstractDumpWriter* writer, InlinedObjects* owner, Callback callback)
1783     : _writer(writer), _owner(owner), _callback(callback), _index(0)  {
1784   }
1785 
1786   void do_klass(Klass* k) {
1787     if (!k->is_instance_klass()) {
1788       return;
1789     }
1790     InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(k);
1791     // if (ik->has_inline_type_fields()) {
1792     //   return;
1793     // }
1794 
1795     uintx base_index = _index;
1796     int count = 0;
1797 
1798     for (FieldStream fld(ik, false, false); !fld.eos(); fld.next()) {
1799       if (!fld.access_flags().is_static()) {
1800         if (DumperSupport::is_inlined_field(fld)) {
1801           dump_inlined_field_names(fld.name(), DumperSupport::get_inlined_field_klass(fld));
1802           count++;
1803         }
1804       }
1805     }
1806 
1807     if (count != 0) {
1808       _callback(_owner, k, base_index, count);
1809     }
1810   }
1811 };
1812 
1813 class InlinedFieldsDumper : public LockedClassesDo {
1814 private:
1815   AbstractDumpWriter* _writer;
1816 
1817 public:
1818   InlinedFieldsDumper(AbstractDumpWriter* writer) : _writer(writer) {}
1819 
1820   void do_klass(Klass* k) {
1821     if (!k->is_instance_klass()) {
1822       return;
1823     }
1824     InstanceKlass* ik = InstanceKlass::cast(k);
1825     // if (ik->has_inline_type_fields()) {
1826     //   return;
1827     // }
1828 
1829     // We can be at a point where java mirror does not exist yet.
1830     // So we need to check that the class is at least loaded, to avoid crash from a null mirror.
1831     if (!ik->is_loaded()) {
1832       return;
1833     }
1834 
1835     u2 inlined_count = 0;
1836     for (FieldStream fld(ik, false, false); !fld.eos(); fld.next()) {
1837       if (!fld.access_flags().is_static()) {
1838         if (DumperSupport::is_inlined_field(fld)) {
1839           inlined_count++;
1840         }
1841       }
1842     }
1843     if (inlined_count != 0) {
1844       _writer->write_u1(HPROF_CLASS_WITH_INLINED_FIELDS);
1845 
1846       // class ID
1847       _writer->write_classID(ik);
1848       // number of inlined fields
1849       _writer->write_u2(inlined_count);
1850       u2 index = 0;
1851       for (FieldStream fld(ik, false, false); !fld.eos(); fld.next()) {
1852         if (!fld.access_flags().is_static()) {
1853           if (DumperSupport::is_inlined_field(fld)) {
1854             // inlined field index
1855             _writer->write_u2(index);
1856             // synthetic field count
1857             u2 field_count = DumperSupport::get_instance_fields_count(DumperSupport::get_inlined_field_klass(fld));
1858             _writer->write_u2(field_count);
1859             // original field name
1860             _writer->write_symbolID(fld.name());
1861             // inlined field class ID
1862             _writer->write_classID(DumperSupport::get_inlined_field_klass(fld));
1863 
1864             index += field_count;
1865           } else {
1866             index++;
1867           }
1868         }
1869       }
1870     }
1871   }
1872 };
1873 
1874 
1875 void InlinedObjects::init() {
1876   _instance = this;
1877 
1878   struct Closure : public SymbolClosure {
1879     uintx _min_id = max_uintx;
1880     uintx _max_id = 0;
1881     Closure() : _min_id(max_uintx), _max_id(0) {}
1882 
1883     void do_symbol(Symbol** p) {
1884       uintx val = reinterpret_cast<uintx>(*p);
1885       if (val < _min_id) {
1886         _min_id = val;
1887       }
1888       if (val > _max_id) {
1889         _max_id = val;
1890       }
1891     }
1892   } closure;
1893 
1894   SymbolTable::symbols_do(&closure);
1895 
1896   _min_string_id = closure._min_id;
1897   _max_string_id = closure._max_id;
1898 }
1899 
1900 void InlinedObjects::release() {
1901   _instance = nullptr;
1902 
1903   if (_inlined_field_map != nullptr) {
1904     delete _inlined_field_map;
1905     _inlined_field_map = nullptr;
1906   }
1907   if (_flat_arrays != nullptr) {
1908     delete _flat_arrays;
1909     _flat_arrays = nullptr;
1910   }
1911 }
1912 
1913 void InlinedObjects::inlined_field_names_callback(InlinedObjects* _this, const Klass* klass, uintx base_index, int count) {
1914   if (_this->_inlined_field_map == nullptr) {
1915     _this->_inlined_field_map = new (ResourceObj::C_HEAP, mtServiceability) GrowableArray<ClassInlinedFields>(100, mtServiceability);
1916   }
1917   _this->_inlined_field_map->append(ClassInlinedFields(klass, base_index));
1918 
1919   // counters for dumping classes with inlined fields
1920   _this->_classes_count++;
1921   _this->_inlined_fields_count += count;
1922 }
1923 
1924 void InlinedObjects::dump_inlined_field_names(AbstractDumpWriter* writer) {
1925   InlinedFieldNameDumper nameDumper(writer, this, inlined_field_names_callback);
1926   ClassLoaderDataGraph::classes_do(&nameDumper);
1927 
1928   if (_inlined_field_map != nullptr) {
1929     // prepare the map for  get_base_index_for().
1930     _inlined_field_map->sort(ClassInlinedFields::compare);
1931   }
1932 }
1933 
1934 uintx InlinedObjects::get_base_index_for(Klass* k) {
1935   if (_inlined_field_map != nullptr) {
1936     bool found = false;
1937     int idx = _inlined_field_map->find_sorted<ClassInlinedFields, ClassInlinedFields::compare>(ClassInlinedFields(k, 0), found);
1938     if (found) {
1939         return _inlined_field_map->at(idx).base_index;
1940     }
1941   }
1942 
1943   // return max_uintx, so get_next_string_id returns 0.
1944   return max_uintx;
1945 }
1946 
1947 uintx InlinedObjects::get_next_string_id(uintx id) {
1948   if (++id == _min_string_id) {
1949     return _max_string_id + 1;
1950   }
1951   return id;
1952 }
1953 
1954 void InlinedObjects::dump_classed_with_inlined_fields(AbstractDumpWriter* writer) {
1955   if (_classes_count != 0) {
1956     // Record for each class contains tag(u1), class ID and count(u2)
1957     // for each inlined field index(u2), synthetic fields count(u2), original field name and class ID
1958     int size = _classes_count * (1 + sizeof(address) + 2)
1959              + _inlined_fields_count * (2 + 2 + sizeof(address) + sizeof(address));
1960     DumperSupport::write_header(writer, HPROF_INLINED_FIELDS, (u4)size);
1961 
1962     InlinedFieldsDumper dumper(writer);
1963     ClassLoaderDataGraph::classes_do(&dumper);
1964   }
1965 }
1966 
1967 void InlinedObjects::add_flat_array(oop array) {
1968   if (_flat_arrays == nullptr) {
1969     _flat_arrays = new (ResourceObj::C_HEAP, mtServiceability) GrowableArray<oop>(100, mtServiceability);
1970   }
1971   _flat_arrays->append(array);
1972 }
1973 
1974 void InlinedObjects::dump_flat_arrays(AbstractDumpWriter* writer) {
1975   if (_flat_arrays != nullptr) {
1976     // For each flat array the record contains tag (u1), object ID and class ID.
1977     int size = _flat_arrays->length() * (1 + sizeof(address) + sizeof(address));
1978 
1979     DumperSupport::write_header(writer, HPROF_FLAT_ARRAYS, (u4)size);
1980     for (GrowableArrayIterator<oop> it = _flat_arrays->begin(); it != _flat_arrays->end(); ++it) {
1981       flatArrayOop array = flatArrayOop(*it);
1982       FlatArrayKlass* array_klass = FlatArrayKlass::cast(array->klass());
1983       InlineKlass* element_klass = array_klass->element_klass();
1984       writer->write_u1(HPROF_FLAT_ARRAY);
1985       writer->write_objectID(array);
1986       writer->write_classID(element_klass);
1987     }
1988   }
1989 }
1990 
1991 
1992 // Support class used to generate HPROF_UTF8 records from the entries in the
1993 // SymbolTable.
1994 
1995 class SymbolTableDumper : public SymbolClosure {
1996  private:
1997   AbstractDumpWriter* _writer;
1998   AbstractDumpWriter* writer() const                { return _writer; }
1999  public:
2000   SymbolTableDumper(AbstractDumpWriter* writer)     { _writer = writer; }
2001   void do_symbol(Symbol** p);
2002 };
2003 
2004 void SymbolTableDumper::do_symbol(Symbol** p) {
2005   ResourceMark rm;
2006   Symbol* sym = *p;
2007   int len = sym->utf8_length();
2008   if (len > 0) {
2009     char* s = sym->as_utf8();
2010     DumperSupport::write_header(writer(), HPROF_UTF8, oopSize + len);
2011     writer()->write_symbolID(sym);

2194   }
2195 
2196   if (DumperSupport::mask_dormant_archived_object(o) == NULL) {
2197     log_debug(cds, heap)("skipped dormant archived object " INTPTR_FORMAT " (%s)", p2i(o), o->klass()->external_name());
2198     return;
2199   }
2200 
2201   // If large object list exists and it is large object/array,
2202   // add oop into the list and skip scan. VM thread will process it later.
2203   if (_list != NULL && is_large(o)) {
2204     _list->atomic_push(o);
2205     return;
2206   }
2207 
2208   if (o->is_instance()) {
2209     // create a HPROF_GC_INSTANCE record for each object
2210     DumperSupport::dump_instance(writer(), o);
2211   } else if (o->is_objArray()) {
2212     // create a HPROF_GC_OBJ_ARRAY_DUMP record for each object array
2213     DumperSupport::dump_object_array(writer(), objArrayOop(o));
2214   } else if (o->is_flatArray()) {
2215     DumperSupport::dump_flat_array(writer(), flatArrayOop(o));
2216   } else if (o->is_typeArray()) {
2217     // create a HPROF_GC_PRIM_ARRAY_DUMP record for each type array
2218     DumperSupport::dump_prim_array(writer(), typeArrayOop(o));
2219   }
2220 }
2221 
2222 bool HeapObjectDumper::is_large(oop o) {
2223   size_t size = 0;
2224   if (o->is_instance()) {
2225     // Use o->size() * 8 as the upper limit of instance size to avoid iterating static fields
2226     size = o->size() * 8;
2227   } else if (o->is_objArray()) {
2228     objArrayOop array = objArrayOop(o);
2229     BasicType type = ArrayKlass::cast(array->klass())->element_type();
2230     assert(type >= T_BOOLEAN && type <= T_OBJECT, "invalid array element type");
2231     int length = array->length();
2232     int type_size = sizeof(address);
2233     size = (size_t)length * type_size;
2234   } else if (o->is_typeArray()) {
2235     flatArrayOop array = flatArrayOop(o);
2236     BasicType type = ArrayKlass::cast(array->klass())->element_type();
2237     assert(type == T_PRIMITIVE_OBJECT, "invalid array element type");
2238     int length = array->length();
2239     //TODO: FIXME
2240     //int type_size = type2aelembytes(type);
2241     //size = (size_t)length * type_size;
2242   } else if (o->is_typeArray()) {
2243     typeArrayOop array = typeArrayOop(o);
2244     BasicType type = ArrayKlass::cast(array->klass())->element_type();
2245     assert(type >= T_BOOLEAN && type <= T_OBJECT, "invalid array element type");
2246     int length = array->length();
2247     int type_size = type2aelembytes(type);
2248     size = (size_t)length * type_size;
2249   }
2250   return size > HeapDumpLargeObjectList::LargeObjectSizeThreshold;
2251 }
2252 
2253 // The dumper controller for parallel heap dump
2254 class DumperController : public CHeapObj<mtInternal> {
2255  private:
2256    bool     _started;
2257    Monitor* _lock;
2258    uint   _dumper_number;
2259    uint   _complete_number;
2260 
2261  public:

2294      MonitorLocker ml(_lock, Mutex::_no_safepoint_check_flag);
2295      while (_complete_number != _dumper_number) {
2296         ml.wait();
2297      }
2298      _started = false;
2299    }
2300 };
2301 
2302 // The VM operation that performs the heap dump
2303 class VM_HeapDumper : public VM_GC_Operation, public WorkerTask {
2304  private:
2305   static VM_HeapDumper*   _global_dumper;
2306   static DumpWriter*      _global_writer;
2307   DumpWriter*             _local_writer;
2308   JavaThread*             _oome_thread;
2309   Method*                 _oome_constructor;
2310   bool                    _gc_before_heap_dump;
2311   GrowableArray<Klass*>*  _klass_map;
2312   ThreadStackTrace**      _stack_traces;
2313   int                     _num_threads;
2314 
2315   // Inlined object support.
2316   InlinedObjects          _inlined_objects;
2317   InlinedObjects* inlined_objects() { return &_inlined_objects; }
2318 
2319   // parallel heap dump support
2320   uint                    _num_dumper_threads;
2321   uint                    _num_writer_threads;
2322   DumperController*       _dumper_controller;
2323   ParallelObjectIterator* _poi;
2324   HeapDumpLargeObjectList* _large_object_list;
2325 
2326   // VMDumperType is for thread that dumps both heap and non-heap data.
2327   static const size_t VMDumperType = 0;
2328   static const size_t WriterType = 1;
2329   static const size_t DumperType = 2;
2330   // worker id of VMDumper thread.
2331   static const size_t VMDumperWorkerId = 0;
2332 
2333   size_t get_worker_type(uint worker_id) {
2334     assert(_num_writer_threads >= 1, "Must be at least one writer");
2335     // worker id of VMDumper that dump heap and non-heap data
2336     if (worker_id == VMDumperWorkerId) {
2337       return VMDumperType;
2338     }

2711       writer()->writer_loop();
2712       return;
2713     }
2714     if (_num_dumper_threads > 1 && get_worker_type(worker_id) == DumperType) {
2715       _dumper_controller->wait_for_start_signal();
2716     }
2717   } else {
2718     // The worker 0 on all non-heap data dumping and part of heap iteration.
2719     // Write the file header - we always use 1.0.2
2720     const char* header = "JAVA PROFILE 1.0.2";
2721 
2722     // header is few bytes long - no chance to overflow int
2723     writer()->write_raw(header, strlen(header) + 1); // NUL terminated
2724     writer()->write_u4(oopSize);
2725     // timestamp is current time in ms
2726     writer()->write_u8(os::javaTimeMillis());
2727     // HPROF_UTF8 records
2728     SymbolTableDumper sym_dumper(writer());
2729     SymbolTable::symbols_do(&sym_dumper);
2730 
2731     // HPROF_UTF8 records for inlined field names.
2732     inlined_objects()->init();
2733     inlined_objects()->dump_inlined_field_names(writer());
2734 
2735     // HPROF_INLINED_FIELDS
2736     inlined_objects()->dump_classed_with_inlined_fields(writer());
2737 
2738     // write HPROF_LOAD_CLASS records
2739     {
2740       LockedClassesDo locked_load_classes(&do_load_class);
2741       ClassLoaderDataGraph::classes_do(&locked_load_classes);
2742     }
2743 
2744     // write HPROF_FRAME and HPROF_TRACE records
2745     // this must be called after _klass_map is built when iterating the classes above.
2746     dump_stack_traces();
2747 
2748     // Writes HPROF_GC_CLASS_DUMP records
2749     {
2750       LockedClassesDo locked_dump_class(&do_class_dump);
2751       ClassLoaderDataGraph::classes_do(&locked_dump_class);
2752     }
2753 
2754     // HPROF_GC_ROOT_THREAD_OBJ + frames + jni locals
2755     do_threads();
2756 
2757     // HPROF_GC_ROOT_JNI_GLOBAL

2796        if (get_worker_type(worker_id) == VMDumperType) {
2797          _dumper_controller->wait_all_dumpers_complete();
2798          // clear internal buffer;
2799          pw.finish_dump_segment(true);
2800          // refresh the global_writer's buffer and position;
2801          writer()->refresh();
2802        } else {
2803          pw.finish_dump_segment(true);
2804          _dumper_controller->dumper_complete();
2805          return;
2806        }
2807     }
2808   }
2809 
2810   assert(get_worker_type(worker_id) == VMDumperType, "Heap dumper must be VMDumper");
2811   // Use writer() rather than ParDumpWriter to avoid memory consumption.
2812   HeapObjectDumper obj_dumper(writer());
2813   dump_large_objects(&obj_dumper);
2814   // Writes the HPROF_HEAP_DUMP_END record.
2815   DumperSupport::end_of_dump(writer());
2816 
2817   inlined_objects()->dump_flat_arrays(writer());
2818 
2819   // We are done with writing. Release the worker threads.
2820   writer()->deactivate();
2821 
2822   inlined_objects()->release();
2823 }
2824 
2825 void VM_HeapDumper::dump_stack_traces() {
2826   // write a HPROF_TRACE record without any frames to be referenced as object alloc sites
2827   DumperSupport::write_header(writer(), HPROF_TRACE, 3*sizeof(u4));
2828   writer()->write_u4((u4) STACK_TRACE_ID);
2829   writer()->write_u4(0);                    // thread number
2830   writer()->write_u4(0);                    // frame count
2831 
2832   _stack_traces = NEW_C_HEAP_ARRAY(ThreadStackTrace*, Threads::number_of_threads(), mtInternal);
2833   int frame_serial_num = 0;
2834   for (JavaThreadIteratorWithHandle jtiwh; JavaThread *thread = jtiwh.next(); ) {
2835     oop threadObj = thread->threadObj();
2836     if (threadObj != NULL && !thread->is_exiting() && !thread->is_hidden_from_external_view()) {
2837       // dump thread stack trace
2838       Thread* current_thread = Thread::current();
2839       ResourceMark rm(current_thread);
2840       HandleMark hm(current_thread);
2841 
2842       ThreadStackTrace* stack_trace = new ThreadStackTrace(thread, false);
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